Mary FitzRoy, Duchess of Richmond and Somerset

Last updated on 3 November 2017

Mary FitzRoy, Duchess of Richmond and Somerset (Howard; 1519 – 7 December 1557), born Lady Mary Howard, was the only daughter-in-law of King Henry VIII of England, being the wife of his only acknowledged illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

Her Grace
The Duchess of Richmond and Somerset
Hans Holbein the Younger - Mary, Duchess of Richmond and Somerset RL 12212.jpg
Sketch of The Duchess of Richmond and Somerset by Hans Holbein the Younger.
Personal details
Born 1519
Died 7 December 1557 (aged 37–38)
Spouse(s) Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset
Parents Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
Lady Elizabeth Stafford

Biography

Mary FitzRoy (formerly Lady Mary Howard) was the second daughter of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk: a member of the ambitious Howard Family. At the time of her birth, her father was the second-most senior noble in the English peerage; her maternal grandfather Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, the most senior. After Buckingham's execution in 1521, her father was one of only two dukes in the Kingdom, (the other being Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk). This changed in 1525, when Henry VIII elevated Henry FitzRoy, his six-year-old illegitimate son by Elizabeth Blount, to the Dukedom of Richmond and Somerset. When in 1529 Thomas Wolsey, who was charged with FitzRoy's care, fell from grace the mantle passed to Thomas Howard. At the same time the idea arose, allegedly from either the King or Anne Boleyn,[1] that FitzRoy should marry Howard's daughter. Four years later, in November 1533, negotiations were completed and Howard, now aged fourteen or fifteen, and FitzRoy, himself just fifteen, were married. Through her father, she was first cousin to both Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, as well as second cousin to Jane Seymour.

Horenbout HenryFitzRoy.jpg
Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond

The match was a triumph for the Boleyn family as the Duchess was a former member of Queen Anne's household, and a staunch advocate of reform. It was also a very advantageous match for the Duchess as with no legitimate male heir to the throne, the Duke was seen at the time as a likely future king. However, the marriage was not to last as FitzRoy died of consumption within three years. He had barely turned seventeen.

Fearful that too much sexual activity had hastened his elder brother Arthur's death, the King had ordered the couple not to consummate their marriage. As a result, the Duchess was not allowed to keep many of the lands which would normally have been her entitlement as widow: the King insisted without the consummation, it was not a true marriage. She remained at court, closely associated with the King's niece, Margaret Douglas, and one of his mistresses, Mary Shelton. In 1539, Douglas and the Duchess were appointed to meet Anne of Cleves at Calais.[2]

When Catherine Howard fell from grace, the Duchess and her entire family were arrested and briefly imprisoned in the Tower of London. In both 1538 and 1546 her father petitioned[1] for her to be married to Thomas Seymour. The King gave his approval for the match, but her brother, Henry, Earl of Surrey, objected strongly, as did the Duchess herself; and the marriage did not take place. Surrey then suggested that the Duchess should seduce the aged King, her father-in-law, and become his mistress, to "wield as much influence on him as Madame d'Etampes doth about the French King". The Duchess, outraged, said she would "cut her own throat" rather than "consent to such villainy".[3] She and her brother fell out, and she later laid testimony against Surrey that helped lead to his trial and execution for treason.

The Duchess never remarried and her presence at court dwindled not long after Henry VIII died in January 1547. She, knowing how merciless her family was about power, and perhaps not wanting to be involved in another scandal, possibly chose to stay out of their plans in order to live a quiet life. She died in late 1557, during the reign of her half-sister-in-law, Queen Mary I.

Further reading

  • Beverley A. Murphy's Bastard Prince: Henry VIII's Lost Son
  • Kelly Hart's The Mistresses of Henry VIII
  • Henry VIII's Last Victim: The Life and Times of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey by Jessie Childs
  • Henry Howard, the Poet Earl of Surrey: A Life by W.A. Sessions

Fictional portrayals

Though the Duchess has not been portrayed in any film or television program thus far, she has appeared in many books of noted historical fiction, most notably The Secrets of the Tudor Court by Darcey Bonnette which features Mary as the main character, and The Sixth Wife, in which she is a rival of Catherine Parr, and is used by her brother Surrey to try to become a "seventh wife" of the King despite her protests. As in history's account, her character mainly falls into the background toward the end of the novel after the king has died. She is also featured in Queen's Gambit, a novel about Catherine Parr and is featured as one of Catherine's rivals. Mary was also the main character, and story-teller in Brazen by Katherine Longshore. She was also mentioned by her cousin Catherine Howard in Gilt, also by Longshore.

Ancestors

Ancestors of Mary FitzRoy, Duchess of Richmond and Somerset
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Sir Robert Howard
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Lady Margaret de Mowbray
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. William de Moleyns
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Katherine Moleyns
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Anne Whalesborough
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Sir Philip Tilney
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Sir Frederick Tilney
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Isabel Thorpe
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Elizabeth Tilney, Countess of Surrey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Sir Laurence Cheney
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Elizabeth Cheney, Lady Say
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Elizabeth Cockayne
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Mary FitzRoy, Duchess of Richmond and Somerset
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Stafford
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Catherine Woodville, Duchess of Bedford
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Jacquetta of Luxembourg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Elizabeth Howard, Duchess of Norfolk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Eleanor Percy, 6th Baroness Poynings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Eleanor Percy, