Mother! (stylized as mother!) is a 2017 American psychological horror film, written and directed by Darren Aronofsky and starring Jennifer Lawrence, Javier Bardem, Ed Harris, and Michelle Pfeiffer. The plot follows a young woman whose tranquil life with her husband at their country home is disrupted by the arrival of a mysterious couple. Their personal family drama spills over into the house leading to the death of their son and a memorial service held at their house. After the guests leave, the couple who own the house end up at the center of a cult that turns their home into a warzone.
Mother! was selected to compete for the Golden Lion at the 74th Venice International Film Festival, and premiered there on September 5, 2017. It was released in the United States on September 15, 2017, by Paramount Pictures, and has grossed $41.3 million worldwide. Although the film received generally positive reviews from critics, its biblical allegories and depiction of violence sparked controversy.
In an octagon house recently burned by fire, Him, an acclaimed author struggling with writer's block, places a crystal object in a pedestal. The house morphs to look newly renovated. In a bed, Mother is "formed" magically and wakes up, wondering aloud where Him is. She starts seeing things around the house that unsettle her, including visualizing a beating heart within the walls.
One day, Man turns up at the house, asking for a room. Him readily agrees, and Mother reluctantly follows suit. During his stay, Man experiences prolonged coughing fits and Mother catches a glimpse of a fresh wound by his rib area before her husband covers it with his hand. The next day, Man's wife, Woman, also arrives to stay. Mother is increasingly frustrated with her guests, while Him begs her to let them stay, telling Mother that the guests are fans of his work and that the male guest is dying, and wanted to meet Him. However, when Man and Woman accidentally break and shatter the crystallized object, Mother decides to kick them out.
The couple's two sons arrive and start to fight over the will their father has left. The Oldest Son, who will be left with nothing, mortally injures his Younger Brother, and seemingly flees, while Him, Man, and Woman take the injured son to get help. Mother cleans up the blood stained scene and is unable to remove a spot of blood in the floor which she discovers has created a hole and finds drops of blood making its way into the basement. She follows the trails which highlights a hidden door in the wall, and opens the door to discover nothing but a cellar to an oil tank for the furnace. She then covers the blood stained floor with a rug. Upon returning, Him informs Mother that the son has died. Dozens of people begin arriving at the house for a wake for the dead son. More people arrive, and behave in an increasingly rude way that bothers Mother; she becomes angrier when people start to harass her and do things to the home and eventually snaps when they cause a pipe to burst and floods the house. She kicks everyone out. Angry with Him for allowing so many people into the house for his own pleasure and ignoring her, she berates him before the two have sex.
The next morning, Mother announces that she is pregnant. The news leaves Him elated and inspires him to finish his work. Mother prepares for the arrival of their child and reads Him's newest piece, which is so beautiful it drives her to tears. Upon publication, it immediately sells out every copy. In celebration, Mother prepares dinner for him when a group of fans arrives at the house. As she barricades herself in her home, more fans arrive and begin to enter the house to use the bathroom. Their behavior devolves into stealing their belongings as keepsakes and disrupting the environment. An increasingly disoriented Mother makes her way around the house as each room devolves further into chaos. Him's publisher, the Herald, takes part in the madness. Military men with guns arrive to help Mother, but a cult of devoted fans forms around Him; they start to engage in rituals and violent slaughterings.
Mother goes into labor and finds her husband, who takes her to his study, where she gives birth. The havoc outside subsides as Him tells Mother that the massive crowd wants to see the baby. Refusing, she holds on tight to her son as Him continually stares at her. When she finally falls asleep, however, he takes the baby outside to the crowd, who grab him and pass him along via crowd surf and break his neck. Devastated, Mother makes her way to the front of the crowd where she sees the hacked corpse of her baby and witnesses the crowd eating his flesh. Furious at them, she calls them murderers and begins stabbing them with a shard of broken glass. They turn on her, viciously beating and stripping her until Him intervenes; he implores she must forgive them. Mother escapes the grasp of the crowd and makes her way to the furnace's oil tank in the cellar, which she had discovered earlier. Despite her husband's pleas, Mother sets the oil on fire, killing the crowd and destroying the house and the surrounding garden and trees.
