United States Senate elections, 1988

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The United States Senate elections, 1988 was an election for the United States Senate in which, in spite of the Republican victory by George H. W. Bush in the presidential election, the Democrats gained a net of one seat in the Senate. Seven seats changed parties, with four incumbents being defeated. The Democratic majority in the Senate increased by one from 54/46 to 55/45.

United States Senate elections, 1988
United States
November 8, 1988

Class 1 (33 of the 100) seats in the United States Senate
51 seats needed for a majority
  GeorgeJMitchellPortrait.jpg Bob Dole, PCCWW photo portrait.JPG
Leader George Mitchell Bob Dole
Party Democratic Republican
Leader since January 3, 1989 January 3, 1985
Leader's seat Maine Kansas
Seats before 54 46
Seats after 55 45
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 1
Popular vote 35,137,786 31,151,251
Percentage 52.1% 46.2%
Swing Increase 2.0% Decrease 1.4%
Seats up 18 15
Races won 19 14

1988 Senate election map.svg
Results
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold

Majority leader before election

Robert Byrd
Democratic

Elected Majority leader

George Mitchell
Democratic

Results summary

Summary of the 1988 United States Senate election results

55 45
Democratic Republican
Parties Total Seats Popular Vote
1986
election
Before
the
election
This
election
+/- Vote %
Democratic 55 54 55 Increase 1 35,137,786 52.12%
Republican 45 46 45 Decrease 1 31,151,251 46.20%
Libertarian 0 0 0 Steady 268,053 0.40%
Conservative (NY) 0 0 0 Steady 189,226 0.28%
Others - - - Steady 677,928 1.01%
Total 100 100 100 - 67,424,244 100.0%

Source: Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 8, 1988" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved July 2, 2014.

Gains and losses

The Democrats captured four Republican seats: one open and three defeated incumbents, which were partially offset by the Republican capture of two open seats and the defeat of one Democratic incumbent.

Democratic gains

  1. Connecticut: Democratic Attorney General Joe Lieberman narrowly defeated incumbent Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. (R) in his bid for a fourth term. A liberal in an increasingly conservative party, Weicker found himself at odds with his fellow Republicans. This rift would lead many conservatives (such as National Review editor William F. Buckley, Jr.) to endorse Lieberman.
  2. Nebraska: Incumbent David Karnes (R) lost by a large margin to former Governor Bob Kerrey (D). Karnes had been appointed to the Senate following the death of Sen. Edward Zorinsky (D) and, though he survived a tough primary challenge from Rep. Hal Daub (R), he proved no match for the popular Kerrey in the general election.
  3. Nevada: Incumbent Chic Hecht (R) was narrowly defeated by Governor Richard Bryan (D). Hecht had been considered vulnerable for his undistinguished record and a series of verbal gaffes.
  4. Virginia: Incumbent Paul S. Trible, Jr. (R) retired rather than run a contentious re-election race against former Governor Chuck Robb (D). Robb would instead face Republican Maurice Dawkins, a black minister, and defeat him in a landslide.

Republican gains

  1. Florida: Incumbent Lawton Chiles (D) retired rather than run for a fourth term. Congressman Connie Mack III (R) overcame some concerns about his very conservative House record to defeat Rep. Buddy MacKay (D).
  2. Mississippi: Incumbent and Senate President pro tempore John C. Stennis (D) retired after 41 years in the Senate. House Minority Whip Trent Lott (R) defeated Congressman Wayne Dowdy by a comfortable margin in the increasingly Republican Mississippi.
  3. Montana: Incumbent John Melcher (D) was defeated by Republican Conrad Burns. A political novice, Burns would score an upset victory riding on the coattails of Bush's modest Montana victory.

Democratic holds

  1. New Jersey: Incumbent Frank Lautenberg (D) won re-election to a second term over Republican Wall Street executive and Heisman Trophy winner Pete Dawkins. Lautenberg's campaign, led by James Carville and Paul Begala, attacked the once favored Dawkins as a carpetbagger (he moved to New Jersey from New York to make his Senate run) and opportunist.
  2. Wisconsin: Former state Democratic Party Chairman Herb Kohl defeated Republican State Senator Susan Engeleiter for the seat of retiring incumbent William Proxmire (D). Kohl capitalized on his popularity in the state as the heir to the department stores that bear his family's name and as owner of the Milwaukee Bucks NBA team.

Republican holds

  1. Washington: Former Sen. Slade Gorton (R) defeated Rep. Mike Lowry (D) for the seat of incumbent Daniel J. Evans (R). Gorton won the tight race despite having been voted out of the state's other Senate seat two years earlier.
  2. Wyoming: Incumbent Malcolm Wallop (R) defeated Democratic State Senator John Vinich by less than one percentage point. Wallop became vulnerable due to attacks on his partisan voting record.

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Ran
D39
Ran
D38
Ran
D37
Ran
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Ran
D49
Ran
D50
Ran
Majority → D51
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Retired
R45
Retired
R46
Retired
D54
Retired
D53
Retired
D52
Retired
R40
Ran
R39
Ran
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Re-elected
D39
Re-elected
D38
Re-elected
D37
Re-elected
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Re-elected
D45
Re-elected
D46
Re-elected
D47
Re-elected
D48
Re-elected
D49
Re-elected
D50
Re-elected
Majority → D51
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R43
Gain
R44
Gain
R45
Gain
D55
Gain
D54
Gain
D53
Gain
D52
Gain
R40
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican

Race summary

Special election during the 100th Congress

There were no special elections in 1988 or before January 3, 1989.

