Tsinghua University (abbreviated THU; Chinese: 清华大学, pinyin: Qīnghuá Dàxué) is a research university located in Beijing and a member of the C9 League of Chinese universities. With its motto of Self-Discipline and Social Commitment, Tsinghua University is dedicated to academic excellence, the well-being of Chinese society, and global development. Tsinghua is ranked as one of the top academic institutions in China and Asia, placing 14th worldwide in the 2017 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings. Since 2015, Tsinghua has been ranked as the best engineering and computer science school in the world, topping both Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and National University of Singapore (NUS). It is one of the most cited institutions in the world.
Motto in English
|Self-Discipline and Social Commitment|
|Party Secretary||Chen Xu|
|Campus||Urban, 395 hectares (980 acres)|
|Flower||Redbud and Lilac|
|Colors||Purple and White |
|Affiliations||AEARU, APRU, C9, BRICS Universities League|
In the aftermath of the Boxer Rebellion, American Secretary of State John Hay suggested that the US $30 million plus Boxer indemnity paid by China to the United States was excessive. After much negotiation with ambassador Liang Cheng, President Theodore Roosevelt obtained congressional approval in 1909 to reduce the Qing dynasty indemnity payment by US$10.8 million, on the condition that these funds would be used as scholarships for Chinese students to study in the United States. Using this fund, the Tsinghua College (清华学堂; Qīnghuá Xuétáng) was established in Beijing, on 29 April 1911 on the site of a former royal garden, to serve as a preparatory school for students to be sent by the government to study in the United States. The faculty members for sciences were recruited by the YMCA from the United States and its graduates transferred directly to American schools as juniors upon graduation. In 1925, the school established its College Department and started its research institute on Chinese studies.
In 1928, Tsinghua changed its name to National Tsing Hua University (NTHU). During World War II in 1937, Tsinghua University along with Peking University and Nankai University, merged to form Changsha Temporary University in Changsha, and later National Southwestern Associated University in Kunming of Yunnan province. After the war, Tsinghua moved back to Beijing and resumed its operations.
After the communist revolution at the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, which led to the creation of the People's Republic of China (PRC), Tsinghua University's then President Mei Yiqi, followed by many professors, fled to Taiwan where they established the National Tsing Hua Institute of Nuclear Technology in 1955, which later became National Tsing Hua University of Taiwan.
In 1952, the Chinese government regrouped the country's higher education institutions in an attempt to build a Soviet style system, with individual institutions tending to specialize in a certain field of study. When the Cultural Revolution began in 1966, many university students walked out of the classrooms, and some went on to be part of the Red Guards, resulting in the complete shutdown of the university. It was not until 1978, after the Cultural Revolution had ended, that the university began to take in students again. Even so, Tsinghua University remained in the top tier of schools in China.
Since the 1980s, the university has incorporated a multidisciplinary system. As a result, several schools were re-incorporated. These included the School of Sciences, the School of Economics and Management, the School of Life Sciences, the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, the Tsinghua Law School, the School of Public Policy and Management, and the Academy of Arts and Design. In 1996, Tsinghua School of Economics and Management established partnership with the Sloan School of Management at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. One year later, Tsinghua and MIT founded the MBA program Tsinghua-MIT Global MBA.
Most national and international university rankings place Tsinghua amongst the best universities in Mainland China. Admission to Tsinghua is extremely competitive. According to a report in 2008, 215 out of 300 students who placed within the top 10 in the 30 tested provinces and regions chose Tsinghua and 21 out of the 30 top scorers in each province and region chose the university. Admission to Tsinghua's graduate schools is also very competitive, with, for example, only about 16% of MBA applicants admitted each year.
With its motto of Self-Discipline and Social Commitment, Tsinghua University describes itself as being dedicated to academic excellence, the well-being of Chinese society and to global development. The motto goes back to a speech with the title Gentleman given by Liang Qichao in 1914, in which he quoted the I Ching to describe a particular notion of an ideal gentleman.
