Stamford is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 122,643. As of July 1, 2014, according to the Census Bureau, the population of Stamford had risen to 128,278, making it the third-largest city in the state (behind Bridgeport and New Haven) and the seventh-largest city in New England. Approximately 30 miles (50 kilometers) from Manhattan, Stamford is in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metro area which is a part of the Greater New York metropolitan area.
Stamford is home to four Fortune 500 Companies, nine Fortune 1000 Companies, and 13 Courant 100 Companies, as well as numerous divisions of large corporations. This gives Stamford the largest financial district in New York Metro outside New York City itself and one of the largest concentrations of corporations in the nation.
View of Stamford Harbor
|Nickname(s): The City That Works, Lock City|
Location in Fairfield County and the state of Connecticut
|Region||South Western Region|
|• Type||Mayor-Board of representatives|
|• Mayor||David Martin (D)|
|• City||52.1 sq mi (134.9 km2)|
|• Land||37.7 sq mi (97.9 km2)|
|• Water||14.3 sq mi (37.0 km2)|
|• Urban||465 sq mi (1,205 km2)|
|Elevation||23 ft (7 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||129,113|
|• Density||3,180/sq mi (1,226/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (UTC-4)|
|Area code||203 and 475|
|GNIS feature ID||0211129|
Stamford was known as Rippowam by the Native American inhabitants to the region, and the very first European settlers to the area also referred to it as such. The present name is after the town of Stamford, Lincolnshire, England. The deed to Stamford was signed on July 1, 1640 between Captain Turner of the New Haven Colony and Chief Ponus. By the 18th century, one of the primary industries of the town was merchandising by water, which was possible due to Stamford's proximity to New York.
In 1692, Stamford was home to a less famous witch trial than the well-known Salem witch trials, which also occurred in 1692. The accusations were less fanatical and smaller-scale but also grew to prominence through gossip and hysterics.
New Canaan officially separated from Stamford when it incorporated as a town in 1801, followed by Darien in 1820.
Starting in the late 19th century, New York residents built summer homes on the shoreline, and even back then there were some who moved to Stamford permanently and started commuting to Manhattan by train, although the practice became more popular later. Stamford incorporated as a city in 1893.
In 1950, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 94.6% white and 5.2% black.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Stamford's commercial real estate boomed as corporations relocated from New York City to peripheral areas. A massive urban redevelopment campaign during that time resulted in a downtown with many tall office buildings. The F.D. Rich Co. was the city-designated urban renewal developer of the downtown in an ongoing redevelopment project that was contentious, beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s. The company put up what was the city's tallest structure, One Landmark Square, at 21 floors high, and the GTE building (now One Stamford Forum), along with the Marriott Hotel, the Stamford Town Center and many of the other downtown office buildings. One Landmark Square has since been dwarfed by the new 34-story Trump Parc Stamford condominium tower, and then again by the Atlantic Station development, another project by the Rich Company in partnership with Cappelli Enterprises. Over the years, other developers have joined in building up the downtown, a process that continued, with breaks during downturns in the economy, through the 1980s, 1990s and into the new century.
Since 2008, an 80-acre mixed-use redevelopment project for the Stamford's Harbor Point neighborhood has added additional growth south of the city's Downtown area. Once complete, the redevelopment will include 6,000,000 square feet (560,000 m2) of new residential, retail, office and hotel space, and a marina. As of July 2012, roughly 900 of the projected 4,000 Harbor Point residential units had been constructed. New restaurants and recreational activities have come up in the Harbor Point area, which is considered as New Stamford.
Stamford is situated near the southwestern point of Connecticut, on the Long Island Sound. It comprises a number of neighborhoods and villages including Cove-East Side, Downtown, North Stamford, Glenbrook, West Side, Turn Of River, Waterside, Springdale, Belltown, Ridgeway, Newfield, South End, Westover, Shippan, Roxbury and Palmers Hill. North of the Merritt Parkway is considered the North Stamford section of the city. North Stamford encompasses the largest land mass in Stamford, however it is the least densely populated area of the city. North Stamford functionally and legally acts as one municipality with the City of Stamford. Towns surrounding Stamford include Pound Ridge, New York to the north, Greenwich to the west, and both Darien and New Canaan to the east.
