Trøndelag

Trøndelag (Urban East Norwegian pronunciation: [²trønːdəˌlɑːɡ])[1][2] is a county in the central part of Norway. It was created on 1 January 2018 with the merger of the former counties of Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag, which had been separated into two counties in 1804. Trøndelag county and the neighboring Møre og Romsdal county together form what is known as Central Norway.

A person from Trøndelag is called a trønder. The largest city in Trøndelag is the city of Trondheim. The administrative centre of the county is Steinkjer, although Trondheim is the seat of the county mayor. This is to make the county more efficient and not too centralized, as Trøndelag is the second largest county in Norway.

The old Trondhjems amt county was divided into two administrative counties in 1804 by the King of Denmark-Norway. In 2016, the two county councils voted to merge into a single county in 2018.[3][4]

The dialect spoken in the area, trøndersk, is characterized by dropping out most vowel endings; see apocope.

Trøndelag is one of the most fertile regions of Norway, with large agricultural output. The majority of the production ends up in the Norwegian cooperative system for meat and milk, but farm produce is a steadily growing business.

Trøndelag fylke
Trööndelagen fylhkenttjïelte
County
Seierstad in July 2007
Seierstad in July 2007
Coat of arms of Trøndelag fylke
Coat of arms
Trøndelag within Norway

Trøndelag within Norway
Coordinates: 63°25′37″N 10°23′35″E / 63.42694°N 10.39306°ECoordinates: 63°25′37″N 10°23′35″E / 63.42694°N 10.39306°E
Country Norway
County Trøndelag
Region Central Norway
County ID NO-50
Administrative centre Steinkjer
Government
 • Governor Frank Jenssen
  H
  (2018–present)
 • County mayor Tore O. Sandvik
  Ap
  (2018–present)
Area
 • Total 41,260 km2 (15,930 sq mi)
Area rank #2 in Norway, % of Norway's land area
Population (2009)
 • Total 418,453
 • Rank 5 (7.9% of country)
 • Density 10/km2 (26/sq mi)
 • Change (10 years) 0 %
Demonym(s) Trønder
Time zone CET (UTC+01)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+02)
Website www.trondelagfylke.no
Data from Statistics Norway

Name

The Old Norse form of the name was Þrǿndalǫg. The first element is the genitive plural of þrǿndr which means "person from Trøndelag", while the second is lǫg (plural of lag which means "law; district/people with a common law" (compare Danelaw, Gulaþingslǫg and Njarðarlǫg). A parallel name for the same district was Þróndheimr which means "the homeland (heim) of the þrǿndr".[5] Þróndheimr may be older since the first element has a stem form without umlaut.

History

People have lived in this region for thousands of years. In the early iron-age Trøndelag was divided into several petty kingdoms called fylki. The different fylki had a common law, and an early parliament or thing. It was called Frostating and was held at the Frosta-peninsula. By some this is regarded as the first real democracy.

In the time after Håkon Grjotgardsson (838-900), Trøndelag was ruled by the Jarl of Lade. Lade is located in the eastern part of Trondheim, bordering the Trondheimsfjord. The powerful Jarls of Lade continued to play a very significant political role in Norway up to 1030.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1769 78,274 —    
1951 307,635 +293.0%
1960 327,127 +6.3%
1970 350,297 +7.1%
1980 368,942 +5.3%
1990 377,202 +2.2%
2000 389,960 +3.4%
2010 422,102 +8.2%
Source: Statistics Norway [1][2][3][4].

Jarls of Lade (Ladejarl) were:

Trondheim-cathedral
Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim

Trøndelag (together with parts of Møre og Romsdal) was briefly ceded in 1658 to Sweden in the Treaty of Roskilde and was ruled by king Charles X until it was returned to Denmark-Norway after the Treaty of Copenhagen in 1660. During that time, the Swedes conscripted 2,000 men in Trøndelag, forcing young boys down to 15 years of age to join the Swedish armies fighting against Poland and Brandenburg. Charles X feared the Trønders would rise against their Swedish occupiers, and thought it wise to keep a large part of the men away. Only about one third of the men ever returned to their homes; some of them were forced to settle in the then Swedish province of Estonia, as the Swedes thought it would be easier to rule the Trønders there, utilising the ancient maxim of divide and rule.[8]

In the fall of 1718, during the Great Northern War, General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt was ordered by king Charles XII of Sweden to lead a Swedish army of 10,000 men into Trøndelag and take Trondheim. Because of his poor supply lines back to Sweden, Armfeldt's army had to live off the land, causing great suffering to the people of the region. Armfeldt's campaign failed: the defenders of Trondheim succeeded in repelling his siege. After Charles XII was killed in the siege of Fredriksten in Norway's southeast, Armfeldt was ordered back into Sweden. During the ensuing retreat, his 6,000 surviving threadbare and starving Caroleans were caught in a fierce blizzard. Thousands of Caroleans froze to death in the Norwegian mountains, and hundreds more were crippled for life.[9]

Tronderlaane in Oppdal Norway
Traditional Trøndelag house

Government

The county is governed by the Trøndelag County Municipality. The town of Steinkjer is the seat of the county governor and county administration. Both the county governor and Trøndelag County Municipality, however, also have offices in Trondheim.