Tsinghua alumni include the current General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and Paramount Leader Xi Jinping, who graduated with a degree in chemical engineering in 1979, as well as the CPC General Secretary and former Paramount Leader Hu Jintao, who graduated with a degree in hydraulic engineering in 1964. Tsinghua has a reputation for hosting some of the most distinguished guest speakers of any university in the world, with international leaders such as Bill Clinton, Tony Blair, Henry Kissinger, Carlos Ghosn, Park Geun-hye, and Henry Paulson, all recently giving lectures to the university community.
As of 2003, Tsinghua University has 12 colleges and 48 departments, 41 research institutes, 35 research centers, and 167 laboratories, including 15 national key laboratories. In September 2006, Peking Union Medical College was renamed to Peking Union Medical College, Tsinghua University, although the Peking Union Medical College and Tsinghua University remain two separate institutions. The university offers 51 bachelor's degree programs, 139 master's degree programs and 107 PhD programs. Recently, Tsinghua has become the first Chinese university to offer a Master of Laws program in American law, through a cooperative venture with the Temple University Beasley School of Law. The university is a member of LAOTSE, an international network of leading universities in Europe and Asia. Each year, the University celebrates the Intellectual Property Summer Institute in cooperation with Franklin Pierce Law Center of Concord, New Hampshire. It has its own editorial, Tsinghua University Press.
Announced in 2013, the Schwarzman Scholars program will consist of 200 scholars to be chosen annually to work towards a one-year master's degree in Public Policy, International Relations, Engineering, Economics & Business. These scholars will live on the university campus at Schwarzman College, a residential college being built specifically for this program.
Xinya College is the only residential liberal arts college established in Tsinghua University as a pilot project to reform undergraduate education. Xinya initially enrolled students from inside the university in 2014-15. It started to enroll students directly from high schools since 2016. Unlike other Tsinghua students who must choose a specific major/field upon entrance, Xinya students declare their majors at the end of freshman year.
In 2016, Tsinghua's expenditures were RMB 13.7 billion (US$3.57B at purchasing power parity), the largest budget of any in China.
As of 2016, Tsinghua University has 20 schools and 57 departments covering a broad range of subjects, including science, engineering, arts and literature, social sciences, law, medicine. As of 2016, Tsinghua University has 20 schools and 57 departments covering a broad range of subjects, including science, engineering, arts and literature, social sciences, medicine.
The department of electrical engineering at Tsinghua University plays a pioneer role in state power grid of China. The research focus of the department include following areas.
Department of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) was established in 1927.
In 1952, Tsinghua DMS was merged with the Peking University Department of Mathematical Sciences. Then in 1979 it was renamed "Department of Applied Mathematics", and renamed again in 1999 to its current title.
Tsinghua DMS has three institutes at present, the institute of Pure Mathematics which has 27 faculty members, the Institute of Applied Mathematics and Probability and Statistics which has 27 faculty members, and the Institute of Computational Mathematics and Operations Research which has 20 faculty members. There are currently about 400 undergraduate students and 200 graduate students.
The Department of Precision Instrument was called the Department of Precision Instrument and Machine Manufacturing in 1960 when it was separated out from the Department of Machine Manufacturing to be an independent department. Later, in 1971, it was renamed the Department of Precision Instrument. The mission of the Department of Precision Instrument at Tsinghua University, as its dean said, is "supporting the national development and improving the people’s well-being."
Research in the Department of Precision Instrument is divided to four main parts, led by its four research institutes: the Institute of Opto-electronic Engineering, the Institute of Instrument Science and Technology, the Engineering Research Center for Navigation Technology, and the Center for Photonics and Electronics. At the same time, the Department of Precision Instrument has three key laboratories: the State Key Laboratory of Tribology, the State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, and the Key Laboratory of High-accuracy Inertial Instrument and System. It also has two national engineering research centers, which are the National Engineering Research Center of Optical Disk and the CIMS National Engineering Research Center.
The Institute of Opto-electronic Engineering (IOEE) was established in 1958. It obtained the Chinese government's authorization to offer PhD program in 1981 and the approval to build the post-doctoral research site in 1988. The research of the IOEE covers opto-electronic instruments, precision metrology and measurement, modern optical information processing, the theory and components of binary optics, and the birefringent frequency-splitting lasers. Several famous scientists work in the IOEE, including Professor Guofan Jin, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and Professor Kegong zhao, formerly the president of the Chinese National Institute of Metrology.