The city has an area of 52.09 square miles (134.9 km2), making it the largest city by area in the state.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Stamford has a temperate climate (Cfa), with long, hot summers, and cool to cold winters. Stamford, like the rest of coastal Connecticut, lies in the broad transition zone between the continental climates of New England and southeast Canada to the north, and the milder temperate climates to the south.
The warm/hot season in Stamford is from mid-April through late October. Late day thundershowers are common in the hottest months (June, July, August, September), despite the mostly sunny skies. The cool/cold season is from late November though mid March. Winter weather is far more variable than summer weather along the Connecticut coast, ranging from sunny days with higher temperatures to cold and blustery conditions with occasional snow. Like much of the Connecticut coast and nearby Long Island, NY, some of the winter precipitation is rain or a mix and rain and wet snow in Stamford. Stamford averages about 30 inches (75 cm) of snow annually, compared to inland areas like Hartford and Albany which average 45–60 inches (110–150 cm) of snow annually.
Although infrequent, tropical cyclones (hurricanes/tropical storms) have struck Connecticut and the Stamford metropolitan area. Hurricane landfalls have occurred along the Connecticut coast in 1903, 1938, 1944, 1954 (Carol), 1960 (Donna), 1985 (Gloria). Tropical Storm Irene (2011) also caused moderate damage along the Connecticut coast, as did Hurricane Sandy (which made landfall in New Jersey) in 2012.
Coastal Connecticut is the broad transition zone where so-called "subtropical indicator" plants and other broadleaf evergreens can successfully be cultivated. Stamford averages about 90 days annually with freeze - about the same as Baltimore, Maryland. As such, Southern Magnolias, Needle Palms, Windmill palm, Loblolly Pines, and Crape Myrtles are grown in private and public gardens. Like much of coastal Connecticut, Long Island, and coastal New Jersey, the growing season is rather long in Stamford - averaging 210 days from April 8 to November 5 according to the National Weather Service in Bridgeport.
|Climate data for Stamford, Connecticut|
|Record high °F (°C)||69
|Average high °F (°C)||38.2
|Average low °F (°C)||19.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−18
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||4.50
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||9.3
|Average precipitation days||10.5||9.7||10.9||12.5||12.5||11.7||10.2||9.7||9.8||9.2||10.6||11.3||128.6|
|Average snowy days||4.8||4.3||2.5||.4||0||0||0||0||0||0||.4||2.7||15.1|
|Source #1: NCDC|
|Source #2: Weather Channel|
Stamford is composed of approximately 45 distinct neighborhoods, including 2 historic districts.
The commonly known neighborhoods throughout Stamford (with ZIP Codes that roughly cover the same areas) are as follow:
|U.S. Decennial Census
The population density is 3,101.9 people per square mile (1,197.5/km2).
The proportion of the population under the age of 18 was 21.6%, age 18 to 24 was 7.8%, age 25 to 44 was 32.5%, age 45 to 64 was 25.0%, and 65 years of age or older was 13.1%. The median age of 37.1 is slightly lower than the US median age of 37.2. Composition of the population based on sex is 50.7 females to 49.3 males. (Source: 2000 U.S. Census)
Stamford has one of the most highly educated populations in the US. Nine out of ten are high school graduates. Those possessing a bachelor's degree or higher is estimated at 43.6% of the population. Stamford is tied with Iowa City, Iowa for the US metropolitan area with the highest percentage of the adult population holding a bachelor's degree or higher; 44 percent of adults hold a degree.
The 2010 Census Population for Stamford is 122,643. A 2009 Census survey estimated 48,676 housing units to be in existence. Stamford's population characteristics are as follows (Source:U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 US Census):
More than one out of three residents (35%) are foreign born. A language other than English is spoken at home by 45% of the population. The main ancestries of the population (Source: 2013 American Community Survey Estimate) are: Italian (12.4%), Irish (5.9%), Polish (4.5%), English (2.9%), German (2.9%), and Russian (2.3%). The top ten countries of origin for the foreign-born population (Source: 2010 US Census Bureau) are:
There are 47,317 housing units at an average density of 1,253.6 per square mile (484.0/km2). There are 45,399 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.5% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.2% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.13.
