Presidency of John F. Kennedy

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The presidency of John F. Kennedy began on January 20, 1961, when Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States, and ended on November 22, 1963, upon his assassination and death, a span of 1,036 days. A Democrat, he took office following the 1960 presidential election, in which he narrowly defeated Richard Nixon. He was succeeded by Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Kennedy was the first person born in the 20th century to be elected president,[1][a] and, at age 43, the youngest person elected to the office.[3][b] He was also the first Roman Catholic elected to the presidency.[4] Kennedy played an important role in bringing American politics into the modern communications age, as his use of television provided a campaign model that spoke to voters directly, and his media presidency greatly weakened the power of political machines in party politics.[5][6]

Kennedy's time in office was marked by Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union and especially with Cuba. In Cuba, a failed attempt was made in April 1961 at the Bay of Pigs to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. Kennedy's administration subsequently rejected plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false-flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba. In October 1962, it was discovered that Soviet ballistic missiles had been deployed in Cuba; the resulting period of unease, termed the Cuban Missile Crisis, is seen by many historians as the closest the human race has ever come to nuclear war between nuclear-armed belligerents. To contain Communist expansion in Asia, Kennedy increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over his predecessor, Dwight D. Eisenhower; a further escalation of the American role in the Vietnam War would take place after Kennedy's death.

In domestic politics, Kennedy made bold proposals in his New Frontier agenda, but few were passed by Congress. He presided over a growing economy and took steps to support the Civil Rights Movement, helping to pass the Twenty-fourth Amendment, which abolished poll taxes. He also established the Peace Corps and intensified the Space Race. Two major pieces of Kennedy's domestic agenda, a civil rights bill and a tax cut, were enacted within a year of his death.

John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait
Kennedy, 1963

1960 election

1960 electoral vote results

With the retirement of Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower after two terms, Kennedy and several other Democrats sought the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination. Kennedy had served as a United States Senator from Massachusetts since 1953 and had finished second on the vice presidential ballot of the 1956 Democratic National Convention. His main challenger in the 1960 Democratic primaries was Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey. After Kennedy won a decisive victory over him in West Virginia, a heavily Protestant state, Humphrey withdrew from the race. Kennedy still faced a challenge from Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas, who did not participate in the primaries. Kennedy overcame this formal challenge, as well as informal ones from Adlai Stevenson and Stuart Symington, at the July Democratic National Convention, winning the presidential nomination on the first ballot. Kennedy chose Johnson to be his vice-presidential running mate, despite opposition from many liberal delegates and Kennedy's own staff, including his brother Robert Kennedy.[7]

Vice President Richard Nixon faced no formidable opposition for the Republican nomination. He easily won the party's primaries and received close to unanimous votes from delegates to the Republican National Convention. He chose Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., the chief U.S. delegate to the United Nations, as his running mate.[8]

Both presidential nominees traveled extensively during the course of the campaign. Not wanting to concede any state as "unwinnable," Nixon undertook a fifty-state strategy. Kennedy focused the states with the most Electoral College votes.[8] He relied heavily on Johnson's strength in the South to win what was considered likely to be the closest election since 1916. Major issues included the economy, Kennedy's Roman Catholicism, Cuba, and whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S. Kennedy questioned rhetorically whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Catholic, and once stated that: "No one asked me my religion [serving the Navy] in the South Pacific."[9]

On November 8, Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the 20th century.[10] Kennedy won the popular vote by a narrow margin of 120,000 votes out of a record 68.8 million ballots cast.[8] He won the electoral college vote by a wider margin, receiving 303 votes to Nixon's 219. In addition, 14 unpledged electors[c] from two states—Alabama (6) and Mississippi (8)—voted for Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia (who had not actively campaigned), as did one faithless elector[d] in Oklahoma.[10]


Jfk inauguration
Chief Justice Earl Warren administers the presidential oath of office to John F. Kennedy at the Capitol, January 20, 1961

Kennedy was inaugurated as president on January 20, 1961, on the East Portico of the United States Capitol. Chief Justice Earl Warren administered the oath of office.[13] In his inaugural address, Kennedy spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens, famously saying: "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." He also invited the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the "common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself."[14] To these admonitions he added:

All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin." In closing, he expanded on his desire for greater internationalism: "Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you.[14]

The address reflected Kennedy's confidence that his administration would chart an historically significant course in both domestic policy and foreign affairs. The contrast between this optimistic vision and the pressures of managing daily political realities at home and abroad would be one of the main tensions running through the early years of his administration.[15] Full text Wikisource has information on "John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address"



The Kennedy Cabinet
Office Name Term
President John F. Kennedy 1961–1963
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson 1961–1963
Secretary of State Dean Rusk 1961–1963
Secretary of Treasury C. Douglas Dillon 1961–1963
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara 1961–1963
Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy 1961–1963
Postmaster General J. Edward Day 1961–1963
John A. Gronouski 1963
Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall 1961–1963
Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman 1961–1963
Secretary of Commerce Luther H. Hodges 1961–1963
Secretary of Labor Arthur Goldberg 1961–1962
W. Willard Wirtz 1962–1963
Secretary of Health,
Education, and Welfare
Abraham A. Ribicoff 1961–1962
Anthony J. Celebrezze 1962–1963
Swearing-In Ceremony of President Kennedy%27s Cabinet - NARA - 194172
Swearing-in ceremony of President Kennedy's Cabinet

Kennedy brought to the White House a contrast in organization compared to the decision-making structure of former-General Eisenhower; and he wasted no time in scrapping Eisenhower's methods.[16] He preferred the organizational structure of a wheel with all the spokes leading to the president. He was ready and willing to make the increased number of quick decisions required in such an environment. He selected a mixture of experienced and inexperienced people to serve in his cabinet. "We can learn our jobs together", he stated.[17] Kennedy's brother, Robert F. Kennedy, served as Attorney General, and the younger Kennedy was often referred to as the "assistant president" in reference to his wide range of influence.[18] C. Douglas Dillon, a centrist Republican, was selected as Secretary of the Treasury, while Dean Rusk, a restrained former Truman State Department official, was appointed Secretary of State. Robert McNamara, who was well known as one of Ford Motor Company's "Whiz Kids", was appointed Secretary of Defense.[19] National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy emerged as one of the most important aides with regards to foreign policy, while Ted Sorensen was a key advisor on domestic issues and also wrote many of Kennedy's speeches.[20] Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was largely sidelined during the administration.[21]

Advisory staff

President John F. Kennedy with His White House Staff
President John F. Kennedy (seated) with members of his White House staff

The president's advisory staff included:[22]