Elections leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1989; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Arizona DeConcini, DennisDennis DeConcini Democratic 1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Dennis DeConcini (Democratic) 56.7%
Keith DeGreen (Republican) 41.1%
Rich Tompkins (Libertarian) 1.8%
California Wilson, PetePete Wilson Republican 1982 Incumbent re-elected. Pete Wilson (Republican) 52.7%
Leo T. McCarthy (Democratic) 44.0%
Maria E. Muñoz (Peace & Freedom) 1.7%
Jack Dean (Libertarian) 0.8%
Merton D. Short (American Ind.) 0.7%
Connecticut Weicker Jr., Lowell P.Lowell P. Weicker Jr. Republican 1970
1976
1982
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Joe Lieberman (Democratic) 49.7%
Lowell P. Weicker Jr. (Republican) 49.0%
Howard Grayson (Libertarian) 0.9%
Melissa Fisher (New Alliance) 0.3%
Delaware Roth, WilliamWilliam Roth Republican 1970
1971 (Appointed)
1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. William Roth (Republican) 62.1%
Shien Biau Woo (Democratic) 37.9%
Florida Chiles, LawtonLawton Chiles Democratic 1970
1976
1982
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Connie Mack III (Republican) 50.4%
Buddy MacKay (Democratic) 49.6%
Hawaii Matsunaga, SparkSpark Matsunaga Democratic 1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Spark Matsunaga (Democratic) 76.5%
Maria M. Hustace (Republican) 20.7%
Ken Schoolland (Libertarian) 2.8%
Indiana Lugar, RichardRichard Lugar Republican 1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Richard Lugar (Republican) 67.7%
Jack Wickes (Democratic) 32.3%
Maine Mitchell, George J.George J. Mitchell Democratic 1980 (Appointed)
1982
Incumbent re-elected. George J. Mitchell (Democratic) 81.1%
Jasper S. Wyman (Republican) 18.9%
Maryland Sarbanes, PaulPaul Sarbanes Democratic 1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Paul Sarbanes (Democratic) 61.8%
Alan Keyes (Republican) 38.2%
Massachusetts Kennedy, TedTed Kennedy Democratic 1962 (Special)
1964
1970
1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Ted Kennedy (Democratic) 65.0%
Joe Malone (Republican) 33.9%
Mary Fridley (New Alliance) 0.6%
Freda Lee Nason (Libertarian) 0.5%
Michigan Riegle Jr., Donald W.Donald W. Riegle Jr. Democratic 1976
1976 (Appointed)
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Donald W. Riegle Jr. (Democratic) 60.4%
James Whitney Dunn (Republican) 38.5%
Dick Jacobs (Libertarian) 0.8%
Sally Bier (Workers Against Concessions) 0.3%
Minnesota Durenberger, DavidDavid Durenberger Republican 1978 (Special)
1982
Incumbent re-elected. David Durenberger (Republican) 56.2%
Skip Humphrey (Democratic) 40.9%
Polly Mann (Progressive Issues) 2.1%
Derrick Grimmer (Grassroots) 0.4%
Arlen Overvig (Libertarian) 0.2%
Wendy Lyons (Socialist Workers) 0.1%
Mississippi Stennis, John C.John C. Stennis Democratic 1947 (Special)
1946
1952
1958
1964
1970
1976
1982
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Trent Lott (Republican) 54.1%
Wayne Dowdy (Democratic) 45.9%
Missouri Danforth, JohnJohn Danforth Republican 1976
1976 (Appointed)
1982
Incumbent re-elected. John Danforth (Republican) 67.7%
Jay Nixon (Democratic) 31.7%
John Guze (Libertarian) 0.6%
Montana Melcher, JohnJohn Melcher Democratic 1976
1982
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Conrad Burns (Republican) 51.9%
John Melcher (Democratic) 48.1%
Nebraska Karnes, DavidDavid Karnes Republican 1987 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Incumbent then resigned November 8, 1988 and the seat remained vacant until the next Congress.
Bob Kerrey (Democratic) 56.7%
David Karnes (Republican) 41.7%
Ernie Chambers (New Alliance) 1.6%
Nevada Hecht, ChicChic Hecht Republican 1982 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Richard Bryan (Democratic) 51.3%
Chic Hecht (Republican) 47.1%
James Frye (Libertarian) 1.6%
New Jersey Lautenberg, FrankFrank Lautenberg Democratic 1982
1982 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected. Frank Lautenberg (Democratic) 53.5%
Pete Dawkins (Republican) 45.2%
Joseph Job (Independent) 0.7%
Jerry Zeldin (Libertarian) 0.4%
Thomas Fiske (Socialist Workers) 0.2%
New Mexico Bingaman, JeffJeff Bingaman Democratic 1982 Incumbent re-elected. Jeff Bingaman (Democratic) 63.2%
Bill Valentine (Republican) 36.8%
New York Moynihan, Daniel PatrickDaniel Patrick Moynihan Democratic 1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Daniel Patrick Moynihan (Democratic) 67.3%
Robert R. McMillan (Republican) 31.6%
North Dakota Burdick, Quentin N.Quentin N. Burdick Democratic 1960 (Special)
1964
1970
1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Quentin N. Burdick (Democratic) 59.5%
Earl Strinden (Republican) 39.1%
Kenneth C. Gardner (Libertarian) 1.5%
Ohio Metzenbaum, HowardHoward Metzenbaum Democratic 1974 (Appointed)
1974 (Lost)
1974 (Resigned)
1976
1976 (Appointed)
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Howard Metzenbaum (Democratic) 56.9%
George Voinovich (Republican) 43.1%
Pennsylvania Heinz III, H. JohnH. John Heinz III Republican 1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. H. John Heinz III (Republican) 66.4%
Joseph C. Vignola (Democratic) 32.4%
Darcy Richardson (Consumer) 0.6%
Henry Haller (Libertarian) 0.3%
Samuel Cross (Populist) 0.1%
Sam Blancato (New Alliance) 0.1%
Rhode Island Chafee, JohnJohn Chafee Republican 1976
1976 (Appointed)
1982
Incumbent re-elected. John Chafee (Republican) 54.3%
Richard A. Licht (Democratic) 45.7%
Tennessee Sasser, JimJim Sasser Democratic 1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Jim Sasser (Democratic) 65.1%
Bill Anderson (Republican) 34.5%
Khalil-Ullah Al-Muhaymin (Independent) 0.4%
Texas Bentsen, LloydLloyd Bentsen Democratic 1970
1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Lloyd Bentsen (Democratic) 59.2%
Beau Boulter (Republican) 40.0%
Jeff Daiell (Libertarian) 0.8%
Utah Hatch, OrrinOrrin Hatch Republican 1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Orrin Hatch (Republican) 67.1%
Brian Moss (Democratic) 31.7%
Robert J. Smith (American) 0.9%
William M. Arth (Socialist Workers) 0.2%
Vermont Stafford, RobertRobert Stafford Republican 1971 (Appointed)
1972 (Special)
1976
1982
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Jim Jeffords (Republican) 67.9%
William Gray (Democratic) 29.8%
Jerry Levy (Liberty Union) 1.1%
King Milne (Independent) 1.0%
Virginia Trible Jr., Paul S.Paul S. Trible Jr. Republican 1982 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Chuck Robb (Democratic) 71.2%
Maurice A. Dawkins (Republican) 28.8%
Washington Evans, Daniel J.Daniel J. Evans Republican 1983 (Appointed)
1983 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Slade Gorton (Republican) 50.7%
Mike Lowry (Democratic) 49.3%
West Virginia Byrd, RobertRobert Byrd Democratic 1958
1964
1970
1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Robert Byrd (Democratic) 63.2%
M. Jay Wolfe (Republican) 36.8%
Wisconsin Proxmire, WilliamWilliam Proxmire Democratic 1957 (Special)
1958
1964
1970
1976
1982
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Herb Kohl (Democratic) 52.2%
Susan Engeleiter (Republican) 47.8%
Wyoming Wallop, MalcolmMalcolm Wallop Republican 1976
1982
Incumbent re-elected. Malcolm Wallop (Republican) 50.4%
John Vinich (Democratic) 49.6%