According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $72,315, and the median income for a family was $88,205. Males had a median income of $48,386 versus $36,958 for females. The per capita income for the city was $34,987. About 5.4% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over.
Stamford is predominantly Democratic, yet the least Democratic of Connecticut's urban cities. The current mayor is David Martin, a Democrat. Notable Republicans include former US representative Chris Shays, former Lieutenant Governor Michael Fedele, and former mayor Michael Pavia. Democrats include Governor Dannel Malloy, US Senator/former CT Attorney General Richard Blumenthal, CT Attorney General George Jepsen, former US Attorney General/mayor Homer Stille Cummings, and CT Supreme Court Justice Andrew J. McDonald. Other notable politicians with Stamford roots include Independent (former Democrat) US Senator/2000 Vice-Presidential nominee/CT Attorney General Joseph Lieberman, conservative commentator William F. Buckley, Jr., and French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau.
|Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 30, 2014|
|Party||Active voters||Inactive voters||Total voters||Percentage|
Stamford is located on the New Haven Line on the Metro-North Railroad, the commuter rail system for northern metropolitan New York City. Stamford is the third busiest station on the Metro-North system and serves as a major transfer point for local trains. Stamford Station is also the terminus of a Metro-North branch that ends in New Canaan, 8 mi (13 km) away, and a part-time terminal of Shore Line East trains. Two smaller train stations in Stamford are Glenbrook and Springdale, both a part of the New Canaan branch. With a recent spike in development in the East Side neighborhood, the city is considering putting in a proposal to construct a new stop to service the East Main Street area close to the New Canaan branch overpass.
Commuter trains come into Stamford from all points between New London to the east and New York (Grand Central Terminal) to the south. Many express (non-stop) trains leave Stamford each morning and evening for Grand Central. The average non-stop commute is forty-seven minutes. Stamford has seen a significant increase in ridership. Much of this increase is a result of reverse commuting, individuals commuting from New York City to Stamford for work. Trains operate from the Stamford station between 4:43 AM (first departure to Grand Central) until 12:55 AM (last departure to Grand Central). On the weekends the first departure for Grand Central occurs at 5:03 AM. Fares during rush hour (on peak) are higher than during non-rush hour (off peak). On peak fares are charged between 4:43 AM – 9:10 AM for trains originating to Grand Central. Trains in transit to Stamford are charged on peak fares from 5:35 AM – 8:37 AM and from 4:02 PM – 7:40 PM. On peak fares do not apply on weekends and/or holidays. Tickets can be bought on board, yet the surcharge can make the price steep.
Stamford also serves as a station along the Amtrak route. Acela, the high speed train service between Boston and Washington, makes several daily stops in Stamford. Amtrak's Northeast Regional (Springfield, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C.) and Vermonter (Saint Albans, Vermont to Washington, D.C.) also make daily stops in Stamford. Amtrak tickets can be purchased on the upper level of the Stamford station.
Late in 2007 the city contracted a private San Francisco company to conduct a 6-month feasibility study to look at the possibility of creating an inner-city light rail line. With the proposed Harbor Point development set to break ground in the South End neighborhood sometime in 2008, the idea is to create a line that would connect the new developments to points north, such as the transportation center, Landmark Square in downtown and other various points up to the Bulls Head area.
Stamford is within reasonable driving distance of six airports: two regional, four international. Regional: Westchester County Airport (often referred to as White Plains Airport) which borders the town of Greenwich, and Tweed New Haven Airport, in East Haven, CT. International: LaGuardia Airport and John F. Kennedy International Airport both in Queens, N.Y., Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark & Elizabeth, New Jersey and Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut.
City bus transportation is provided by CT Transit, which is run and financed by the Connecticut Department of Transportation. The main terminal is adjacent to the train station on State Street, under the I-95 highway. Bus service runs along major arterial roads through the towns of Darien, Norwalk, Greenwich and Port Chester, New York. A non-stop direct route is also offered to White Plains, New York. Commuters can connect in Norwalk to points as far east as Milford and as far north as Danbury. Additional connections can be made in Port Chester and White Plains to all points covered by the Bee-Line bus system in Westchester County.