Judicial appointments

Kennedy made two appointments to the United States Supreme Court. After the resignation of Charles Evans Whittaker in early 1962, President Kennedy assigned Attorney General Kennedy to conduct a search of potential successors, and the attorney general compiled a list consisting of Deputy Attorney General Byron White, Secretary of Labor Arthur Goldberg, federal appellate judge William H. Hastie, legal professor Paul A. Freund, and two state supreme court justices. Kennedy narrowed his choice down to Goldberg and White, and he ultimately chose the latter, who was quickly confirmed by the Senate. A second vacancy arose later in 1962 due to the retirement of Felix Frankfurter. Kennedy quickly appointed Goldberg, who easily won confirmation by the Senate. Goldberg resigned from the court in 1965 to accept appointment as ambassador to the United Nations, but White remained on the court until 1993, often serving as a key swing vote between liberal and conservative justices.[23]

Foreign affairs

The Cold War and flexible response

Kennedy's foreign policy was dominated by American confrontations with the Soviet Union, manifested by proxy contests in the global state of tension known as the Cold War. Like his predecessors, Kennedy adopted the policy of containment, which sought to stop the spread of Communism.[24] President Eisenhower's New Look policy had emphasized the use of nuclear weapons to deter the threat of Soviet aggression. Fearful of the possibility of a global nuclear war, Kennedy implemented a new strategy known as flexible response. This strategy relied on conventional arms to achieve limited goals. As part of this policy, Kennedy expanded the United States special operations forces, elite military units that could fight unconventionally in various conflicts. Kennedy hoped that the flexible response strategy would allow the U.S. to counter Soviet influence without resorting to war.[25] At the same time, he ordered a massive build-up of the nuclear arsenal to establish superiority over the Soviet Union.[24]

Bay of Pigs Invasion

President Kennedy and Vice President Johnson prior to ceremony
The President and Vice President take a leisurely stroll on the White House grounds

Fulgencio Batista, a Cuban dictator friendly towards the United States, had been forced out office in 1959 by the Cuban Revolution. Batista's successor, Fidel Castro, affiliated with Communism and the Soviet Union, giving the United States a potential adversary located less than one hundred miles from its shores. The Eisenhower administration had created a plan to overthrow Fidel Castro's regime. The plan, led by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), with help from the U.S. military, was for an invasion of Cuba by a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of U.S.-trained, anti-Castro Cuban exiles[26][27] led by CIA paramilitary officers. The intention was to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power.[28]

Kennedy had campaigned on a hard-line stance against Castro, and when presented with the plan that had been developed under the Eisenhower administration, he agreed to back it despite his reservations about stoking tensions with the Soviet Union.[29] On April 17, 1961, Kennedy ordered what became known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion: 1,500 U.S.-trained Cubans, called Brigade 2506, landed on the island. No U.S. air support was provided. Allen Dulles, director of the CIA, later stated that they thought the president would authorize any action required for success once the troops were on the ground.[30]

The Kennedy administration had hoped that the landing would spark an uprising against Castro, but no such uprising occurred, and the landing quickly proved to be a failure.[31] By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors. After twenty months, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine.[32]

According to biographer Richard Reeves, Kennedy focused primarily on the political repercussions of the plan rather than military considerations. When it failed, he was convinced that the plan was a setup to make him look bad.[33] He took responsibility for the failure, saying: "We got a big kick in the leg and we deserved it. But maybe we'll learn something from it."[34] Many in the U.S. appreciated Kennedy's willingness to take responsibility for the failure, and Kennedy's approval ratings climbed in the aftermath of the Bay of Pigs invasion. However, the operation damaged Kennedy's reputation outside of the United States and raised tensions with the Soviet Union.[35] After the failed invasion, the Kennedy administration banned all Cuban imports, convinced the Organization of American States to expel Cuba, and continued to seek the overthrow of Castro through the CIA's Cuban Project.[36]

Vienna Summit

U.S. Information Agency motion picture on the Vienna summmit.

In the aftermath of the Bay of Pigs invasion, Kennedy announced that he would meet with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev at the June 1961 Vienna summit. The summit would cover several topics, but both leaders knew that the most contentious issue would be that of Berlin, which had been divided into two cities with the start of the Cold War. The enclave of West Berlin lay within Soviet-allied East Germany, but was supported by the U.S. and other Western powers. The Soviets wanted to reunify Berlin under the control of East Germany, partly due to the large number of East Germans who had fled to West Berlin.[37] On June 4, 1961, the president met with Khrushchev in Vienna, where he made it clear that any such treaty between East Berlin and the Soviet Union that interfered with U.S. access rights in West Berlin would be regarded as an act of war. Shortly after the president returned home, the U.S.S.R. announced its intention to sign such a treaty with East Berlin. Kennedy, depressed and angry, assumed that his only option was to prepare the country for nuclear war, which he personally thought had a one-in-five chance of occurring.[38]

President John F. Kennedy Meets with the President of the Republic of Ghana, Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah (JFKWHP-AR6409-B)
Kennedy with Kwame Nkrumah, the first head of an independent Ghana, March 1961.

In the weeks immediately after the Vienna summit, more than 20,000 people fled from East Berlin to the western sector in reaction to statements from the USSR. Kennedy began intensive meetings on the Berlin issue, where Dean Acheson took the lead in recommending a military buildup alongside NATO allies.[39] In a July 1961 speech, Kennedy announced his decision to add $3.25 billion to the defense budget, along with over 200,000 additional troops, stating that an attack on West Berlin would be taken as an attack on the U.S. The speech received an 85% approval rating.[40]

The following month, the Soviet Union and East Berlin began blocking any further passage of East Berliners into West Berlin and erected barbed wire fences across the city, which were quickly upgraded to the Berlin Wall. Kennedy's initial reaction was to ignore this, as long as free access from West to East Berlin continued. This course was altered when it was learned that West Berliners had lost confidence in the defense of their position by the United States. Kennedy sent Vice President Johnson, along with a host of military personnel, in a convoy through West Germany, including Soviet-armed checkpoints, to demonstrate the continued commitment of the U.S. to West Berlin.[41]

Cuban Missile Crisis

John Kennedy, Nikita Khrushchev 1961
Meeting with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna in 1961

In the months following the Bay of Pigs invasion, the Soviet Union supplied Cuba with supplies and military equipment. The Kennedy administration viewed the growing Cuba-Soviet alliance with alarm, fearing that it could eventually pose a threat to the United States. Kennedy did not believe that the Soviet Union would risk placing nuclear weapons in Cuba, but he dispatched CIA U-2 spy planes to determine the extent of the Soviet military build-up.[42] On October 14, 1962, the spy planes took photographs of intermediate-range ballistic missile sites being built in Cuba by the Soviets. The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16; a consensus was reached that the missiles were offensive in nature and thus posed an immediate nuclear threat.[43]