Special elections during the 101th Congress

There were no special elections in 1989 after January 3.

Arizona

Arizona election
Arizona
  Dennis DeConcini.jpg No image.png
Nominee Dennis DeConcini Keith DeGreen
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 660,403 478,060
Percentage 56.7% 41.1%

1988 Arizona.png
U.S. Senate election results map.
Blue denotes counties won by DeConcini.

U.S. Senator before election

Dennis DeConcini
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Dennis DeConcini
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Dennis DeConcini was reelected to a third term over Republican Keith DeGreen, Marine veteran and financial advisor. As of 2016, this is the last Senate election in Arizona won by a Democrat.

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Dennis DeConcini (Incumbent) 660,403 56.71% -0.20%
Republican Keith DeGreen 478,060 41.05% +0.75%
Libertarian Rick Tompkins 20,849 1.79% -0.99%
New Alliance Ed Finkelstein 5,195 0.45%
Write-ins 32 0.00%
Majority 182,343 15.66% -0.95%
Turnout 1,164,539
Democratic hold Swing

California

California election
California
  PeteWilson.jpg Leo McCarthy.jpg
Nominee Pete Wilson Leo T. McCarthy
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 5,143,409 4,287,253
Percentage 52.8% 44.0%

U.S. Senator before election

Pete Wilson
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Pete Wilson
Republican

Incumbent Republican Pete Wilson won re-election to a second term over Democrat Leo T. McCarthy, Lieutenant Governor of California and former Speaker of the California State Assembly. As of 2016, this is the last Senate election in California won by a Republican.

General election results[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Pete Wilson 5,143,409 52.8%
Democratic Leo T. McCarthy 4,287,253 44.0%
Peace and Freedom Maria Elizabeth Munoz 166,600 1.7%
Libertarian Jack Dean 79,997 0.8%
American Independent Merton D. Short 66,291 0.7%

Connecticut

Connecticut election
Connecticut
  Joe Lieberman 2008.jpg Lweicker.jpg
Nominee Joe Lieberman Lowell Weicker
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 688,499 677,903
Percentage 49.8% 49.0%

United States Senate election in Connecticut 1988.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Lowell P. Weicker Jr.
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Joe Lieberman
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Lowell P. Weicker Jr. ran for re-election to a fourth term, but was defeated by Democratic Connecticut Attorney General Joe Lieberman, the Connecticut Attorney General and eventual 2000 nominee for Vice President of the United States who would remain in office until 2013, when he retired.

General election results[3]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Joeseph Lieberman 688,499 49.8%
Republican Lowell Weicker (Incumbent) 677,903 49.0%
Libertarian Howard A. Grayson Jr. 12,409 0.9%
New Alliance Melissa M. Fisher 4,154 0.3%
Total votes 1,379,362 100.0%
Democratic gain from Republican

Delaware

Delaware election
Delaware
  Sen. William V. Roth (R-DE).jpg No image.svg
Nominee William Roth Shien Biau Woo
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 151,115 92,378
Percentage 62.1% 37.9%

U.S. Senator before election

William V. Roth
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William V. Roth
Republican

Incumbent Republican William Roth won re-election to a fourth term, beating Democrat Shien Biau Woo, Lieutenant Governor of Delaware

Democratic Party primary results[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic S. B. Woo 20,225 50.09
Democratic Samuel Beard 20,154 49.91
Total votes 40,379 100.00
General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican William V. Roth (Incumbent) 151,115 62.06% +6.89%
Democratic S.B. Woo 92,378 37.94% -6.27%
Majority 58,737 24.12% +13.15%
Turnout 243,493
Republican hold Swing

Florida

Florida election
Florida
  Conniemackiii.jpg 49 Mackay.jpg
Nominee Connie Mack III Buddy MacKay
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,051,071 2,016,553
Percentage 50.4% 49.6%

U.S. Senator before election

Lawton Chiles
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Connie Mack III
Republican

Incumbent Democrat Lawton Chiles decided to retire instead of seeking a fourth term. Republican U.S. Representative Connie Mack III won the open seat over Democrat Bill Gunter, the Florida State Treasurer.[1]