The Institute of Instrument Science and Technology is the most important institute in the State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instrument Science at Tsinghua University. The institute is equipped with advanced instruments and facilities, and its research has included every major area in modern instrument science and technology.Up to 2012, the institute have produced over 1500 publications, more than 100 patents, and acquired many significant awards.
The Engineering Research Center for Navigation Technology is a relatively young institute in the Department of Precision Instrument which was established in 2000, with the intention to "pursuit excellence in the research and development in the field of high-accuracy inertial instrument and navigation technology, as well as in MEMS inertial sensor field, and to provide advanced training for future scientists and engineers in the field of inertial technology." Its research interests cover "high-accuracy inertial instrument and navigation technology, MEMS inertial sensor and system, precise electro-mechanical control system and its application", and so on. Till 2012, the area of the Center is 2900 square meters which include approximately 550 square meters of clean rooms. Equipment and instruments in this center worth over 50 million RMB ($7.56 million USD).
The Center for Photonics and Electronics works on advanced laser and photonic technology. It houses 200 square meters of clean rooms and very modern laser instruments and equipment. The research of this Center covers solid-state laser technology, fiber laser technology, active optics technology, and laser detection technology. The Center has published lots of papers, and also has partnerships with many domestic or international companies and research institutes.
Under the authorization of China's State Planning Commission and Ministry of Education, the State Key Laboratory of Tribology (SKLT) was established in November, 1988. The present director of the SKLT is Professor Jianbin Luo, and the present chair of the Academic Committee of the SKLT is Professor Jue Zhong, who is also a member of Chinese Academy of Engineering.
The SKLT has one central laboratory and 4 sub-laboratories. It has been awarded numerous awards, including "two National Natural Science Awards, two National Invention Awards, one National Award for Science and Technology Progress, two National Excellent Science Book Awards, 25 awards from ministries or provinces of China, Edmond E. Bisson Award in 2003 from STLE, the 2008 PE Publishing Prize by the Editor and Editorial Board of the Journal of Engineering Tribology." Moreover, China's Ministry of Education recognized the SKLT as one of the creative groups in 2005, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China recognized the SKLT as one of the creative research groups in 2007.
Established in 1995, The State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments is a joint laboratory of Tsinghua University and Tianjin University. It is a national key laboratory with two recognized national first-level key disciplines and their second-class disciplines. The research of The State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments can be categorized into four major parts: laser and optoelectric measurement technology, sensing and information measurement technology, micro- and nano- measurement and fabrication technology, and quality control in manufacturing technology.
The Key Laboratory of High-accuracy Inertial Instrument and System was established with the intention to support the research in the Engineering Research Center for Navigation Technology. Since its establishment, it has won five prizes and published a large quantity of papers.
Currently, there are two disciplines in the Department of Precision Instrument: the discipline of the instrumental science and technology of precision instrument and mechanology and the discipline of optical engineering.
There are six teaching laboratories or centers which serve significant roles in undergraduate and graduate education in the Department of Precision Instrument. They are:
The Department provides more than 40 courses of the undergraduate level and 25 courses of the graduate level. As of 2012, 284 undergraduates, 152 postgraduates, and 219 doctoral students were studying or working in the Department.
School of Life Sciences was first established in 1926 under the name Department of Biology. Botanist Qian Chongshu took up the first dean.
During the nationwide reorganization of universities in the early 1950s, the Department of Biology was merged into other universities, namely Peking University etc.,resulting in a vacancy in the field of biological research in Tsinghua for almost 30 years.
In June 1984, decisions were made about the reestablishment of the Department of Biology, and the department officially reopened in September. During the reestablishment the Department of Biology of Peking University, the Institute of Biophysics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and many other institutes as well as biologists provided valuable support and help. The department changed its name to the current name in September 2009. As of 2013, structural biologist and foreign associate of National Academy of Sciences of United States Dr. Yigong Shi is the current dean of School of Life Sciences. The school currently has 38 professors, around 600 undergraduates (including the candidates of Tsinghua University - Peking Union Medical College joint MD program) and 200 graduate students.