Address on the Buildup of Arms in Cuba
Kennedy addressing the nation on October 22, 1962, about the buildup of arms on Cuba

Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the U.S. did nothing, it would be faced with the increased threat from close-range nuclear weapons. The U.S. would also appear to the world as less committed to the defense of the hemisphere. On a personal level, Kennedy needed to show resolve in reaction to Khrushchev, especially after the Vienna summit.[44] More than a third of the members of the National Security Council (NSC) favored an unannounced air assault on the missile sites, but for some of them this conjured up an image of "Pearl Harbor in reverse".[45] There was also some reaction from the international community (asked in confidence), that the assault plan was an overreaction in light of the fact that U.S. missiles that had been placed in Turkey by Eisenhower. There could also be no assurance that the assault would be 100% effective.[46]

In concurrence with a majority-vote of the NSC, Kennedy decided on a naval quarantine of Cuba. On October 22, he dispatched a message to Khrushchev and announced the decision on TV.[47] The U.S. Navy would stop and inspect all Soviet ships arriving off Cuba, beginning October 24. The Organization of American States gave unanimous support to the removal of the missiles. The president exchanged two sets of letters with Khrushchev, to no avail.[48] United Nations (UN) Secretary General U Thant requested that both parties reverse their decisions and enter a cooling-off period. Khrushchev agreed, but Kennedy did not.[49]

On October 24, Soviet vessels that were headed to Cuba reversed course to avoid the blockade. On October 25, Khruschev offered to remove the missiles if the U.S. promised not to invade Cuba. The next day, he sent a second message in which he also demanded the removal of U.S. missiles from Turkey. After deliberation, Kennedy agreed to the terms offered in the first message, while Robert Kennedy privately told the Soviet ambassador that they would also remove the missiles.[50] On October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missile sites, subject to UN inspections.[51] The U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba and privately agreed to remove its missiles in Italy and Turkey; the missiles were by then obsolete and had been supplanted by submarines equipped with UGM-27 Polaris missiles.[52] In the aftermath of the crisis, the United States and the Soviet Union established a hotline to ensure clear communications between the leaders of the two countries.[53]

This crisis brought the world closer to nuclear war than at any point before or since. In the end, "the humanity" of the two men prevailed.[54] The crisis improved the image of American willpower and the president's credibility. Kennedy's approval rating increased from 66% to 77% immediately thereafter.[55] Kennedy's handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis has received wide praise from many scholars, although some critics fault the Kennedy administration for precipitating the crisis with its efforts to remove Castro.[56][57]

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

President Kennedy American University Commencement Address June 10, 1963
Kennedy delivers the commencement speech at American University, June 10, 1963

Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation, Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed to negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty, originally conceived in Adlai Stevenson's 1956 presidential campaign.[58] In their Vienna summit meeting in June 1961, Khrushchev and Kennedy reached an informal understanding against nuclear testing, but the Soviet Union began testing nuclear weapons that September. The United States responded by conducting tests five days later.[59] Shortly thereafter, new U.S. satellites began delivering images which made it clear that the Soviets were substantially behind the U.S. in the arms race.[60] Nevertheless, the greater nuclear strength of the U.S. was of little value as long as the Soviet Union perceived itself to be at parity.[61]

World Peace Speech
Speech from American University by John F. Kennedy, June 10, 1963 (duration 26:47)

In a June 1963 speech titled "A Strategy of Peace", Kennedy outlined plans to curb nuclear arms. He also announced that the Soviet had agreed to resume nuclear test ban treaty talks. He then made it known that the U.S. had postponed planned atmospheric nuclear tests and pledged that there would be no further such tests so long as no other nation conducted any.[62][63]

The following month, Kennedy sent W. Averell Harriman to Moscow to negotiate a treaty with the Soviets.[64] The introductory sessions included Khrushchev, who later delegated Soviet representation to Andrei Gromyko. It quickly became clear that a comprehensive test ban would not be implemented, due largely to the reluctance of the Soviets to allow inspections that would verify compliance.[65] Ultimately, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were the initial signatories to a limited treaty, which prohibited atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but not underground. The U.S. Senate ratified this and Kennedy signed it into law in October 1963. France was quick to declare that it was free to continue developing and testing its nuclear defenses.[66]

West Berlin speech

Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) speech
Ich bin ein Berliner speech from the Rathaus Schöneberg by John F. Kennedy, June 26, 1963 (duration 9:01)

Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) speech (audio)
Audio-only version (duration 9:22)

In 1963, Germany was enduring a time of particular vulnerability due to Soviet aggression to the east, and the impending retirement of West German Chancellor Adenauer.[67] At the same time, French President Charles de Gaulle was trying to build a Franco-West German counterweight to the American and Soviet spheres of influence.[68][69][70] To Kennedy's eyes, this Franco-German cooperation seemed directed against NATO's influence in Europe.[71]

On June 26, the president gave a public speech in West Berlin reiterating the American commitment to Germany and criticizing communism. He was met with an ecstatic response from a massive audience; a million people were present.[72][72] In it he praised the citizens of West Berlin for their refusal to be intimidated by the wall dividing their city,[73] and used the construction of the wall as an example of the failures of communism: "Freedom has many difficulties, and democracy is not perfect. But we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us." The speech is remembered for its potent phrase "Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a citizen of Berlin").

Kennedy, overwhelmed by the reaction of the crowd, remarked to Ted Sorensen afterward: "We'll never have another day like this one, as long as we live.".[74] Later, his underlying message about captive peoples living under Communism and their right to self-determination would bear fruit in the 1968 Prague Spring, in the 1980s Solidarity movement, and in Ronald Reagan's 1987 Brandenburg Gate speech with its memorable line, "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"[73]

Southeast Asia

John F. Kennedy and Harold Holt
Kennedy with future Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt in the Oval Office in 1963.

When briefing Kennedy, Eisenhower emphasized that the communist threat in Southeast Asia required priority; Eisenhower considered Laos to be "the cork in the bottle" in regards to the regional threat.[75] The Joint Chiefs proposed sending 60,000 U.S. soldiers to uphold the U.S.-aligned government, but Kennedy rejected this advice in the aftermath of the failed Bay of Pigs invasion. He instead sought a negotiated solution between the government and the left-wing insurgents, who were backed by North Vietnam and the Soviet Union.[76] Ambassador W. Averell Harriman negotiated the International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos, but the Laotian Civil War continued and the Communist Pathet Lao would eventually take control of the country.[77]

During his administration, Kennedy continued policies that provided political, economic, and military support to the South Vietnamese government.[78] Vietnam had been divided into a communist North Vietnam and a non-Communist South Vietnam after the 1954 Geneva Conference, but North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh established the Viet Cong in 1960 to foment support for unification in South Vietnam. The president of South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, had alienated many of his constituents by avoiding land reforms, refusing to hold free elections, and staging an anti-Communist purge. Kennedy escalated American involvement in Vietnam in 1961 by financing the South Vietnam army, increasing the number of U.S. military advisers above the levels of the Eisenhower administration, and authorizing U.S. helicopter units to provide support to South Vietnamese forces.[79]

Kennedy provided support for South Vietnam throughout his tenure, but Vietnam remained a secondary issue for the Kennedy administration until 1963.[80] Kennedy increasingly soured on Diem, whose violent crackdown crackdown on Buddhist practices further galvanized opposition to his leadership. In August 1963, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. replaced Frederick Nolting as the U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam. Days after his arrival in South Vietnam, Lodge reported that several South Vietnamese generals sought the assent of the U.S. government to their plan of removing Diem from power. The Kennedy administration was split regarding not just the removal of Diem, but also their assessment of the military situation in South Vietnam and the proper U.S. role in the country. Without the full support of the U.S., General Dương Văn Minh (known as "Big Minh") called off the potential coup in South Vietnam. Big Minh again approached the U.S. about a coup, and administration official informed him that the U.S. would neither support or oppose the toppling of Diem. In November 1963, a junta of senior military officers executed Diem and his influential brother, Ngô Đình Nhu. [81]

By November 1963, there were 16,000 American military personnel in South Vietnam, up from Eisenhower's 900 advisors.[82] In the aftermath of the aborted coup in September 1963, the Kennedy administration reevaluated its policies in South Vietnam. Kennedy rejected both the full-scale deployment of ground soldiers, but also rejected the total withdrawal of U.S. forces from the country.[83] Historians disagree on whether the U.S. military presence in Vietnam would have escalated had Kennedy survived and been re-elected in 1964.[84] Fueling the debate are statements made by Secretary of Defense McNamara in the film "The Fog of War" that Kennedy was strongly considering pulling out of Vietnam after the 1964 election.[85] The film also contains a tape recording of Lyndon Johnson stating that Kennedy was planning to withdraw, a position that Johnson disagreed with.[86] Kennedy had signed National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 263, dated October 11, which ordered the withdrawal of 1,000 military personnel by the end of the year.[87][88] Such an action would have been a policy reversal, but Kennedy was moving in a less hawkish direction since his acclaimed speech about world peace at American University on June 10, 1963.[89]

Latin America

Kennedy with Chilean President Jorge Alessandri

Kennedy sought to contain the perceived threat of communism in Latin America by establishing the Alliance for Progress, which sent aid to some countries and sought greater human rights standards in the region.[90] The Alliance for Progress drew from the Good Neighbor Policy in its peaceful engagement with Latin America, and from the Marshall Plan in its expansion of aid and economic relationships. Kennedy also emphasized close personal relations with Latin American leaders, frequently hosting them in the White House.[91]

The U.S. also continued to use covert means in order to reduce Soviet influence. When Kennedy took office, the CIA had begun formulating plans for the assassination of Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. Kennedy privately instructed the CIA that any such planning must include plausible deniability by the U.S.[92] The administration had no role in Trujillo's assassination in 1961, but supported the government of Trujillo's successor, Juan Bosch. The United States launched a covert intervention in British Guiana to deny the left-wing leader Cheddi Jagan power in an independent Guyana, and forced a reluctant Britain to participate.[93] The CIA also engaged in operations in Brazil and Chile against left-wing leaders.[94]

Middle East


Relations between the United States and Iraq became strained following the overthrow of the Iraqi monarchy on July 14, 1958, which resulted in the declaration of a republican government led by Brigadier Abd al-Karim Qasim.[95] On June 25, 1961, Qasim mobilized troops along the border between Iraq and Kuwait, declaring the latter nation "an indivisible part of Iraq" and causing a short-lived "Kuwait Crisis". The United Kingdom—which had just granted Kuwait independence on June 19, and whose economy was heavily dependent on Kuwaiti oil—responded on July 1 by dispatching 5,000 troops to the country to deter an Iraqi invasion. At the same time, Kennedy dispatched a U.S. Navy task force to Bahrain, and the U.K. (at the urging of the Kennedy administration) brought the dispute to United Nations Security Council, where the proposed resolution was vetoed by the Soviet Union. The situation was resolved in October, when the British troops were withdrawn and replaced by a 4,000-strong Arab League force.[96]

In December 1961, Qasim's government passed Public Law 80, which restricted the British- and American-owned Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC)'s concessionary holding to those areas in which oil was actually being produced, effectively expropriating 99.5% of the IPC concession. U.S. officials were alarmed by the expropriation as well as the recent Soviet veto of an Egyptian-sponsored UN resolution requesting the admittance of Kuwait as UN member state, which they believed to be connected. Senior National Security Council adviser Robert Komer worried that if the IPC ceased production in response, Qasim might "grab Kuwait" (thus achieving a "stranglehold" on Middle Eastern oil production), or "throw himself into Russian arms." Komer also made note of widespread rumors that a nationalist coup against Qasim could be imminent, and had the potential to "get Iraq back on [a] more neutral keel."[97]

The anti-imperialist and anti-communist Iraqi Ba'ath Party overthrew and executed Qasim in a violent coup on February 8, 1963. While there have been persistent rumors that the CIA orchestrated the coup, declassified documents and the testimony of former CIA officers indicate that there was no direct American involvement, although the CIA was actively seeking a suitable replacement for Qasim within the Iraqi military and had been informed of an earlier Ba'athist coup plot.[98] The Kennedy administration was pleased with the outcome and ultimately approved a $55 million arms deal for Iraq.[99]


Kennedy-Golda Meir
Kennedy with Israeli Foreign Minister Golda Meir, December 27, 1962.

As president, Kennedy initiated the creation of security ties with Israel, and he is credited as the founder of the US-Israeli military alliance. Kennedy ended the arms embargo that the Eisenhower and Truman administrations had enforced on Israel. Describing the protection of Israel as a moral and national commitment, he was the first to introduce the concept of a 'special relationship' (as he described it to Golda Meir) between the U.S. and Israel.[100]

As result of this newly created security alliance, Kennedy also encountered tensions with the Israeli government over the production of nuclear materials in Dimona which he believed could instigate a nuclear arms-race in the Middle East. After the existence of a nuclear plant was initially denied by the Israeli government, David Ben-Gurion stated in a speech to the Israeli Knesset on December 21, 1960, that the purpose of the nuclear plant at Beersheba was for "research in problems of arid zones and desert flora and fauna."[101] When Ben-Gurion met with Kennedy in New York, he claimed that Dimona was being developed to provide nuclear power for desalinization and other peaceful purposes "for the time being."[101] In 1962, the US and Israeli governments agreed to an annual inspection regime.[102] Despite these inspection, Rodger Davies, the director of the State Department's Office of Near Eastern Affairs, concluded in March 1965 that Israel was developing nuclear weapons. He reported that Israel's target date for achieving nuclear capability was 1968–1969.[103]

Third World countries

Establishment of the Peace Corps
John F. Kennedy's announcement of the establishment of the Peace Corps

Between 1960 and 1963, twenty-four countries gained independence as the process of decolonization continued. Many of these nations became part of the so-called "Third World," and sought to avoid close alignment with either the United States or the Soviet Union. In 1961, the leaders of India, Yugoslavia, Indonesia, Egypt, and Ghana created the Non-Aligned Movement. Kennedy set out to woo the leaders and people of the Third World, expanding economic aid and appointing knowledgeable ambassadors. He also established the Food for Peace program and the Peace Corps to provide aid to developing countries in various ways.[104] The Peace Corps grew to 5,000 members by March 1963 and 10,000 the following year.[105] Kennedy sought closer relations with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru through increased economic and a tilt away from Pakistan, but made little progress in bringing India closer to the United States.[106] Kennedy also hoped to minimize Soviet influence in Egypt through good relations with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, but Nasser's hostility towards Saudi Arabia and Jordan closed off the possibility of closer relations.[107]


The United States and the Soviet Union had retained firm leadership of their respective allies throughout the 1950s, but both blocs began to fracture during Kennedy's term. Concerned by the Cuban Missile Crisis and the possibility that the United States would not defend Western Europe against a Soviet attack, French leader Charles de Gaulle pursued an increasingly independent course. In 1963, France and West Germany signed the Élysée Treaty, marking the beginning of close relations between the two countries. De Gaulle also rejected Kennedy's proposed Multilateral Force in favor of an independent nuclear weapons program. The aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis also exposed divisions between the Soviet Union and China, as Chinese leader Mao Zedong castigated Kruschev's "capitulation" in the crisis. With a partial thaw in relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, China emerged as the biggest Cold War enemy in Kennedy's rhetoric.[108]

List of international trips

Kennedy made eight international trips during his presidency.[109]

US President John Kennedy Presidential Trips
Countries visited by Kennedy during his presidency.
Dates Country Locations Details
1 May 16–18, 1961  Canada Ottawa State visit. Met with Governor General Georges Vanier and Prime Minister John Diefenbaker. Addressed parliament.
2 May 31 – June 3, 1961  France Paris State visit. Addressed North Atlantic Council. Met with President Charles de Gaulle.
June 3–4, 1961  Austria Vienna Met with President Adolf Schärf. held talks with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev.
June 4–5, 1961  United Kingdom London Private visit. Met with Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.
3 December 16–17, 1961  Venezuela Caracas Met with President Rómulo Betancourt.
December 17, 1961  Colombia Bogotá Met with President Alberto Lleras Camargo.
4 December 21–22, 1961  Bermuda Hamilton Met with Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.
5 June 29 – July 1, 1962  Mexico Mexico, D.F. State visit. Met with President Adolfo López Mateos.
6 December 18–21, 1962 The Bahamas The Bahamas Nassau Conferred with Prime Minister Harold Macmillan. Concluded Nassau Agreement on nuclear defense systems.
7 March 18–20, 1963  Costa Rica San José Attended Conference of Presidents of the Central American Republics.
8 June 23–25, 1963  West Germany Bonn,
Met with Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and other officials.
June 26, 1963  West Germany West Berlin Delivered several public addresses.
June 26–29, 1963  Ireland Dublin,
Addressed Irish Parliament. Visited ancestral home.[110]
June 29–30, 1963  United Kingdom Birch Grove Informal visit with Prime Minister Harold Macmillan at his home.
July 1–2, 1963  Italy Rome,
Met with President Antonio Segni, Italian and NATO officials.
July 2, 1963   Vatican City Apostolic Palace Audience with the newly elected Pope Paul VI.

Domestic affairs

New Frontier

John F. Kennedy shaking hands in Miami, Florida (10998767613)
Kennedy in Miami, Florida, November 18, 1963

Kennedy called his domestic program the "New Frontier," which included initiatives such as medical care for the elderly, federal aid to education, and the creation of a department of housing and urban development. Kennedy also called for a large tax cut as an economic stimulus measure. However, many of his programs were blocked by the conservative coalition of Republicans and southern Democrats in the 87th Congress and the 88th Congress.[111] Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn and Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield both sought to implement Kennedy's agenda, but the aging Rayburn was often outmatched by powerful committee chairs, and Mansfield lacked the stature of his predecessor, Lyndon Johnson.[112]

Kennedy's proposals for $2.3 billion in federal aid to schools and government-sponsored health insurance for the elderly were defeated in 1961, but he did win passage of the Area Redevelopment Act and the Housing Act of 1961. The Area Redevelopment Act provided federal funding to economically struggling regions of the country, while the Housing Act provided funds for urban renewal and public housing while also authorizing federal mortgage loans to middle income individuals who did not qualify for public housing.[113] In 1962, Kennedy won approval of the Manpower Development and Training, designed to provide job retraining, as well as bills that increased the regulation of drug manufacturers, provided aid for mental health programs, and authorized grants and loans for the construction of higher education facilities.[114] Despite these successes, opposition to Kennedy's programs remained strong in Congress; Kennedy often focused more on international affairs, where Congress had less power.[111]


Kennedy ended a period of tight fiscal policies, loosening monetary policy to keep interest rates down and to encourage growth of the economy.[115] He presided over the first government budget to top the $100 billion mark, in 1962, and his first budget in 1961 led to the country's first non-war, non-recession deficit.[116] One of the first economic policies implemented by Kennedy was an increase of the federal minimum wage to $1.25 an hour. The minimum wage bill also expanded coverage to three million additional workers, although Congressman Carl Vinson inserted an amendment that exempted hundreds of thousands of laundry workers.[117] Another Kennedy policy, the 1962 Trade Expansion Act, gave the president the power to cut tariffs and take action against countries employing discriminatory tariffs.[118]

The economy, which had been through two recessions in three years, and was in one when Kennedy took office, accelerated notably during his presidency. Despite low inflation and interest rates, GDP had grown by an average of only 2.2% per annum during the Eisenhower presidency (scarcely more than population growth at the time), and had declined by 1% during Eisenhower's last twelve months in office.[119] GDP expanded by an average of 5.5% from early 1961 to late 1963,[119] while inflation remained steady at around 1% and unemployment eased.[120] Industrial production rose by 15% and motor vehicle sales rose by 40%.[121] This sustained rate of growth in GDP and industry continued until around 1969.[119]