This senate election was heavily targeted by both parties. U.S. Representative Mack announced his candidacy back in October 1987.[5] President Ronald Reagan endorsed Mack in June 1988[6] to allow Mack to focus on the general election, as he easily won the September 6 Republican primary against U.S. Attorney Robert Merkle.[7] In May 1988, MacKay announced he would run for the open seat,[8] and defeated Insurance Commissioner Bill Gunter in a close October 4 runoff primary election.[9]

The general election became very nasty. MacKay tried to portray the Republican as "extremist."[10] Mack attacked his opponent in television ads by connecting him to unpopular Massachusetts Governor and presidential candidate Michael Dukakis.[11] Mack had help from vice presidential candidate Dan Quayle.[12] The election was so close there was a recount until MacKay conceded eight days after election day.[13]

Democratic primary results[14]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bill Gunter 383,721 38.00
Democratic Buddy MacKay 263,946 26.14
Democratic Dan Mica 179,524 17.78
Democratic Pat Frank 119,277 11.81
Democratic Claude Kirk 51,387 5.09
Democratic Fred Rader 11,820 1.17
Total votes 1,009,675 100
Democratic primary runoff results[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Buddy MacKay 369,266 52.00
Democratic Bill Gunter 340,918 48.00
Total votes 710,184 100
Republican primary results[16]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Connie Mack 405,296 61.78
Republican Robert Merkle 250,730 38.22
Total votes 656,026 100
General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Connie Mack III 2,051,071 50.42% +12.15%
Democratic Buddy MacKay 2,016,553 49.57% -12.15%
Write-ins 585 0.01%
Majority 34,518 0.85% -22.61%
Turnout 4,068,209

Hawaii

Hawaii election
Hawaii
  Spark Matsunaga.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Spark Matsunaga Maria Hustace
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 247,941 66,987
Percentage 76.6% 20.7%

Hawaii Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Spark Matsunaga
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Spark Matsunaga
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Spark Matsunaga won re-election to a third term, beating Republican cattle rancher Maria Hustace.[17][18]

General election results[19]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Spark Matsunaga (Incumbent) 247,941 76.6%
Republican Maria Hustace 66,987 20.7%
Libertarian Ken Schoolland 8,948 2.8%

Indiana

Indiana election
Indiana
  Dick Lugar official photo.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Richard Lugar Jack Wickes
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,430,525 668,778
Percentage 68.1% 31.9%

INSenCounties00.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Richard Lugar
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Richard Lugar
Republican

Incumbent Republican Richard Lugar was re-elected to a third term over Democratic attorney Jack Wickes.[20][21]

Lugar, a popular incumbent, had token opposition in this election. An April 1988 poll showed that Lugar lead 65% to 23%. By June, Lugar raised over $2 million, while Wickes raised just over $100,000.[22] Lugar agreed to debate Wickes on September 10, 1988.[23]

Lugar won overall with two-thirds of the vote and won 91 of Indiana's 92 counties, Wickes won only the Democratic stronghold of Lake County.

General election results[24]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Richard Lugar (Incumbent) 1,430,525 68.1%
Democratic Jack Wickes 668,778 31.9%

Maine

Maine election
Maine
  George John Mitchell.jpg No image.svg
Nominee George Mitchell Jasper Wyman
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 452,581 104,164
Percentage 81.3% 18.7%

82MaineGovCounties.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

George J. Mitchell
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

George J. Mitchell
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat George J. Mitchell won re-election to a second full term over Republican Jasper Wyman, leader of Maine Christian Civic League and businessman.[25]. As of 2017, this is the last Senate election in Maine won by a Democrat.

General election results[26]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic George Mitchell (Incumbent) 452,581 81.3%
Republican Jasper Wyman 104,164 18.7%

Maryland

Maryland election
Maryland
  Paul Sarbanes, official color photo.jpg Alan Keyes.jpg
Nominee Paul Sarbanes Alan Keyes
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 999,166 617,537
Percentage 61.8% 38.2%

U.S. Senator before election

Paul S. Sarbanes
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul S. Sarbanes
Democratic

Incumbent Democratic Paul Sarbanes was reelected to a third term over Republican Alan Keyes, former Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs.

General election results[27]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Paul Sarbanes 999,166 61.8
Republican Alan Keyes 617,537 38.2
Independent Imad A. Ahmad (Write In) 349 0.0
Independent Rashaad Ali (Write In) 13 0.0
Majority
Voter turnout  %
Democratic hold

Massachusetts

Massachusetts election
Massachusetts
  TedKennedy.png Joe Malone file photo (cropped).jpg
Nominee Ted Kennedy Joseph D. Malone
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,693,344 884,267
Percentage 65.0% 33.9%

Massachusetts Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Ted Kennedy
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Ted Kennedy
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Ted Kennedy won re-election to his fifth full term over Republican Joseph D. Malone.

Massachusetts United States Senate election, 1988
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Ted Kennedy (Incumbent) 1,693,344 64.97 +4.16
Republican Joseph D. Malone 884,267 33.93 -4.33
New Alliance Mary Fridley 15,208 0.58 +0.58
Libertarian Freda Lee Nason 13,199 0.51 -0.41
All others 207 0.01 +0
Total votes 2,606,225 87.77%

Michigan

Michigan election
Michigan
  Don Riegle, Jr.jpg James W Dunn.png
Nominee Don Riegle James Whitney Dunn
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,116,865 1,348,216
Percentage 60.4% 38.5%

U.S. Senator before election

Don Riegle
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Don Riegle
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Don Riegle won re-election to a third term over Republican U.S. Congressman James Whitney Dunn.

General election results[28]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Donald W. Riegle Jr.(Incumbent) 2,116,865 60.4
Republican Jim Dunn 1,348,216 38.5
Libertarian Dick Jacobs 27,116 0.8
Workers Against Concessions Sally Bier 8,908 0.3
Independent Mark Friedman 4,821 0.1

Minnesota

Minnesota election
Minnesota
  DavidDurenberger.jpg Skip Humphrey.jpg
Nominee David Durenberger Skip Humphrey
Party Independent-Republican DFL
Popular vote 1,176,210 856,694
Percentage 56.2% 40.9%

U.S. Senator before election

David Durenberger
Independent-Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

David Durenberger
Independent-Republican

Incumbent Republican David Durenberger won re-election to his second full term, beating DemocratSkip Humphrey, the Minnesota Attorney General and former State Senator.