Both Mother and Him survive, but Mother is horrifically burned while Him is completely unscathed. He asks her for the love she has left for him, and she agrees to give it to him. He then tears open her chest, removing her heart in the process. As he opens up the heart with his hands, a new crystallized object is revealed. He places the object on its pedestal and once again, the house changes from a burnt-out husk to a newly renovated home. A new Mother forms in the bed and wakes up, wondering aloud where Him is.
Lawrence said that the film is an allegory: "It depicts the rape and torment of Mother Earth ... I represent Mother Earth; Javier, whose character is a poet, represents a form of God, a creator; Michelle Pfeiffer is an Eve to Ed Harris's Adam, there's Cain and Abel and the setting sometimes resembles the Garden of Eden."
Aronofsky said that the title's exclamation mark "reflects the spirit of the film" and corresponds to an "exclamation point" of the ending. The director discussed the film's unusual capitalisation in a Reddit AMA, saying, "To find out why there's a lowercase 'm', read the credits and look for the letter that isn't capitalised. Ask yourself what's another name for this character?" The characters' names are all shown in lowercase, except for Him.
The lighter which appears throughout the film bears the Wendehorn, a symbol believed to represent "the cooperation between nature's eternal laws, working in effect and in accordance with each other." One of the film's unexplained elements is the yellow powder Lawrence's character drinks, which The Daily Beast suggests is a reference to Charlotte Perkins Gilman's short story "The Yellow Wallpaper".
After 2014's Noah, Aronofsky began working on a children's film. During that process, he came up with a new idea. He ended up writing the Mother! screenplay in five days, much faster than his usual pace. The film uses a dream-logic narrative, of which Aronofsky has noted, "if you try to unscrew it, it kind of falls apart," and that "it's a psychological freak-out. You shouldn't over-explain it."
Jennifer Lawrence was reportedly in talks to join the film by October 2015. By January 2016, Javier Bardem was also in talks to star, and by April Domhnall Gleeson, Michelle Pfeiffer, Ed Harris, and Brian Gleeson were added to the cast. In March 2017, it was announced Kristen Wiig had been cast in the film.
Shooting for the film began on June 13, 2016, and concluded on August 28, 2016. Prior to the start of principal photography, the cast rehearsed for three months in a warehouse, during which time Aronofsky was able to "get a sense of movement and camera movement, and learn from that." During this time, Lawrence was relatively laid-back, and Aronofsky has said that as a result he "didn't get to know the character until we started shooting, and she showed up."
Mother! is the first Aronofsky film without composer Clint Mansell's involvement. The film originally had a score composed by Jóhann Jóhannsson, but after seeing the 90 minute score synced up with a rough cut of the film, Aronofsky and Jóhannsson agreed not to use the original score. They experimented with using the score at only a few moments, or instead using a new minimal score focused on sound-design that incorporated noises into the soundscape of the house. Ultimately, they went with the second choice, and Jóhannsson's work merged with the sound design of Craig Henighan.
The film had its world premiere at the 74th Venice International Film Festival, where it was selected to compete for the Golden Lion. It also screened at the 2017 Toronto International Film Festival.
On August 7, the first official trailer for the film was released.
As of October 9, 2017[update], Mother! has grossed $17.7 million in the United States and Canada and $23.6 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $41.3 million, against a production budget of $30 million.
In North America, the film was released alongside American Assassin and was projected to gross $12–14 million from 2,368 theaters in its opening weekend. It made $700,000 from Thursday night previews and $3.1 million on its first day. It went on to open to just $7.5 million, finishing third at the box office and marking the worst debut for Lawrence in a film where she had top billing. Deadline.com attributed the film's controversial narrative and misleading advertisements, as well as its "F" CinemaScore grade, to the underperformance. Other publications wrote that the film's CinemaScore grade, which is extremely rare, is associated with "a movie that goes out of its way to artfully alienate or confuse audiences." In its second weekend, the film dropped 56.3% to $3.3 million, finishing sixth at the box office.
Citing the low receipts and CinemaScore, Aronofsky blamed moviegoers' rejection of science, saying "You have other people who basically believe in the power of a iPhone that they can communicate to 35 million people in a blink of an eye, yet they don't believe in science in other ways." He also stated "It's a punch. It's a total punch... We wanted to make a punk movie and come at you. And the reason I wanted to come is because I was very sad and I had a lot of anguish and I wanted to express it."