In 1962, as the economy continued to grow, Kennedy became concerned with the issue of inflation. He asked companies and unions to work together to keep prices low, and met initial success.[122] He implemented guideposts developed by the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) that were designed to avoid wage-price spirals in key industries such as steel and automobile manufacturing. In April 1962, Roger Blough, the president of U.S. Steel, informed Kennedy that his company would raise prices above the level recommended by the CEA guideposts. The Kennedy administration publicly excoriated Blough for the price increase, and Attorney General Robert Kennedy began a price-fixing investigation against U.S. Steel. Kennedy convinced other steel companies to rescind their price increases until finally even U.S. Steel, isolated and in danger of being undersold, agreed to rescind its own price increase.[123]


Much to the chagrin of his economic advisors, who wanted him to reduce taxes, Kennedy agreed to a balanced budget pledge soon after taking office. Kennedy agreed to this in exchange for votes to expand the membership of the House Rules Committee, which in turn in order gave Democrats an increased power in setting the legislative agenda.[124]

In his 1963 State of the Union address, he proposed substantial tax reform. Kennedy called for a reduction in the federal income tax brackets from the range of 20–90% to a range of 14–65% and a reduction in the corporate tax rates from 52 to 47%. Kennedy added that the top rate should be set at 70% if certain deductions were not eliminated for high income earners.[125] That same year, in a speech to the Economic Club of New York, he spoke of "... the paradoxical truth that tax rates are too high and revenues too low; and the soundest way to raise revenue in the long term is to lower rates now."[126] In February 1964, two months after Kennedy's death, Congress would approve the Revenue Act of 1964, which lowered the top individual rate to 70%, and the top corporate rate to 48%.[127]

Federal and military death penalty

As president, Kennedy oversaw the last federal execution prior to Furman v. Georgia, a 1972 case that led to a moratorium on federal executions.[128] Victor Feguer was sentenced to death by a federal court in Iowa and was executed on March 15, 1963.[129] Kennedy commuted a death sentence imposed by a military court on seaman Jimmie Henderson on February 12, 1962, changing the penalty to life in prison.[130] On March 22, 1962, Kennedy signed into law HR5143 (PL87-423), abolishing the mandatory death penalty for first degree murder in the District of Columbia, the only remaining jurisdiction in the United States with such a penalty.[131]

Status of women

In December 1961, Kennedy signed an executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women to advise him on issues concerning the status of women.[132] Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt led the commission until her death in 1962. The commission's final report, entitled "American Women", was issued in October 1963. The report documented the legal and cultural discrimination women in America faced and made several policy recommendations to bring about change.[133] Creation of this commission along with its public profile prompted Congress to began considering various bills related to women's status. Among them was the Equal Pay Act of 1963, an amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex; Kennedy signed it into law on June 10, 1963.[134]

Civil rights

Early presidency

The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 1960s. Jim Crow segregation had been established law in the Deep South,[135] but the Supreme Court of the United States had ruled in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Many schools, especially in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court's decision. The Supreme Court also prohibited segregation at other public facilities (such as buses, restaurants, theaters, courtrooms, bathrooms, and beaches) but it continued nonetheless.[136] In his first State of the Union Address, Kennedy said: "The denial of constitutional rights to some of our fellow Americans on account of race – at the ballot box and elsewhere – disturbs the national conscience, and subjects us to the charge of world opinion that our democracy is not equal to the high promise of our heritage."[137]

Thurgood Marshall 1957-09-17
In May 1961 Kennedy appointed Thurgood Marshall to the U.S. Court of Appeals

Recognizing that conservative Southern Democrats could block legislation, Kennedy did not introduce civil rights legislation upon taking office.[138] Kennedy did appoint many blacks to office, including civil rights attorney Thurgood Marshall as a federal judge; Marshall would later be appointed to the Supreme Court in 1967.[139] He also signed Executive Order 10925, which established the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity and required government contractors to "ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin."

Kennedy believed the grassroots movement for civil rights would anger many Southern whites and make it more difficult to pass civil rights laws in Congress, including anti-poverty legislation, and he distanced himself from it.[140] As articulated by brother Robert, the administration's early priority was to "keep the president out of this civil rights mess."[139] Civil rights movement participants, mainly those on the front line in the South, viewed Kennedy as lukewarm,[139] especially concerning the Freedom Riders, who organized an integrated public transportation effort in the south, and who were repeatedly met with white mob violence, including by law enforcement officers, both federal and state. Kennedy assigned federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders rather than using federal troops or uncooperative FBI agents.[139] Robert Kennedy, speaking for the president, urged the Freedom Riders to "get off the buses and leave the matter to peaceful settlement in the courts."[141] Kennedy feared sending federal troops would stir up "hated memories of Reconstruction" among conservative Southern whites.[139] Displeased with Kennedy's pace addressing the issue of segregation, Martin Luther King, Jr. and his associates produced a document in 1962 calling on the president to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln and use an executive order to deliver a blow for Civil Rights as a kind of "Second Emancipation Proclamation."[142]

In September 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi but was prevented from entering. Attorney General Robert Kennedy responded by sending 400 federal marshals, while President Kennedy reluctantly sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned violent.[143] The Ole Miss riot of 1962 left two dead and dozens injured, but Meredith did finally enroll in his first class. Kennedy regretted not sending in troops earlier and he began to doubt whether the "evils of Reconstruction" he had been taught or believed in were true.[139] The instigating subculture at the Old Miss riot, and at many other racially ignited events, was the Ku Klux Klan.[144] On November 20, 1962, Kennedy signed Executive Order 11063, prohibiting racial discrimination in federally supported housing or "related facilities".[145]

Abolishing the poll tax

Poll tax history
  Poll tax
  Cumulative poll tax (missed poll taxes from prior years must also be paid to vote)
  No poll tax
History of the poll tax by state from 1868 to 1966.