General election results[29]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican David Durenberger 1,176,210 56.2
Democratic Skip Humphrey 856,694 40.9
Minnesota Progressive Party Polly Mann 44,474 2.1
Grassroots Derrick Grimmer 9,016 0.4
Libertarian Arlen Overvig 4,039 0.2
Socialist Workers Wendy Lyons 3,105 0.2

Mississippi

Mississippi election
Mississippi
  Trent Lott 98th Congress.png Wayne Dowdy.png
Nominee Trent Lott Wayne Dowdy
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 510,380 436,339
Percentage 53.9% 46.1%

U.S. Senator before election

John C. Stennis
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Trent Lott
Republican

Incumbent Democrat John C. Stennis decided to retire instead of seeking an eighth term. Republican Trent Lott won the open seat, beating Democrat Wayne Dowdy, U.S. Congressman from the 4th district.

General election results[30]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Trent Lott 510,380 53.9
Democratic Wayne Dowdy 436,339 46.1

Missouri

Missouri election
Missouri
  JohnDanforth.jpg Jay Nixon crop.jpg
Nominee John Danforth Jay Nixon
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,407,416 660,045
Percentage 67.7% 31.8%

94MOSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

John Danforth
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Danforth
Republican

Incumbent Republican John Danforth won re-election over Democratic state senator Jay Nixon.[31]

Missouri United States Senate election, 1988
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John Danforth (Incumbent) 1,407,416 67.70
Democratic Jay Nixon 660,045 31.75
Libertarian John Guze 11,410 0.55
Write-In Candidates 4 0.00
Majority 747,371 35.95
Voter turnout  %

Montana

Montana election
Montana
  Conrad Burns official portrait.jpg John Melcher.jpg
Nominee Conrad Burns John Melcher
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 189,445 175,809
Percentage 51.9% 48.1%

88MTSenateCounties.PNG
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

John Melcher
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Conrad Burns
Republican

Incumbent John Melcher, who was first elected to the Senate in 1976 and was re-elected in 1982, ran for re-election. After winning the Democratic primary, he faced Yellowstone County Commissioner Conrad Burns in the general election, and a grueling campaign followed. Ultimately, Melcher was narrowly defeated in his bid for re-election by Burns.

Democratic Party primary results[32]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jack Melcher (Incumbent) 88,457 74.54
Democratic Bob Kelleher 30,212 25.46
Total votes 118,669 100.00
Republican Primary results[32]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Conrad Burns 63,330 84.71
Republican Tom Faranda 11,427 15.29
Total votes 74,757 100.00
United States Senate election in Montana, 1988[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Conrad Burns 189,445 51.87% +10.20%
Democratic John Melcher (Incumbent) 175,809 48.13% -6.33%
Majority 13,636 3.73% -9.06%
Turnout 365,254
Republican gain from Democratic Swing

Nebraska

Nebraska election
Nebraska
  Senator Bob Kerrey.jpg Davidkarnes.JPG
Nominee Bob Kerrey David Karnes
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 378,717 278,250
Percentage 56.71% 41.66%

U.S. Senator before election

David Karnes
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Bob Kerrey
Democratic

Republican David Karnes decided to seek election to his first complete term after being appointed to the seat of the late Edward Zorinsky in March 1987, but was soundly defeated by Democratic former governor Bob Kerrey in the November general election.[33]

Republican primary results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican David Karnes 117,439 55
Republican Hal Daub 96,436 45
Nebraska United States Senate election, 1988
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Bob Kerrey 378,717 56.71
Republican David Karnes 278,250 41.66
New Alliance Ernie Chambers 10,372 1.55
Write-In Candidates 521 0.08 {{{change}}}
Majority 100,467 15.04
Turnout 667,860

Nevada

Nevada election
Nevada
  Richard Bryan (colorized).jpg Chic Hecht.JPG
Nominee Richard Bryan Chic Hecht
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 175,548 161,336
Percentage 50.2% 46.1%

U.S. Senator before election

Chic Hecht
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Richard Bryan
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Chic Hecht ran for re-election to a second term, but lost to Democratic Governor Richard Bryan.

General election results[34]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Richard Bryan 175,548 50.21%
Republican Chic Hecht (Incumbent) 161,336 46.14%
None None of These Candidates 7,242 2.07%
Libertarian James Frye 5,523 1.58%
Majority 14,212 4.06%
Voter turnout  %

New Jersey

New Jersey election
New Jersey
  Frank Lautenberg, official portrait, 112th portrait crop.jpg Pete Dawkins, 1959, West Point Cadet.jpg
Nominee Frank Lautenberg Pete Dawkins
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,599,905 1,349,937
Percentage 53.55% 45.18%

U.S. Senator before election

Frank Lautenberg
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Frank Lautenberg
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Frank Lautenberg won re-election to a second term with a margin of 8.37% over Republican Pete Dawkins, military veteran and CEO of Primerica Financial Services, Inc..

The campaign was full of political mudslinging, with Lautenberg accusing Dawkins of being a carpetbagger, noting his very brief residency in the state,[35] and also accusing Dawkins' campaign of lying about his war record.[36] Dawkins accused Lautenberg of running a smear campaign against, called him a "swamp dog",[37] and criticized him for saying he voted eight times against a senatorial pay raise without mentioning the fact that he did vote once for the pay raise.[36]

United States Senate election in New Jersey, 1988[38]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Frank Lautenberg (Incumbent), Secaucus 1,599,905 53.55%
Republican Pete Dawkins, Rumson 1,349,937 45.18%
Independent Joseph F. Job, Rutherford 20,091 0.67%
Libertarian Jerry Zeldin, Laurel Springs 12,354 0.41%
Socialist Thomas A. Fiske, Newark 5,347 0.18%
Majority 249,968 8.37%
Voter turnout 100.00%%

New Mexico

New Mexico election
New Mexico
  Jeff Bingaman.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Jeff Bingaman Bill Valentine
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 321,983 186,579
Percentage 63.3% 36.7%

New Mexico Senatorial Election Results by County, 1988.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Jeff Bingaman
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Jeff Bingaman
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Jeff Bingaman won re-election to a second term, beating Republican New Mexico State Senator Bill Valentine.

