The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), (translation: Supreme Akali Party) is a political party in India. There are a large number of parties with the name "Shiromani Akali Dal". The party recognised as "Shiromani Akali Dal" by the Election Commission of India is the one led by Sukhbir Singh Badal. It controls Sikh religious bodies Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee and is the largest and most influential Sikh political party worldwide. The basic philosophy of Akali Dal is to give political voice to Sikh issues and it believes that religion and politics go hand in hand.
Shiromani Akali Dal
|President||Sukhbir Singh Badal|
|Lok Sabha leader||Prem Singh Chandumajra|
|Rajya Sabha leader||Naresh Gujral|
|Founded||14 December 1920|
|Headquarters||Block #6, Madhya Marg
Sector 28, Chandigarh
|Student wing||Student Organisation of India  (SOI)|
|Youth wing||Youth Akali Dal|
|ECI Status||State Party|
|Alliance||National Democratic Alliance|
|Seats in Lok Sabha||
4 / 545(currently 536 members + 1 Speaker)
|Seats in Rajya Sabha||
3 / 245
Akali Dal was formed on 14 December 1920 as a task force of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, the Sikh religious body. The Akali Dal considers itself the principal representative of Sikhs. Sardar Sarmukh Singh Chubbal was the first president of a unified proper Akali Dal, but it became popular under Master Tara Singh.
In the provincial election of 1937, the Akali Dal won 10 seats. The Khalsa Nationalists won 11 seats and joined the coalition government headed by the Unionist leader Sikander Hyat Khan. The Akalis sat in opposition and made occasional forays into reaching an understanding with the Muslim League, which never reached fruition.
In the provincial election of 1946, the Akali Dal won 22 seats and joined the coalition government headed by the Unionist Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana, along with the Indian National Congress. The Muslim League was unable to capture power, despite having won the largest number of seats, which perhaps suited it fine as it strengthened its Pakistan demand. The Muslim League launched a civil disobedience campaign, bringing down the Tiwana government by March 1947. The rest of the period till Indian independence was filled by Governor's Rule.
In the 1950s, the party launched the Punjabi Suba movement, demanding a state with majority of Punjabi speaking people, out of undivided East Punjab under the leadership of Sant Fateh Singh. In 1966, the present Punjab was formed. Akali Dal came to power in the new Punjab, but early governments didn't live long due to internal conflicts and power struggles within the party. Later, party strengthened and party governments completed full term.
The previous Punjab government was formed by Akali Dal in partnership with its regional and national ally Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). It had 59 members in Punjab Legislative Assembly and combined with 12 of BJP, formed a majority government. Party patron and ex-president Parkash Singh Badal was the Chief Minister of Punjab and the party president Sukhbir Singh Badal was deputy-chief minister. The party lost the elections held on 04th February 2017. Currently the party has 15 MLAs in the 117 seat Punjab Assembly. The party has 4 members in the Lok Sabha. Party's main political opponent is Indian National Congress. In the recent Delhi Assembly elections it did not retain the one seat it held in 2013 elections.
Following is the list of presidents of the party as given on party website.
|Year||General election||Seats won||Change in # of seats||Percentage of vote||Vote swing|
|Indian general election, 1945||6th Central Legislative Assembly||2||2|
|Indian general election, 1951||1st Lok Sabha||4||0.99%|
|Indian general election, 1957||2nd Lok Sabha||0 ?||4|
|Indian general election, 1962||3rd Lok Sabha||3||3||0.72%|
|Indian general election, 1967||4th Lok Sabha||0||3|
|Indian general election, 1971||5th Lok Sabha||1||1||0.87%|
|Indian general election, 1977||6th Lok Sabha||9||8||1.26%|
|Indian general election, 1980||7th Lok Sabha||1||8||0.71%|
|Indian general election, 1984||8th Lok Sabha||7||7||17.9%|
|Indian general election, 1989||9th Lok Sabha||0||7|
|Indian general election, 1991||10th Lok Sabha||0|
|Indian general election, 1996||11th Lok Sabha||8||8||0.76%|
|Indian general election, 1998||12th Lok Sabha||8||0.81%|
|Indian general election, 1999||13th Lok Sabha||10||2||25.58%|
|Indian general election, 2004||14th Lok Sabha||8||2||34.28%|
|Indian general election, 2009||15th Lok Sabha||4||4||0.96%|
|Indian general election, 2014||16th Lok Sabha||4||20.30%||13.55%|