Sensitive to criticisms of the administration's commitment to protecting the constitutional rights of minorities at the ballot box, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, early in 1962, urged the president to press Congress to take action. Rather than proposing comprehensive legislation, President Kenndy put his support behind a proposed constitutional amendment that would prohibit states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. He considered the constitutional amendment the best way to avoid a filibuster, as the claim that federal abolition of the poll tax was unconstitutional would be moot. Still, some liberals opposed Kennedy's action, feeling that an amendment would be too slow compared to legislation.[146] The poll tax was one of several laws that had been enacted by states across the South to disenfranchise and marginalize black citizens from politics so far as practicable without violating the Fifteenth Amendment.[147] Several civil rights groups[e] also opposed the proposed amendment, saying in a March 21 statement that the amendment "would provide an immutable precedent for shunting all further civil rights legislation to the amendment procedure."[148]

A constitutional amendment barring imposition of a poll tax in federal elections, initially introduced by Senator Spessard Holland of Florida,[149] was passed by both Houses of Congress in August 1962, and sent to the states for ratification. It was ratified on January 23, 1964, by the requisite number of states (38), becoming the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution.[150]


In the spring of 1963, with civil rights clashes on the rise, the Robert Kennedy and Ted Sorenson pressed the president to initiative on the legislative front.[151] On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending. Wallace moved aside only after being confronted by Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard, which had just been federalized by order of the president. That evening Kennedy delivered a major address on civil rights on national television and radio. In it he launched his initiative for civil rights legislation that would guarantee equal access to public schools and other facilities, the equal administration of justice, and also provide greater protection of voting rights.[152][153] The day ended with the murder of a NAACP leader, Medgar Evers, in front of his home in Mississippi.[154] As the president had predicted, the day after his TV speech, and in reaction to it, House Majority leader Carl Albert called to advise him that his two-year signature effort in Congress to combat poverty in Appalachia (Area Redevelopment Administration) had been defeated, primarily by the votes of Southern Democrats and Republicans.[155]

Photograph of Meeting with Leaders of the March on Washington August 28, 1963 - NARA - 194276
Kennedy meets with leaders of the March on Washington in the Oval Office, August 28, 1963

A crowd of over one hundred thousand, predominantly African Americans, gathered in Washington for the civil rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. Kennedy opposed the march, fearing it would have a negative effect on the prospects for the civil rights bills pending in Congress. These fears were heightened just prior to the march when FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover presented the administration with allegations that some of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.'s close advisers, specifically Jack O'Dell and Stanley Levison, were communists.[156] When King ignored the administration's warning, Robert Kennedy issued a directive authorizing the FBI to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.[157] Although Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so",[158] Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy.[159] The wiretapping continued through June 1966 and was revealed in 1968.[160]

The task of coordinating the federal government's involvement in the August 28 March on Washington was given to the Department of Justice, which channeled several hundreds thousand dollars to the six sponsors of the March, including the NAACP and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.[161] To ensure a peaceful demonstration, the organizers and the president personally edited speeches which were inflammatory and collaborated on all aspects related to times and venues. Thousands of troops were placed on standby. Kennedy watched King's speech on TV and was very impressed. The March was considered a "triumph of managed protest", and not one arrest relating to the demonstration occurred. Afterwards, the March leaders accepted an invitation to the White House to meet with Kennedy and photos were taken. Kennedy felt that the March was a victory for him as well and bolstered the chances for his civil rights bill.[161]

Notwithstanding the success of the March, the larger struggle was far from over. Three weeks later, a bomb exploded on Sunday, September 15 at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham; by the end of the day, four African American children had died in the explosion, and two other children shot to death in the aftermath.[162] Due to this resurgent violence, the civil rights legislation underwent some drastic amendments that critically endangered any prospects for its passage. An outraged president called congressional leaders to the White House and by the following day the original bill, without the additions, had enough votes to get it out of the House committee.[163] Gaining Republican support, Senator Everett Dirksen promised the legislation would be brought to a vote, preventing a Senate filibuster.[164] The following summer, on July 2, the guarantees Kennedy proposed in his June 1963 speech became federal law, when President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[164]

Native American relations

Construction of the Kinzua Dam flooded 10,000 acres (4,047 ha) of Seneca nation land that they had occupied under the Treaty of 1794, and forced 600 Seneca to relocate to Salamanca, New York. Kennedy was asked by the American Civil Liberties Union to intervene and to halt the project, but he declined, citing a critical need for flood control. He expressed concern about the plight of the Seneca, and directed government agencies to assist in obtaining more land, damages, and assistance to help mitigate their displacement.[165][166]

Space policy

In constructing his administration, Kennedy elected to retain Eisenhower's last science advisor Jerome Wiesner as head of the President's Science Advisory Committee. Wiesner was strongly opposed to manned space exploration,[167] having issued a report highly critical of Project Mercury.[168][169] Kennedy was turned down by seventeen candidates for NASA administrator before the post was accepted by James E. Webb, an experienced Washington insider who served President Harry S. Truman as budget director and undersecretary of state. Webb proved to be adept at obtaining the support of Congress, the President, and the American people.[170] Kennedy also persuaded Congress to amend the National Aeronautics and Space Act to allow him to delegate his chairmanship of the National Aeronautics and Space Council to the Vice President, [170][171] both because of the knowledge of the space program Johnson gained in the Senate working for the creation of NASA, and to help keep the politically savvy Johnson occupied.[170]

Kennedy Giving Historic Speech to Congress - GPN-2000-001658
Kennedy proposing a program to land men on the Moon to Congress in May 1961. Johnson and Sam Rayburn are seated behind him

The Apollo program had been conceived early in 1960, during the Eisenhower administration, as a follow-up to Project Mercury that would potentially land astronauts on the Moon. While NASA went ahead with planning for Apollo, funding for the program was far from certain, as Eisenhower's ambivalent attitude on manned spaceflight resulted in funding for the program being placed low on the list of priorities for spending.[172] Early in his presidency, Kennedy was poised to dismantle the manned space program, but postponed any decision out of deference to Johnson, who had been a strong supporter of the space program in the Senate.[173] Kennedy's advisors speculated that a Moon flight would be prohibitively expensive,[174] and he was considering plans to dismantle the Apollo program due to its cost.[175]

However, this quickly changed on April 12, 1961, when Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to fly in space, reinforcing American fears about being left behind in a technological competition with the Soviet Union.[176] Kennedy now became eager for the U.S. to take the lead in the Space Race, for reasons of strategy and prestige. On April 20, he sent a memo to Johnson, asking him to look into the status of America's space program, and into programs that could offer NASA the opportunity to catch up.[177][178] In memo to Kennedy, Johnson concluded that a manned Moon landing was far enough in the future that it was likely the United States would achieve it first.[179] On May 25, Kennedy announced the goal in a special message to Congress, saying:

... I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish.[180] Full text Wikisource has information on "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs"

Kennedy speaks at Rice University, September 12, 1962 (duration 17:47)

After Congress authorized the funding, Webb began reorganizing NASA, increasing its staffing level, and building two new centers: a Launch Operations Center for the large Moon rocket northwest of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, and a Manned Spacecraft Center on land in Houston, Texas. On July 20, 1969, almost six years after Kennedy's death, Apollo 11 landed the first manned spacecraft on the Moon.