Mother! received generally positive reviews from critics, who praised Aronofsky’s direction and the performances, particularly of Lawrence and Pfeiffer. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 68%, based on 272 reviews, and an average rating of 6.8/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "There's no denying that Mother! is the thought-provoking product of a singularly ambitious artistic vision, though it may be too unwieldy for mainstream tastes." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 74 out of 100, based on reviews from 48 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". The film received both boos and a standing ovation during its premiere at the Venice Film Festival. Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "F" on an A+ to F scale, making it one of fewer than twenty films to receive the score.
Owen Gleiberman of Variety, in his positive review of the film, wrote: "By all means, go to 'Mother!' and enjoy its roller-coaster-of-weird exhibitionism. But be afraid, very afraid, only if you're hoping to see a movie that's as honestly disquieting as it is showy." Gleiberman labelled Mother! as "a piece of ersatz humanity". Peter Travers of Rolling Stone awarded the film 3.5 out of 4 stars, describing the film and Aronofsky's direction as an "artist's cry from his own corrupt heart" and "a work of a visionary". He also praised the film's allegorical narrative and the performances of Lawrence, Bardem, and Pfeiffer, and said, positively, that the cinematography "always seems on the verge of exploding". Writing for the Chicago Tribune, Michael Phillips stated: "Darren Aronofsky delivers a damning critique of the artist/muse arrangement, even as he admits to its old-fashioned patriarchal simplicity." He also referred to the film and its script as "grandiose and narcissistic and, in quick strokes, pretty vicious," while drawing a similarity to Aronofsky's acclaimed film, Black Swan.
Writing for The Guardian, Peter Bradshaw gave the film 5 stars, saying, "Darren Aronofsky’s toweringly outrageous film leaves no gob unsmacked. It is an event-movie detonation, a phantasmagorical horror and black-comic nightmare that jams the narcosis needle right into your abdomen." Ignatiy Vishnevetsky of The A.V. Club gave the film a B+, writing, "the filmmaking ranks as some of Aronofsky's most skillful". Ben Croll of IndieWire gave the film an A−, noting "Awash in both religious and contemporary political imagery, Darren Aronofsky's allusive film opens itself to a number of allegorical readings, but it also works as a straight-ahead head rush."
Rex Reed gave the film zero stars in The New York Observer, and wrote that despite some good cinematography, "Nothing about Mother! makes one lick of sense as Darren Aronofsky's corny vision of madness turns more hilarious than scary. With so much crap around to clog the drain, I hesitate to label it the 'Worst movie of the year' when 'Worst movie of the century' fits it even better." Reed further dismissed other critics' positive reviews of the film as "equally pretentious" and "even nuttier than the film itself. ... they all insist Mother! is a metaphor for something, although they are not quite sure what it is." Similarly, The New Republic’s Josephine Livingstone states that the film has “no human center to hold it down.”  Anthony Lane in his New Yorker review wrote, “My patience was tested beyond repair, I am afraid, by the nimbus of nonsense.”  In his Wall Street Journal review, John Anderson said, “it achieves a level of excess that makes the whole enterprise increasingly cartoonish, rather than just awful.” Writing for the Washington Post Anne Hornaday gave the film 2 stars, saying, “Even Lawrence's magnetic powers can't keep "Mother!" from going off the rails, which at first occurs cumulatively, then in a mad rush during the film's outlandish climax.”
Stephen Whitty of the Newark Star Ledger wrote, “one part early Roman Polanski, one part pseudo Harold Pinter, and two parts apology-from-a-driven-artist. And none of it adds up. The feeble idea behind "Mother!" isn't strong enough to bear the weight of all the overwrought style he hangs on it. Unlike the mansion it's set in, it's a small, hammered-together thing, and it can't bear all this meaning and metaphor.” Entertainment Weekly’s Chris Nashawaty said, “Darren Aronofsky’s Mother! is Rosemary’s Baby amped up into a fugue state of self-indulgent solipsism. He’s an artist. And he really wants you to know that he’s been thinking a lot about what that means. Unfortunately, his gaze is so deep into his own navel that it’s just exasperating.”  New York Magazine’s David Edelstein shrugged off the film and any talk of its craft, stating, “Most of the dialogue and effects are clunky, repetitive, second rate.”