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jeff Bingaman (Incumbent) 321,983 63.31% +9.53%
Republican Bill Valentine 186,579 36.68% -9.54%
Write-ins 36 0.01%
Majority 135,404 26.62% +19.08%
Turnout 508,598
Democratic hold Swing

New York

New York election
New York (state)
  DanielPatrickMoynihan.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Pat Moynihan Robert McMillan
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 4,048,649 1,875,784
Percentage 67.0% 31.1%

NewYorkSenatorial1988.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Pat Moynihan
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Pat Moynihan
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Daniel Patrick Moynihan won re-election to a third term, over Republican Robert R. McMillan, business executive of Avon Products and Reagan Administration advisor.[39]

General election results[40]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Daniel Patrick Moynihan (Incumbent) 4,048,649 67.0
Republican Robert R. McMillan 1,875,784 31.1
Right to Life Adelle R. Nathanson 64,845 1.1
Independent Progressive Charlene Mitchell 14,770 0.2
Workers World Lydia Bayoneta 13,573 0.2
Libertarian William P. McMillen 12,064 0.2
Socialist Workers James E. Harris 11,239 0.2

North Dakota

The incumbent, Quentin Burdick of the North Dakota Democratic NPL Party, sought and received re-election to his sixth term, defeating Republican candidate Earl Strinden.[1]

Only Burdick filed as a Dem-NPLer, and the endorsed Republican candidate was Earl Strinden of Grand Forks, North Dakota, who was President of the University of North Dakota Alumni Association. As in the Burdick's previous re-election campaign, the senator's age became an issue for voters as he was 80 years old during the campaign. However, challenger Strinden commented that he did not want to raise the age issue. Burdick and Strinden won the primary elections for their respective parties.

The Burdick campaign hired high-profile Washington, D.C. campaign consultant Bob Squire of Squire Eskew Communications. To counter the potential age issue, Burdick successfully focused the message on the "clout" he had earned over decades in the Senate, as well as his Chairmanship of Senate Agricultural Appropriations sub-committee and his Chairmanship of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee.

One independent candidate, Kenneth C. Gardner, also filed before the deadline, officially calling himself a libertarian. Gardner had previously run for North Dakota's other United States Senate seat an independent in 1974, challenging Milton Young. He only received 853 votes in that election.

1988 United States Senate election, North Dakota
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Quentin Burdick (incumbent) 171,899 59.45
Republican Earl Strinden 112,937 39.06
Independent Kenneth C. Gardner 4,334 1.50
Majority
Voter turnout  %

Ohio

Ohio election
Ohio
  Howard Metzenbaum.jpg George Voinovich.jpg
Nominee Howard Metzenbaum George Voinovich
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,480,038 1,872,716
Percentage 57% 43%

Ohio US Senate Election Results by County, 1988.svg
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Howard Metzenbaum
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Howard Metzenbaum
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Howard Metzenbaum won re-election over George Voinovich, Mayor of Cleveland and former Lieutenant Governor of Ohio..[41]

Ohio United States Senate election, 1988
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Howard Morton Metzenbaum 2,480,038 56.97%
Republican George Victor Voinovich 1,872,716 42.31%
Independent David Marshall 151 0.00%
Majority 607,322 8.68%
Voter turnout 100.00%%

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania election
Pennsylvania
  John Heinz.jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Heinz Joseph Vignola
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,901,715 1,416,764
Percentage 66.5% 32.5%

Pennsylvania Senatorial Election Results by County, 1988.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

H. John Heinz III
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

H. John Heinz III
Republican

Incumbent Republican H. John Heinz III successfully sought re-election to another term, defeating Democratic nominee Joe Vignola, Philadelphia City Controller.

Joe Vignola was not expected by Democratic Party leaders to have a substantial chance at defeating the popular incumbent John Heinz, even predicting that Vignola would become "Heinz's 58th variety,"[42] referring to an advertising slogan of the H. J. Heinz Company. Heinz, knowing this, ran a low-profile re-election campaign and was safely ahead in polling. Vignola traveled across Pennsylvania promoting an increase in domestic spending, including education and healthcare, while decreasing the defense budget to compensate. Vignola ran a positive campaign, in contrast with Cyril Wecht six years previously, although many Democratic ward leaders and committee members had given up on the campaign and had stopped campaigning for Vignola.[42]

Heinz easily defeated Vignola to win the election and another term in the Senate, carrying every Pennsylvania county except Philadelphia, Vignola's home town, and by a comfortable 1.49 million vote margin. Heinz performed well in suburban areas, as well as the central, southwestern and northeastern portions of the state. Outside of Philadelphia, Vignola's best county-wide showing was in Mercer County, where he won 36% of the vote, and his poorest county-wide performance was in Snyder County, where he won 12% of the vote. Although Heinz's landslide victory was largely expected among Democratic leaders, Heinz won by a wide margin despite the Democrats' 551,000-voter registration advantage statewide.[42]

Heinz died in an airplane crash on April 4, 1991, in Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania.[43] Democrat Harris Wofford was appointed on May 8 to fill the vacancy caused by Heinz's death, and subsequently won a special election in November 1991. In the 1994 election, however, Wofford was defeated by Republican Rick Santorum.[44][45]

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican H. John Heinz III (Incumbent) 2,901,715 66.45% +7.17%
Democratic Joseph Vignola 1,416,764 32.45% -6.75%
Consumer Darcy Richardson 25,273 0.58% +0.12%
Libertarian Henry E. Haller II 11,822 0.27% -0.26%
Populist Samuel Cross 6,455 0.15% +0.15%
New Alliance Sam Blancato 4,569 0.11% +0.11%
Majority 1,484,951 34.00% +13.92%
Totals 4,366,598 100.00%

Rhode Island

Rhode Island election
Rhode Island
  John Chafee.jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Chafee Richard Licht
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 217,273 180,717
Percentage 55% 45%

Rhode Island Election Results by County, all Republican.svg
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

John Chafee
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Chafee
Republican

Incumbent Republican John Chafee won re-election to a third term, beating Democratic Lieutenant Governor and former State Senator Richard Licht.