The Peking Union Medical College was established in 1917 by the Rockefeller Foundation and was modeled on the US medical education system. Tsinghua first established its medical school in 2001 and in 2006, Tsinghua's medical school merged with the Peking Union Medical College renaming it Peking Union Medical College, Tsinghua University. The school remains the top ranked medical school and general hospital in China according to CUCAS in 2015. The Peking Union Medical College is also the only medical school to be affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. It runs one of the most competitive medical programs in the country, accepting 90 students a year into its 8-year MD program. Students in the 8-year program spend 2.5 years at Tsinghua studying basic sciences before moving onto Peking Union Medical College to complete the last 5.5 years in clinical medicine.
The Tsinghua School of Journalism and Communication (TSJC) was established in April 2002. Its predecessor was Communication Studies in the Department of Chinese Language and Literature and its establishment of coincides with the development of media increasingly influencing world affairs in a time of fast-growing globalization. The school's research fields include International Communication, Film and Television Studies, New Media Studies, Media Operation and Management, and Business Journalism and are based on comprehensive academic research in journalism and communication theories. The objective of the school is to bring full advantage of Tsinghua University's comprehensive academic structure to Chinese and international media, to construct a first-rate discipline in journalism and communication studies, to cultivate talented professionals in the field and to explore advanced concepts in journalism and communication. The school also offers a two-year graduate program in international business journalism, sponsored by Bloomberg L.P. and the International Center for Journalists (ICFJ), that trains talented students and media professionals from around the globe in financial media and corporate communication.
The school has five research-oriented centers to organize and conduct academic research activities. They are: Center for International Communications Studies, Center for New Media Studies, Center for Film and Television Studies, Center for Media Management Studies and Center for Cultural Industry Studies.
The legal studies at Tsinghua University can be dated back to the "Tsinghua College" era (1911-1929), where many students were sent to universities in western countries for legal studies. Graduated from Columbia University, Yale University, Harvard University, those Tsinghua alumni have played an important role in areas of law and diplomacy. Famous legal scholars Tuan-Sheng Ch'ien, Yan Shu-tang (燕树棠), Wang Hua-cheng (王化成), Kung-chuan Hsiao (萧公权),Pu Xue-feng (浦薛凤), Mei Ju-ao (梅汝璈), Xiang Zhe-jun (向哲浚) and diplomat Tang Yue-liang (唐悦良) are all graduated from Tsinghua College or went to study abroad after passing exams in Tsinghua College.
Tsinghua University School of Law was established in 1929, after Tsinghua College was changed into a university - Tsinghua University. Legal education in Tsinghua University at time focused on international affairs and Chinese legal studies. Courses on political science and economics could also be found on students' curriculum. Before the Japanese army invaded Beijing in 1937, Tsinghua University School of Law developed greatly. Many Chinese legal scholars graduated during that era, including Wang Tieya (王铁崖), Gong Xiangrui (龚祥瑞) and Lou Bangyan (楼邦彦).
In 1952, in response to the government policy of turning Tsinghua University into an engineering-focused university, the law school was dismissed; the faculty were appointed to other universities, including Peking University and Peking College of Political Science and Law (the predecessor of China University of Political Science and Law). Until 1995, there was no formal "school of law" at Tsinghua University, yet courses on laws were still taught in Tsinghua University.
On September 8, 1995, the Tsinghua University Department of Law were formally re-established; on April 25, 1999, the 88th anniversary of Tsinghua University, the university formally changed the Department into "School of Law". The "new" law school has inherited the spirits of the "old" law school and yet has endeavored to add international factors to its students' curriculum. Due to its outstanding faculty members and students, the Tsinghua University School of Law has risen to be one of the leading law schools in China and has been consistently ranked as the best or the second best law school in mainland China by QS World University Rankings since 2012.