The county oversees the 41 upper secondary schools, including nine private schools. Six of the schools have more than 1000 students: four in Trondheim plus the Steinkjer Upper Secondary School and the Ole Vig Upper Secondary Schoo in Stjørdalshalsen. The county has ten Folk high schools, with an eleventh folk high school being possibly being opened in Røros, with a possible start in 2019.[10]

Districts

The county is often sub-divided into several geographical regions:

Towns and cities

There are nine towns/cities in Trøndelag, plus the "mining town" of Røros.

Municipalities

There are 47 municipalities (in 2018) in Trøndelag county.

Name Map Adm. Center Population
(2017)[11]
District Number [12]
Trondheim komm.svg Trondheim NO 5001 Trondheim.svg Trondheim 190,464 Trondheim Region 5001
Steinkjer komm.svg Steinkjer NO 5004 Steinkjer.svg Steinkjer 21,972 Innherred 5004
Namsos komm.svg Namsos NO 5005 Namsos.svg Namsos 13,051 Namdalen 5005
Hemne komm.svg Hemne NO 5011 Hemne.svg Kyrksæterøra 4,259 Orkdalen 5011
Snillfjord komm.svg Snillfjord NO 5012 Snillfjord.svg Krokstadøra 982 Orkdalen 5012
Hitra komm.svg Hitra NO 5013 Hitra.svg Fillan 4,659 Orkdalen 5013
Frøya komm.svg Frøya NO 5014 Frøya.svg Sistranda 4,937 Orkdalen 5014
Ørland komm.svg Ørland NO 5015 Ørland.svg Brekstad 5,291 Fosen 5015
Agdenes komm.svg Agdenes NO 5016 Agdenes.svg Lensvik 1,711 Orkdalen 5016
Bjugn komm.svg Bjugn NO 5017 Bjugn.svg Botngård 4,822 Fosen 5017
Åfjord komm.svg Åfjord NO 5018 Åfjord.svg Årnes 3,263 Fosen 5018
Roan komm.svg Roan NO 5019 Roan.svg Roan 959 Fosen 5019
Osen komm.svg Osen NO 5020 Osen.svg Steinsdalen 978 Fosen 5020
Oppdal komm.svg Oppdal NO 5021 Oppdal.svg Oppdal 6,973 Orkdalen 5021
Rennebu komm.svg Rennebu NO 5022 Rennebu.svg Berkåk 2,556 Gauldalen 5022
Meldal komm.svg Meldal NO 5023 Meldal.svg Meldal 3,960 Gauldalen 5023
Orkdal komm.svg Orkdal NO 5024 Orkdal.svg Orkanger 11,981 Trondheim Region 5024
Røros komm.svg Røros NO 5025 Røros.svg Røros 5,623 Gauldalen 5025
Holtålen komm.svg Holtålen NO 5026 Holtålen.svg Renbygda 2,046 Gauldalen 5026
Midtre Gauldal komm.svg Midtre Gauldal NO 5027 Midtre Gauldal.svg Støren 6,319 Gauldalen 5027
Melhus komm.svg Melhus NO 5028 Melhus.svg Melhus 16,213 Orkdalen 5028
Skaun komm.svg Skaun NO 5029 Skaun.svg Børsa 8,000 Trondheim Region 5029
Klæbu komm.svg Klæbu NO 5030 Klæbu.svg Klæbu 6,050 Trondheim Region 5030
Malvik komm.svg Malvik NO 5031 Malvik.svg Hommelvik 13,820 Trondheim Region 5031
Selbu komm.svg Selbu NO 5032 Selbu.svg Mebonden 4,098 Stjørdalen 5032
Tydal komm.svg Tydal NO 5033 Tydal.svg Ås 861 Stjørdalen 5033
Meråker komm.svg Meråker NO 5034 Meråker.svg Midtbygda 2,509 Stjørdalen 5034
Stjørdal komm.svg Stjørdal NO 5035 Stjørdal.svg Stjørdalshalsen 23,625 Stjørdalen 5035
Frosta komm.svg Frosta NO 5036 Frosta.svg Frosta 2,630 Stjørdalen 5036
Levanger komm.svg Levanger NO 5037 Levanger.svg Levanger 19,892 Innherred 5037
Verdal komm.svg Verdal NO 5038 Verdal.svg Verdalsøra 14,849 Innherred 5038
Verran komm.svg Verran NO 5039 Verran.svg Malm 2,515 Innherred 5039
Namdalseid komm.svg Namdalseid NO 5040 Namdalseid.svg Namdalseid 1,593 Namdalen 5040
Snåsa komm.svg Snåsa NO 5041 Snåsa.svg Snåsa 2,159 Namdalen 5041
Lierne komm.svg Lierne NO 5042 Lierne.svg Sandvika 1,389 Namdalen 5042
Røyrvik komm.svg Røyrvik NO 5043 Røyrvik.svg Røyrvik 469 Namdalen 5043
Namsskogan komm.svg Namsskogan NO 5044 Namsskogan.svg Namsskogan 872 Namdalen 5044
Grong komm.svg Grong NO 5045 Grong.svg Medjå 2,467 Namdalen 5045
Høylandet komm.svg Høylandet NO 5046 Høylandet.svg Høylandet 1,264 Namdalen 5046
Overhalla komm.svg Overhalla NO 5047 Overhalla.svg Ranemsletta 3,840 Namdalen 5047
Fosnes komm.svg Fosnes NO 5048 Fosnes.svg Dun 628 Namdalen 5048
Flatanger komm.svg Flatanger NO 5049 Flatanger.svg Lauvsnes 1,090 Namdalen 5049
Vikna komm.svg Vikna NO 5050 Vikna.svg Rørvik 4,418 Namdalen 5050
Nærøy komm.svg Nærøy NO 5051 Nærøy.svg Kolvereid 5,138 Namdalen 5051
Leka komm.svg Leka NO 5052 Leka.svg Leknes 584 Namdalen 5052
Inderøy komm.svg Inderøy NO 5053 Inderøy.svg Straumen 6,800 Innherred 5053
Leksvik komm.svg Indre Fosen NO 5054 Indre Fosen.svg Årnset 10,108 Fosen 5054
Nord-Trøndelag våpen.svg Trøndelag Norway Counties Trøndelag Position.svg Steinkjer 454,596 Trøndelag 50

