Wuhu (simplified Chinese: 芜湖; traditional Chinese: 蕪湖; pinyin: Wúhú; literally "Weedy Lake") is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Anhui province, China. Sitting on the southeast bank of the Yangtze River, Wuhu borders Xuancheng to the southeast, Chizhou and Tongling to the southwest, Hefei Province to the northwest, Ma'anshan city to the northeast, Jiangsu Province to the east, and is approximately 90 km (56 mi) southwest of Nanjing. As of 2014, the city had a population of approximately 3,617,000 officially registered inhabitants.
Location of Wuhu in Anhui
|Municipal seat||Jiujiang District
|• CPC Secretary||Pan Chaohui (潘朝晖)|
|• Prefecture-level city||6,026 km2 (2,327 sq mi)|
|• Urban||165 km2 (64 sq mi)|
|• Metro||972 km2 (375 sq mi)|
|Elevation||7.9 m (26 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,545,067|
|• Density||590/km2 (1,500/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||9,100/km2 (24,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|GDP (2015)||¥245.7 billion|
|GDP per capita||¥67,592|
|License Plate Prefix||皖B|
|Sanshan District (三山区)||15,000||241080|
|Yijiang District (弋江区)||328,000||241002|
|JInghu District (镜湖区)||555,000||340202|
|Jiujiang District (鸠江区)||61,000||241000|
|Wuhu County (芜湖县)||299,000||241100|
|Fanchang County (繁昌县)||268,000||241200|
|Nanling County (南陵县)||550,500||241300|
|Wuwei County (无为县)||1,033,000||238300|
By the end of 2011, the total population was estimated to be 3,842,100，of whom 1,450,000 live in the 4 urban districts and the others live in the counties. The city has over 47 ethnic minorities present — the largest being the Muslim population. There are other ethnic minorities with over 500 inhabitants in the city: Yi, Tujia, Miao, Zhuang, and Manchu.
Wuhu is known to have been inhabited since at least 770 BCE. It became a strategically important town during the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD), when it was controlled by the Eastern Wu. At this time it was known as Jiuzi (Chiu-tzu 鸠兹). Under the Ming dynasty, Wuhu developed into a major commercial center and river port and since that time has been known as a center of the rice trade.
In 1644, the Hongguang Emperor (better known as the Prince of Fu), one of the last emperors of the Ming Dynasty, was captured by forces of the new Qing Dynasty in Wuhu. The city became a treaty port in 1876 and has remained a commercial center since that time. The city's Roman Catholic cathedral, St. Joseph's Cathedral (圣若瑟主教座堂), dates from this time. Most of the downtown area alongside the Yangtze River was ceded in the British concession.
Trade in rice, wood, and tea flourished at Wuhu until the Warlord Era of the 1920s and 1930s, when bandits were active in the area.
At the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War, part of the Second World War, Wuhu was occupied by Japan on December 10, 1937. This was a prelude to the Battle of Nanjing, ending in the Nanjing Massacre. Under Japanese occupation, Chinese resistance fighters hid in the lakes around Wuhu by submerging themselves and breathing through reeds.
Major industries began to be developed in Wuhu after the Second World War, with the development of the textile industry, shipbuilding, and paper mills. Despite this, Wuhu had been lagging behind Ma'anshan and Tongling in industrial production for decades after the establishment of the China and remained primarily a commercial center for trade in rice, silk, cotton, tea, wheat and eggs. However, with recent years' economic rise, Wuhu has become a hub for manufacturing.
In July 2016, Nanling and Wuwei counties suffered serious damage from heavy rain.
Wuhu Economic & Technological Development Area in the north of the city launched in 1993 is one of the first state-level economic and technological development area in Anhui province. It has the only export processing zone in the province. Chery Automobile and Anhui Conch Cement Company are headquartered in this development area.
Wuhu is the fifth largest port alongside Yangtze River. Yuxikou Pier is the largest inland river coal harbor in China.
Buses in Wuhu start at ¥1 for a general bus and ¥2 for air-conditioned buses.
During the day, taxis start at ¥7; after 2.5km, the price increases at ¥1.8 per km. From 10 p.m. to 5 a.m. taxis start at ¥8 and after 2.5km the prices increase at a rate of ¥2.5 for each additional km. There is a free 4 minutes of waiting time due to traffic/red lights. Afterwards it's an additional ¥0.34 for every minute during the day and ¥0.38 for every minute at night.
There is no civilian airport in Wuhu but there is a military airport used by the People's Liberation Army Air Force.
Wuhu Rail Transit Line 1 and Line 2 are under construction and scheduled to be operational by the end of 2019.
The great poet Li Bai spent his late life in Wuhu, it is said, due to its striking landscape. Li Bai was born in a Central Asian town and raised in the southwestern China. Xie Tiao, one of the most distinctive Six Dynasty poets whom he greatly admired, left many poems when holding positions here.
A factory in Wuhu carries on the local craft of making wrought iron pictures. Other local handicrafts are embossed lacquerware and rice straw pith patchwork. A famous stone tablet in Wuhu recording local events of the Song dynasty period (ca. 1000 AD) is considered to be a masterpiece of the renowned calligrapher Mi Fu. In the Western world, Wuhu is now known as the home city to many adopted Chinese children.
An itinerant blacksmith named Tang Tianchi is reputed to have invented the wrought-iron picture in Wuhu, when a painter whom he admired chided him, "You will never make pictures by beating iron."
Another blacksmith of the Spring and Autumn period (770-476 BC) named Gan Jiang was famous for sword making. Zhe Shan (Reddish Brown Hill) is said to get its colour from the flames of Gan Jiang's furnace. Shen Shan (Sacred Hill) is the legendary location of his sword grinding rock and tempering pool.
Wuhu and Anqing are noted centers of the Yanjiang cuisine. It specializes in freshwater fish and poultry, and features special techniques of chopping, shaping, and colouring. The flavour of Yanjiang dishes is often enhanced by sweetening and smoking.