The Type 093 (Chinese: 093型核潜艇; Chinese designation: 09-III; NATO reporting name: Shang-class) is a class of nuclear-powered attack submarines deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Submarine Force. The improved Type 093G (reported as Type 093A by Western analysts) is longer than the Type 093. The 093G is now confirmed having a vertical launching system (VLS) for YJ-18 supersonic anti-ship missiles, and anti-ship variants of the CJ-10 cruise missile.
Profile of the Type 093
|Builders:||China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation Bohai Shipyard, Huludao|
|Operators:||People's Liberation Army Navy|
|Preceded by:||Type 091|
|Succeeded by:||Type 095|
|Building:||1 (est.) as of January 2014|
|Type:||nuclear-powered attack submarine|
|Displacement:||7,000 tonnes (submerged)|
|Propulsion:||Pressurized water nuclear reactor|
Global Security.org reports that development of the Type 093 began in the early 1980s. However, Admiral Liu Huaqing wrote in his memoirs that development began in 1994; this followed President Jiang Zemin's continued support for nuclear submarine development after the launch of the final Type 091 in 1990. Erickson and Goldstein suggest that the Yinhe incident in 1993, and continued tensions with Taiwan, also drove approval of the program.
Two Type 093s were launched in 2002 and 2003 respectively.
In 2013, it was understood that four improved Type 093s were at various stages of construction, including one which had already been launched in 2012. In December 2014, Chinese media reported that two Type 093Gs may have been completed. In May 2015, Chinese media reported three Type 093Gs were completed and awaiting delivery.
The Type 093 is estimated to be roughly 7,000 t displacement when submerged, 110 metres (360 ft) long with a beam of 11 metres (36 ft). Commercial imagery suggests the Type 093G is longer. The sonar suite includes H/SQC-207 flank-mounted sonar. The boat may also use a seven-blade asymmetric propeller.
The powerplant is speculated to be two pressurized water reactors. In 2002, Chinese sources said the Type 093 was powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, but the immaturity of the technology makes this unlikely.
The Type 093 is armed with six torpedo tubes; reports conflict on whether these are 553 mm or 650 mm tubes. The Type 093 has been said to be armed with the YJ-12 or YJ-82 anti-ship missiles. Anti-ship cruise missiles may also be future options.
Chinese sources say the Type 093G includes a vertical launching system for YJ-18 anti-ship missiles, and a longer teardrop hull with a "wing-shaped cross-section" for improved speed and stealth. Rear Admiral Yin Zhuo has said the Type 093G may carry 12 anti-ship variants of the CJ-10 cruise missile.
In 2002, Chinese sources said the Type 093's noise level was on par with the improved Los Angeles-class. In 2004, Chinese sources said the Type 093 was on par with Project 971 (NATO reporting name Akula), at 110 decibels. In 2009, USN ONI listed the Type 093 as being noisier than Project 671RTM (NATO reporting name Victor III) which entered service in 1979.
Chinese media say the Type 093G is quieter than the shorter Type 093 due to an altered hull form.
There are two suspected variants of the Type 093. One, as noted above is the Type 093G, the cruise missile variant. This and the fast attack variant, might be able to launch the YJ-18 anti-ship cruise missile and a naval version of the DF-10 long-range land-attack cruise missile. The second variant is the Type 093A, which will be or are the third and subsequent three boats. These are stretched versions of the two original Shang-class boats: possibly in an attempt to accommodate a Dry Dock Shelter for special forces.