The Graduate School at Shenzhen was jointly founded by Tsinghua University and the Shenzhen Municipal Government. The school is directly affiliated with Tsinghua University in Beijing. The campus is located in the University Town of Shenzhen since 18 October 2003. The Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, was jointly founded by Tsinghua University and the Shenzhen Municipal Government for cultivating top level professionals and carrying out scientific and technological innovations.
The Tsinghua History Museum covers a construction area of 5,060 m². A collection of old documents, pictures, artworks, maps, graphics, videos and music tells the visitors the history of Tsinghua University. The exhibition also pays tribute to people who contributed to the prestige and development of the institution.
The scientific and technological research and projects at Tsinghua University are mainly supported by special projects and funding from the national science and technology programs. Together, funding from these programs totals over 20 billion yuan, which funds more than 1400 projects every year for the university. With the prospective increase of state investment in science and technology, research at Tsinghua is to receive more financial support from the state.
Nationally, it had been continuously ranked to be the best in mainland by the Chinese university ranking from 2003 to 2010 and has become the second since then. The Netbig had also regarded it to be the best in 2008, 2009 and 2010, and it was placed at 2nd by the China's Education Center in the same consecutive years.
Tsinghua was regarded as the most reputable Chinese university by Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings (2017) where it was ranked 14th globally. It also topped the newly launched independent regional QS BRICS University Rankings (2013). It was 23rd in the Times Higher Education rankings by subjects (2014–15) for Engineering and Technology, which is its strength. The US News and World Report Best Global University Ranking puts Tsinghua at 59th in 2015 and 4th in Asia. Since 2015, Tsinghua University has overtaken the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to top the list of Best Global Universities for Engineering published by the U.S. News & World Report.
Tsinghua University has more than 110 student associations covering five domains: science and technology, physical training, humanities, arts and public welfare. To name a few: Students' Association for Global Affairs (SAGA), Student Association of Educational Poverty Alleviation (SAEPA) and the Students' Performing Arts Club, Zijing Volunteer Service, Rural International Student Exchange (RISE), Students' Association of Science & Technology, Photography Association, Foreign Languages Association, Association of Student International Communication (ASIC), etc.
International students are encouraged to participate in various extracurricular activities and join the student associations of the University. FSAO also organizes extracurricular activities for international students, including welcome party for new students, New Year’s party, graduation party, tourist visits to Chinese cultural and historical destinations, sports competitions, etc.
The campus of Tsinghua University is located in northwest Beijing, in the Haidian district which was designated for universities and other academic institutes.
It is located on the former site of Qing Dynasty royal gardens and retains Chinese-style landscaping as well as traditional buildings, but many of its buildings are also in the Western-style, reflecting the American influence in its history. Along with its rival and neighbor the Peking University, it is known throughout China and the wider world for having one of the most beautiful campuses. Tsinghua University's campus was named one of the most beautiful college campuses in the world by a panel of architects and campus designers in Forbes in 2010; it was the only university in Asia on the list.
T. Chuang, a 1914 graduate of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, helped design the campus grounds of the Tsinghua University with influences of American architectural style and architectures.
The University's Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology is on a separate campus in a northern suburb of Beijing.
Tsinghua University has produced many notable graduates, especially in political sphere, academic field and industry.
Tsinghua graduates who have political prominence are disproportionately greater in number than graduates of other famous universities. These include former General Secretary, president Hu Jintao, the current Party General Secretary Xi Jinping, the former chairman of the National People's Congress Wu Bangguo, former premier Zhu Rongji, and the former first vice premier Huang Ju.
The term Qinghua clique refers to a group of Communist Chinese politicians that have graduated from Tsinghua University. They are members of the fourth generation of Chinese leadership, and are purported to hold reformist and hesitantly pro-democratic ideas (a number have studied in the United States following graduation from Tsinghua, and some are said to be influenced by the reform ideals of Hu Yaobang). In the PRC, their ascendance to power began in 2008 at the 17th National Congress of the CPC.
校花为紫荆花(Cercis chinensis)及丁香花(紫丁香Syringa oblata、白丁香Syringa oblate Var.alba)。