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John Chafee (Incumbent) 217,273 54.59% +3.39%
Democratic Richard Licht 180,717 45.41% -3.39%
Majority 36,556 9.19% +6.79%
Turnout 397,990
Republican hold Swing

Tennessee

Tennessee election
Tennessee
  Jim sasser.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Jim Sasser Bill Anderson
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,020,061 541,033
Percentage 65.09% 34.52%

U.S. Senator before election

Jim Sasser
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Jim Sasser
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Jim Sasser won re-election to a third term over Republican Bill Anderson.

Tennessee United States Senate election 1988
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jim Sasser (Incumbent) 1,020,061 65.09%
Republican Bill Anderson 541,033 34.52% -30.57%
Independent Khalil-Ullah Al-Muhaymin 6,042 0.39% -64.70%
Others (W) Others 45 0.00 -65.09%
Majority
Turnout 1,561,094

Texas

Texas election
Texas
  LloydBentsen.jpg Beau Boulter.jpg
Nominee Lloyd Bentsen Beau Boulter
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 3,149,806 2,129,228
Percentage 59.2% 40.0%

U.S. Senator before election

Lloyd Bentsen
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Lloyd Bentsen
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Lloyd Bentsen won re-election to a fourth term defeating Republican Representative Beau Boulter.

Bentsen easily won the Democratic nomination for another term, while Boulter came through a run-off in the Republican primary defeating Wes Gilbreath. After being nominated for the senate Bentsen was chosen by Michael Dukakis as his vice-presidential running mate and therefore ran for both the Senate and the vice-presidency at the same time. Bentsen was always the favorite for the senate election and won with 59.2% of the vote, compared to 40% for Boulter.

As of 2017, this was the last time a Democrat won a United States Senate election in Texas.[46][47]

In the Democratic primary Democratic senator Lloyd Bentsen defeated the same opponent he had beaten in 1982, Joe Sullivan, a psychology professor from San Antonio.[48]

Bentsen had been Senator from Texas since first winning election in 1970 and had been re-elected in 1976 and 1982. He was also Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee and the clear favourite for re-election in 1988.[49] Sullivan stood on a platform calling for reduced spending by the federal government, but had been easily defeated by Bentsen in the 1982 Democratic primary.[49] This was repeated in 1988 with Bentsen winning the primary with over 80% of the vote.[48]

March 8 Democratic primary results[50]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Lloyd Bentsen 1,365,736 84.8
Democratic Joe Sullivan 244,805 15.2
Total votes 1,610,541 100

Four candidates competed for the Republican nomination; U.S. representative Beau Boulter, former state representative Milton Fox, millionaire Houston businessman Wes Gilbreath and businessman Ned Snead.[51] Boulter was a two-term representative for the 13th district, while Gilbreath was competing in his first election, but spent $500,000 on the primary.[52]

Wes Gilbreath led in the March primary with 36.7%, but as no candidate won a majority, went into a run-off election against Beau Boulter who came second with 30.5%.[50]

March 8 Republican primary results[50]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Wes Gilbreath 275,080 36.7
Republican Beau Boulter 228,676 30.5
Republican Milton Fox 138,031 18.4
Republican Ned Snead 107,560 14.4
Total votes 749,347 100

There were few policy differences between Boulter and Gilbreath, with both candidates being conservatives who opposed abortion and called for reduced government spending.[53] Gilbreath spent about one million dollars of his money in his contest for the primary,[54] while Boulter spent about $250,000.[53] However Boulter won endorsements from many Texas Republican leaders,[54] including the candidates who had come third and fourth in the March primary, as well as from anti-abortion groups.[53]

Boulter won the April run-off for the Republican nomination with just over 60% of the vote.[53]

April 12 Republican run-off results[50]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Beau Boulter 111,134 60.2
Republican Wes Gilbreath 73,573 39.8
Total votes 184,707 100

In July 1988 the Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis chose Lloyd Bentsen to be the Democratic vice-presidential candidate.[55] As the Texas Democrats had already had their primary for senate candidate, Bentsen could not be replaced on the ballot.[55] Bentsen was however able to run both for the Senate and for vice-president as Lyndon Johnson had gotten Texas law changed in 1960 to allow Johnson to do the same at the 1960 election.[56]

Lloyd Bentsen won the senate election by a clear margin over Beau Boulter, at the same time as he and Michael Dukakis lost the presidential race,[57] with George Bush winning Texas with 56% of the vote compared to 43% for Dukakis.[58] Bentsen's vote total in the senate election was reported to be at the time the highest vote total in any Texas statewide election.[59]

General election results[50]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Lloyd Bentsen 3,149,806 59.2 +0.6
Republican Beau Boulter 2,129,228 40.0 -0.5
Libertarian Jeff Daiell 44,572 0.8
Majority 1,020,578 19.2 +1.1
Turnout 5,323,606
Democratic hold Swing

Vermont

Vermont election
Vermont
  Jim Jeffords.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Jim Jeffords Bill Gray
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 163,203 71,469
Percentage 68.0% 29.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Robert Stafford
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Jim Jeffords
Republican

Incumbent Republican Robert Stafford did not run for re-election to another term in the United States Senate. Republican candidate Jim Jeffords defeated Democratic candidate Bill Gray to succeed him.