Culture

Arts

The region's official theatre is the Trøndelag Teater in Trondheim.[13] At Stiklestad in Verdal, the historical play called The Saint Olav Drama has been played each year since 1954. It depicts the last days of Saint Olaf.

Jazz on a very high level is frequently heard in Trondheim, due to the high-level jazz education in Trondheim. Trondheim is also the national centre of rock music; the popular music museum Rockheim opened there in 2010. Trøndelag is also known for its local variety of rock music, often performed in local dialect, called "trønderrock".

Food and drink

The region is popularly known for its moonshine homebrew, called karsk. Although officially prohibited, the art of producing as pure home-made spirits as possible still has a strong following in parts of Trøndelag. Traditionally served mixed with coffee, local variations apply. In southern regions, people tend to use normal filter coffee, while in the north they choose to serve karsk with as weak coffee as possible.

The "official dish" of the region is sodd which is made from sheep or beef meat and meatballs in boiled stock. The Norwegian Grey Troender sheep is an endangered breed of domesticated sheep that originated from Trøndelag in the late 19th century. There are currently approximately 50 individual animals remaining and efforts are being made to revive the breed.

See also

References

  1. ^ Berulfsen, Bjarne (1969). Norsk Uttaleordbok (in Norwegian). Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co (W Nygaard). p. 336.
  2. ^ Vanvik, Arne (1985). Norsk Uttaleordbok: A Norwegian pronouncing dictionary (in Norwegian and English). Oslo: Fonetisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo. p. 311. ISBN 978-8299058414.
  3. ^ Hofstad, Sigrun (2016-04-27). "Her bankes det for et samlet Trøndelag". NRK (in Norwegian).
  4. ^ "Trøndelag fylke: English". Trøndelag fylke. Retrieved 2018-01-01.
  5. ^ Sandnes, Jørn; Stemshaug, Ola (1980). Norsk stadnamnleksikon. pp. 322–323.
  6. ^ Statistics Norway - Church of Norway.
  7. ^ Statistics Norway - Members of religious and life stance communities outside the Church of Norway, by religion/life stance. County. 2006-2010
  8. ^ Gjerset, Knut (1915). History of the Norwegian People, Volumes II. The MacMillan Company. pp. 318–320.
  9. ^ "Historien" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2009-04-07.
  10. ^ Olsen Haugen, Morten, ed. (2018-03-10). "Trøndelag". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 2018-05-05.
  11. ^ Statistisk sentralbyrå (2017). "Table: 06913: Population 1 January and population changes during the calendar year (M)" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  12. ^ "Nye fylkes- og kommunenummer - Trøndelag fylke" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Det kongelige kommunal- og moderniseringsdepartement.
  13. ^ Haugan, Trond E (2008). Byens magiske rom: Historien om Trondheim kino. Tapir Akademisk Forlag. ISBN 9788251922425.)

External links

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