Outer core

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The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about 2,300 km (1,400 mi)[1] thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle. Its outer boundary lies 2,890 km (1,800 mi) beneath Earth's surface. The transition between the inner core and outer core is located approximately 5,150 km (3,200 mi) beneath the Earth's surface. Unlike the inner core, the outer core is liquid. The inner core is also referred to as the solid core.[2]

Earth poster
The internal structure of Earth


Seismic inversions of body waves and normal modes constrain the radius of the outer core to be 3483 km with an uncertainty of 5 km, while that of the inner core is 1220±10 km.[3]:94

Estimates for the temperature of the outer core are about 3,000–4,500 K (2,730–4,230 °C; 4,940–7,640 °F) in its outer regions and 4,000–8,000 K (3,730–7,730 °C; 6,740–13,940 °F) near the inner core.[4] Evidence for a fluid outer core includes from seismology which shows that seismic shear-waves are not transmitted through the outer core[5] Because of its high temperature, modeling work has shown that the outer core is a low viscosity fluid that convects turbulently.[4] Eddy currents in the nickel iron fluid of the outer core are believed to influence the Earth's magnetic field. The average magnetic field strength in the Earth's outer core was measured to be 2.5 millitesla, 50 times stronger than the magnetic field at the surface.[6][7] The outer core is not under enough pressure to be solid, so it is liquid even though it has a composition similar to the inner core. Sulfur and oxygen could be present in the outer core.[8]

As heat is transferred outward toward the mantle, the net trend is for the inner boundary of the liquid region to freeze, causing the solid inner core to grow. This growth rate is estimated to be 1 mm per year.[9]

See also


  1. ^ http://education.nationalgeographic.com.au/education/encyclopedia/core/?ar_a=1
  2. ^ Beno Gutenberg (4 June 2016). Physics of the Earth's Interior. Elsevier. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-1-4832-8212-1.
  3. ^ Ahrens, Thomas J., ed. (1995). Global earth physics a handbook of physical constants (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. ISBN 9780875908519.
  4. ^ a b De Wijs, Gilles A.; Kresse, Georg; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Dobson, David; Alfè, Dario; Gillan, Michael J.; Price, Geoffrey D. (1998). "The viscosity of liquid iron at the physical conditions of the Earth's core" (PDF). Nature. 392 (6678): 805. Bibcode:1998Natur.392..805D. doi:10.1038/33905.
  5. ^ Jeffreys, Harold (1926-06-01). "The Rigidity of the Earth's Central Core". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 1: 371–383. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1926.tb05385.x. ISSN 1365-246X.
  6. ^ First Measurement Of Magnetic Field Inside Earth's Core. Science20.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-27.
  7. ^ Buffett, Bruce A. (2010). "Tidal dissipation and the strength of the Earth's internal magnetic field". Nature. 468 (7326): 952–4. Bibcode:2010Natur.468..952B. doi:10.1038/nature09643. PMID 21164483.
  8. ^ Gubbins, David; Sreenivasan, Binod; Mound, Jon; Rost, Sebastian (May 19, 2011). "Melting of the Earth's inner core". Nature. 473 (7347): 361–363. Bibcode:2011Natur.473..361G. doi:10.1038/nature10068. PMID 21593868.
  9. ^ Waszek, Lauren; Irving, Jessica; Deuss, Arwen (2011). "Reconciling the hemispherical structure of Earth's inner core with its super-rotation". Nature Geoscience. 4: 264–267. doi:10.1038/ngeo1083.

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