President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 pm Central Standard Time on Friday November 22, 1963, while on a political trip to Texas to smooth over frictions in the Democratic Party between liberals Ralph Yarborough and Don Yarborough (no relation) and conservative John Connally.[181] Traveling in a presidential motorcade through downtown Dallas, he was shot once in the back, the bullet exiting via his throat,[182] and once in the head.[182]

John F. Kennedy motorcade, Dallas crop
The Kennedys and the Connallys in the presidential limousine moments before the assassination in Dallas.

Kennedy was taken to Parkland Hospital for emergency medical treatment, but pronounced dead at 1:00 pm. Only 46, President Kennedy died younger than any other U.S. president to date. Lee Harvey Oswald, an order filler at the Texas School Book Depository from which the shots were suspected to have been fired, was arrested for the murder of police officer J. D. Tippit, and was charged subsequently with Kennedy's assassination. He denied shooting anyone, claiming he was a patsy,[183][184] and was killed by Jack Ruby on November 24, before he could be prosecuted. Ruby was arrested and convicted for the murder of Oswald. Ruby successfully appealed his conviction and death sentence but became ill and died of cancer on January 3, 1967, while the date for his new trial was being set.

President Johnson created the Warren Commission—chaired by Chief Justice Earl Warren—to investigate the assassination, which concluded that Oswald acted alone in killing Kennedy, and that Oswald was not part of any conspiracy.[185] The results of this investigation are disputed by many.[186] The assassination proved to be an important moment in U.S. history because of its impact on the nation, and the ensuing political repercussions. A 2004 Fox News poll found that 66% of Americans thought there had been a conspiracy to kill President Kennedy, while 74% thought that there had been a cover-up.[187] A Gallup Poll in mid-November 2013, showed 61% believed in a conspiracy, and only 30% thought that Oswald did it alone.[188] In 1979, the U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that it believed "that Kennedy was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy. The committee was unable to identify the other gunmen or the extent of the conspiracy."[189] In 2002, historian Carl M. Brauer concluded that the public's "fascination with the assassination may indicate a psychological denial of Kennedy's death, a mass undo it."[185]

The assassination had an effect on many people, not only in the U.S. but around the world. Many vividly remember where they were when first learning of the news that Kennedy was assassinated, as with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, before it and the September 11 attacks after it. UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson said of the assassination: "all of us..... will bear the grief of his death until the day of ours." Many people have also spoken of the shocking news, compounded by the pall of uncertainty about the identity of the assassin(s), the possible instigators, and the causes of the killing, as an end to innocence, and in retrospect it has been coalesced with other changes of the tumultuous decade of the 1960s, especially the Vietnam War.

Historical reputation

John F Kennedy eternal flame after 2013 upgrade - 2013-05-30
Eternal Flame at the Kennedy grave site, Arlington National Cemetery

Historians and political scientists tend to rank Kennedy as a good president. Assessments of his policies are mixed. The early part of his administration carried missteps highlighted by the failed Bay of Pigs invasion, and the 1961 Vienna summit.[5][190] The last year of his presidency was filled with several notable successes, for which he receives acclaim. He skillfully handled the Cuban Missile Crisis, as he avoided nuclear war and set the stage for less tense U.S.–Soviet relations. He also advanced the principle of equality before the law by supporting efforts to end institutional segregation and discrimination in the South.[5][190]

Many of Kennedy's proposals were passed after his death, during the Johnson administration, and Kennedy's death gave those proposals a powerful moral component.[191] Assassinated in the prime of life, Kennedy remains a powerful and popular symbol of both inspiration and tragedy.[191] The term "Camelot" is often used to describe his presidency, reflecting both the mythic grandeur accorded Kennedy in death, and the powerful nostalgia that many feel for that era of American history.[190] He is idolized, like Abraham Lincoln and Franklin D. Roosevelt; Gallup Poll surveys consistently show his public approval rating to be around 83 percent.[191]

A 2014 Washington Post survey of 162 members of the American Political Science Association's Presidents and Executive Politics section ranked Kennedy 14th highest overall among the 43 persons who have been president, including then-president Barack Obama. Then among the "modern presidents", the thirteen from Franklin Roosevelt through Obama, he places in the middle of the pack. The survey also found Kennedy to be the most overrated U.S. president.[192]

A 2017 C-SPAN survey has Kennedy ranked among the top ten presidents of all-time. The survey asked 91 presidential historians to rank the 43 former presidents (including then-president Barack Obama) in various categories to come up with a composite score, resulting in an overall ranking. Kennedy was ranked 8th among all former presidents (down from 6th in 2009). His rankings in the various categories of this most recent poll were as follows: public persuasion (6), crisis leadership (7), economic management (7), moral authority (15), international relations (14), administrative skills (15), relations with congress (12), vision/setting an agenda (9), pursued equal justice for all (7), performance with context of times (9).[193]


  1. ^ Four subsequent presidents were born earlier in the century then Kennedy: Lyndon Johnson, on August 27, 1908; Ronald Reagan, on February 6, 1911; Richard Nixon, on January 9, 1913; and Gerald Ford, on July 14, 1913.[2]
  2. ^ Theodore Roosevelt was nine months younger when he first assumed the presidency on September 14, 1901, but he was not elected to the office until 1904, when he was 46.[2]
  3. ^ Southern Democrats in several states who were opposed to the national Democratic Party's support for civil rights and voting rights for African Americans living in the South, attempted to block Kennedy's election by denying him the necessary number of Electoral College votes (269 of 537) for victory.[11][10]
  4. ^ Henry D. Irwin, who had been pledged to vote for Nixon.[12]
  5. ^ The groups were: American Jewish Congress, American Veterans Committee, Americans for Democratic Action, Anti-Defamation League of B'Nai B'rith, International Union of Electrical Workers (AFL-CIO), National Assn. for the Advancement of Colored People, and United Automobile Workers (AFL-CIO).


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Further reading

  • Barnes, John (2007). John F. Kennedy on Leadership.
  • Kazin, Michael. "An Idol and Once a President: John F. Kennedy at 100." Journal of American History 104.3 (Dec 2017): 707-726. Comprehensive coverage of political scholarship,
  • Selverstone, Marc J. "Eternal Flaming: The Historiography of Kennedy Foreign Policy," Passport: The Newsletter of the SHAFR (April 2015), Vol. 46 Issue 1, pp 22–29.
  • Selverstone, Marc J. ed. A Companion to John F. Kennedy (2014) chapters 11-25 pp 207–496

Primary sources

  • Documentary History of the John F. Kennedy Presidency (18 vol. University Publications of America, 1996) online table of contents
U.S. Presidential Administrations
Preceded by
Kennedy Presidency
Succeeded by
L. B. Johnson

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