Voiced alveolar implosive

Last updated on 3 September 2017

The voiced alveolar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɗ ⟩. The IPA symbol is lowercase letter d with a rightward hook protruding from the upper right of the letter.


Features of the voiced alveolar implosive:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is implosive (glottalic ingressive), which means it is produced by pulling air in by pumping the glottis downward. Since it is voiced, the glottis is not completely closed, but allows a pulmonic airstream to escape through it.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ega[1] [ɗá] 'hide'
Fula ɗiɗi [ɗiɗi] 'two'
Goemai al [ɗal] 'to swallow'
Hausa ɗaiɗai [ɗei̯ɗei̯] 'one at a time'
Jamaican[2] dem [ɗem] 'them' Allophone of /d/ in the onset of prominent syllables
Kalabari[3] a [ɗà] 'father'
Karajá ti [ɗi] 'bone'
Khmer ដប់ [ɗɑp] 'ten'
Mono[4] ku‘da [kūɗā] 'debt'
Ongota [ɡaːɗa] 'dull'
Seereer-Siin[5] biɗ [biɗ] 'flower' Contrasts phonemically with voiceless implosive
Sindhi ڏر [ɗarʊ] 'crevice'
Tera[6] ɗana [ɗàna] 'to talk'
Tukang Besi [piɗi] 'rubbish'
Vietnamese[7] đuôi [ɗuəj] 'tail' In free variation with [ʔd]. See Vietnamese phonology
Wambule [ɗi] 'name'

See also



  • Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X
  • Devonish, H; Harry, Otelamate G. (2004), "Jamaican phonology", in Kortman, B; Shneider E. W., A Handbook of Varieties of English, phonology, 1, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, pp. 441–471
  • Harry, Otelemate (2003), "Kalaḅarị-Ịjo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 113–120, doi:10.1017/S002510030300121X
  • Keer, Edward (1999), Geminates, The OCP and The Nature of CON, Rutgers University
  • Mc Laughlin, Fiona (2005), "Voiceless implosives in Seereer-Siin", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 201–214, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002215
  • Olson, Kenneth S. (2004), "Mono" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (02): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744
  • Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 228–234, doi:10.1017/s0025100307002952
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, JSTOR 411232, doi:10.2307/411232

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