Greyhound provides inter-city bus service from the lower level of the Stamford train station. Bus service is provided to New Haven (Union Station), Boston (South Station), and New York (Port Authority).
Two limited-access highways run through the city. Interstate 95 serves as the main route through downtown Stamford with four exits (6-9). The Merritt Parkway runs through the northern part of the city. This road is designated for passenger vehicles only. Any congestion on the Merritt Parkway is mostly likely to occur on the southbound lane in the morning and the northbound in the evening (route to and from New York). At night, due to the absence of lighting, visibility on the Merritt Parkway is relatively poor. Stamford exits on the Merritt Parkway are 33-35, and exit 36 is just over the border in New Canaan.
Stamford is also served by four other state highways. Route 1, also known as Main Street in Stamford, is also used as a major artery during the morning and evening commute. Most traffic via Route 1 is short distance or fairly local, yet vehicles have utilized Route 1 during times of heavy congestion on I-95 as a re-route. Route 137 (Washington Boulevard and High Ridge Road) is the main north-south road of the city and runs from the Stamford Transportation Center and serves the Turn of River, North Stamford, and High Ridge sections of the city. Route 104 (Long Ridge Road) branches off from Route 137 to serve the Long Ridge section. Route 106 (Courtland Avenue) serves the Glenbrook neighborhood and continues towards the town of Darien.
Stamford's cluster of corporate headquarters includes a number of Fortune 500, Fortune 1000, and Forbes Global 2000 companies. In 2017, Stamford had four Fortune 500, nine Fortune 1000, three Forbes Global 2000, and one Fortune Global 500 company.
Among the larger companies with headquarters in Stamford are Charter Communications, Synchrony Financial, United Rentals, Conair, Gartner, Henkel North American Consumer Goods, WWE, Pitney Bowes, Gen Re, NBC Sports Group, Nestle Waters North America, Crane Co. and Vineyard Vines.UBS's Stamford trading floor holds the Guinness World Record as the largest column-less trading floor in the world. The Royal Bank of Scotland moved its North American operations into Stamford in 2009, including its RBS Greenwich Capital subsidiary.
The Harbor Point development, located in the South End, is one of the largest private-sector development projects in the United States. Many large retail stores, such as Design within Reach (which is also headquartered in Stamford) and Fairway Market have moved in, along with multiple companies including McKinsey & Company, Bridgewater Associates, and the headquarters of Octagon Sports.
According to FBI statistics in 2014, Stamford is the 16th safest of the 269 cities in the nation and well ahead of any in Connecticut with a population greater than 100,000 that report crime statistics to the FBI. In 2015, Stamford had 3 murders, 19 rapes, and 92 robberies. Crime in Stamford is much more controlled in comparison to cities with similar population size in Connecticut and nationally. Lower crime rates in Stamford are attributed to the city's robust economic growth in recent decades.
Criminal cases are prosecuted by The State's Attorney's Office and Stamford is home to a State Superior Court which is located on Hoyt Street adjacent to the Stamford Police Department.
A not-for-profit agency, Stamford Emergency Medical Services (SEMS) provides pre-hospital emergency care in Stamford, Connecticut. SEMS also provides contracted paramedic intercept response to Darien Emergency Medical Services, located in Darien, Connecticut. SEMS is the only Connecticut EMS service accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation of Ambulance Services (CAAS). All SEMS units are staffed by at least one Connecticut-licensed paramedic. Stamford EMS responds to 14,000 calls annually.
In Stamford, medical facilities include;
Fire protection in the city of Stamford is provided by the paid The Stamford Fire Department(SFD) and 4 all-volunteer Fire Departments: Glenbrook-New Hope, Belltown, Springdale, Turn of River, and 1 Combination Company, Long Ridge. The Stamford Fire Department operates out of 7 Fire Stations(including 2 Substations) and share quarters with 2 volunteer fire departments(Glenbrook-New Hope and Springdale). The SFRD's primary response district includes the southern, more urban sections of the city, including Downtown, East Side, West Side, Woodside, and South End areas of the city. The 5 volunteer fire departments' primary response districts include the Northern, more residential sections of the city, from Downtown to the New York state border. The SFRD's 290 paid members staff a total of 9 Engines, 3 Trucks, 1 Rescue, and a Deputy Chief's Command Vehicle. The Stamford Fire Department responds to over 11,000 emergency calls annually. The five all-volunteer fire departments each operate 1 to 2 Fire Stations in their own tax districts. The volunteers man a combined apparatus fleet of 14 Engines, 3 Trucks, 5 Rescues, and their own Command Vehicles, as many other special units and respond to all calls in their respected districts in conjunction with the paid fire department.