Republican primary results[60]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jim Jeffords 30,555 60.8
Republican Mike Griffes 19,593 38.9
Republican Other 128 0.3
Total votes '50,276' '100'
Democratic primary results[60]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bill Gray 23,138 91.5
Democratic Other 2,149 8.5
Total votes '25,287' '100'
United States Senate election in Vermont, 1988[61]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jim Jeffords 163,203 63.2
Democratic Bill Gray 71,469 29.8
Liberty Union Jerry Levy 2,506 1.0
Independent King Milne 2,424 1.0
N/A Other 509 0.2
Total votes '240,111' '100'

Virginia

Virginia election
Virginia
Turnout 49.8% (voting eligible)[62]
  Charles robb.jpg Maurice Dawkins crop.png
Nominee Chuck Robb Maurice A. Dawkins
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,474,086 593,652
Percentage 71.3% 28.7%

Virginia D Sweep.png
U.S. Senate election results map. Blue denotes counties/districts won by Robb.

U.S. Senator before election

Paul S. Trible
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Chuck Robb
Democratic

Former Democratic governor Chuck Robb replaced Republican Senator Paul S. Trible Jr., who opted not to run for re-election. Robb beat Republican Maurice A. Dawkins, minister and black activist.

United States Senate election in Virginia, 1988[63]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Chuck Robb 1,474,086 71.25% +22.45%
Republican Maurice A. Dawkins 593,652 28.69% -22.51%
Write-ins 1,159 0.06%
Majority 880,434 42.56% +40.18%
Turnout 2,068,897
Democratic gain from Republican Swing

Washington

Washington election
Washington (state)
  Slade Gorton, official Senate photo portrait.jpg MikeLowry.png
Nominee Slade Gorton Mike Lowry
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 944,359 904,183
Percentage 51.1% 48.9%

1988 Washington senatorial election map.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Daniel J. Evans
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Slade Gorton
Republican

Incumbent Republican Daniel J. Evans decided to retire instead of running for re-election to a full term, after being appointed to the seat in 1983, and won re-election to a partial term that same year. Republican former U.S. Senator Slade Gorton, who had just lost a re-election bid in 1986, won the open seat over congressman Mike Lowry.[64]

General election results
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Slade Gorton (Incumbent) 944,359 51.09
Democratic Mike Lowry 904,183 48.91
Majority 40,176 2.17
Voter turnout  %

West Virginia

West Virginia election
West Virginia
  Robert Byrd official portrait.jpg Jay Wolfe cropped.jpg
Nominee Robert Byrd Jay Wolfe
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 410,983 223,564
Percentage 64.8% 31.0%

U.S. Senator before election

Robert Byrd
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Robert Byrd
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Robert Byrd won re-election to a sixth term over Republican, State Senator Jay Wolfe.[65]

General election results[66]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic 'Robert Byrd' (Incumbent) 410,983 64.8%
Republican Jay Wolfe 223,564 35.2%

Wisconsin

Wisconsin election
Wisconsin
  Herbert Kohl, official photo.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Herb Kohl Susan Engeleiter
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,128,625 1,030,440
Percentage 52.1% 47.6%

U.S. Senator before election

William Proxmire
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Herb Kohl
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat William Proxmire decided to retire, instead of running for re-election to a sixth full term. Democratic businessman Herb Kohl won the open seat, beating Republican State Senator Susan Engeleiter.

General election results[67]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Herb Kohl 1,128,625 52.1%
Republican Susan Engeleiter 1,030,440 47.6%
Independent George W. Zaehringer 3,965 0.2%
Socialist Workers Patricia Grogan 3,029 0.1%
Independent Arlyn F. Wollenburg 1,198 0.1%

Wyoming

Wyoming election
Wyoming
  Malcolmwallop.JPG 3x4.svg
Nominee Malcolm Wallop John P. Vinich
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 91,143 89,821
Percentage 50.37% 49.64%

U.S. Senator before election

Malcolm Wallop
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Malcolm Wallop
Republican

Incumbent Republican Malcolm Wallop ran for re-election to a fourth term, and was narrowly re-elected, defeating the Democratic State Senator John Vinich by a margin of a little over 1,300 votes.[68]

Despite being a reliably Republican state, Vinich, a Democrat, was able to impressively compete with Wallop. During the campaign, Wallop attacked Vinich as being a tax-and-spend liberal who was beholden to labor and anti-business.[68] Vinich, in turn, cited his "A" score he got from the National Rifle Association due to his votes in the Wyoming Legislature to counter Wallop's attacks, and possibly attract conservative voters.[68]

General election results[69]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Malcolm Wallop (Incumbent) 91,143 50.37%
Democratic John P. Vinich 89,821 49.64%

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 8, 1988" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  2. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3691
  3. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3463
  4. ^ http://elections.delaware.gov/information/electionresults/pdfs/1988.pdf
  5. ^ http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=MH&s_site=miami&p_multi=MH&p_theme=realcities&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB3683AE885FC33&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM
  6. ^ https://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/sun_sentinel/access/88805454.html?dids=88805454:88805454&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jun+30%2C+1988&author=JOHN+KENNEDY%2C+Politics+Writer&pub=South+Florida+Sun+-+Sentinel&desc=REAGAN+ENDORSES+MACK+IN+MIAMI+PRESIDENT+REBUKES+DUKAKIS+AT+FUND-+RAISER&pqatl=google
  7. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1988/09/07/us/mack-easily-wins-in-florida-primary.html
  8. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=wgsqAAAAIBAJ&sjid=INMEAAAAIBAJ&pg=2170,6877521&dq=buddy+mackay&hl=en
  9. ^ https://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/73628471.html?dids=73628471:73628471&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Sep+08%2C+1988&author=Maralee+Schwartz%3B+Paul+Taylor&pub=The+Washington+Post+%28pre-1997+Fulltext%29&desc=Gunter%2C+MacKay+in+Runoff&pqatl=google
  10. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=YxFSAAAAIBAJ&sjid=SzUNAAAAIBAJ&pg=1912,782035&dq=connie+mack&hl=en
  11. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=heobAAAAIBAJ&sjid=MHoEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6903,6329862&dq=buddy+mackay&hl=en
  12. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=z8FPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=0AYEAAAAIBAJ&pg=2576,6586753&dq=connie+mack&hl=en
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