Budgeting and districting of the various fire departments throughout the city has been unstable since 2007, due to an extended legal conflict between the volunteer departments and the Malloy administration. As of May 16, 2012, a decision was reached by the city's charter revision committee to combine the paid and volunteer fire departments into one combination fire department, known as the Stamford Fire Department. The new department would be headed by a paid Chief of Department, appointed by the mayor, and 2 paid Assistant Chiefs, 1 appointed by the mayor to oversee the operations of the paid wing of the new department, and 1 appointed by the volunteer fire companies to oversee the operations of the volunteer wing of the new department. The joining of the paid and 5-volunteer fire departments would promote better public safety for the city, a smoother incident command system, and a better incident response system.
The Stamford Police Department (SPD) is Stamford's only police force and has lost four officers in the line of service since 1938. The police force has about 280 sworn police officers making it the 5th largest police force in Connecticut after Hartford, New Haven, Bridgeport, and Waterbury. Most Stamford Officers were trained at the Connecticut Police Training Academy before patrolling in the city. Aside from Police Headquarters, located at 805 Bedford St. in Downtown Stamford, SPD also operates substations in Stamford's West Side at Wilson St. and W. Main St. and at 1137 High Ridge Rd and Hope Street. A new police headquarters is currently being constructed adjacent to the current one, and it is expected to open at the end of 2018. The current Chief of Police is Jonathan Fontneau who was appointed by former Mayor Michael Pavia in 2012.
Stamford has branches of the University of Connecticut, University of Bridgeport and Sacred Heart University. The University of Connecticut's campus is located in a large modern building in downtown that opened in 1998 after extensive renovations to an abandoned former Bloomingdale's store that closed in 1990. The University of Bridgeport is located in the River Bend Executive Center, Fairfield County's premier communication and information high tech park, While Sacred Heart University is located at Landmark Square. In 2017, UCONN Stamford opened a 300 student dormitory hall around the corner from the Stamford Campus on Washington Blvd.
As no study has been conducted to assess the cost of education in Stamford, it is difficult to tell whether or not Stamford has a well-funded public education system. Although providing a public education is a state responsibility, Connecticut ranks near the bottom in state share of public education expenditures. Thus, the majority of education funding must come from local governments like that of Stamford. According to the State Department of Education, in the 2004-05 academic year, 42.7% of Stamford's public school students were economically disadvantaged, 34.8% did not have English as a home language and 11.6% were students with disabilities. Research has shown that these populations need additional resources to meet state academic standards. Owing to the state school finance system, the burden of these extra necessary costs of education falls primarily on Stamford's local government. The public school system is an integrated district with racial balance requirements exceeding those of the state of Connecticut. State standards require that a school's racial makeup be within 25% of the community's racial makeup. Stamford's standard is a more strict 10%. Over the years, schools have become unbalanced.
Stamford has three public high schools: Westhill High School, Stamford High School, and the Academy of Information Technology and Engineering. The city also has several private schools, including King Low Heywood Thomas, The Long Ridge School, Trinity Catholic High School, Villa Maria School, and Bi-Cultural Jewish Day School as well as two state charter schools: Trailblazers Academy Charter Middle School and Stamford Academy Charter High School, both operated by human services nonprofit Domus.
The library has branches in South End, Springdale, and the Turn of River sections of the city, it also has a bookmobile that runs daily to different neighborhoods. The Turn of River branch, officially called the Harry Bennett Branch, is the largest library branch in the state. That branch also has a used book store run by Friends of Ferguson Library.
The first Marathon race to be held in the United States, on September 19, 1896, had its start line at Stamford Armory. The race, which finished in Williamsbridge, Bronx, was won by John J. McDermott of New York City in a time of 3:25:55.6.
The Stamford Waterside Design District is a creative neighborhood and shopping destination dedicated to Interior Design and Architecture.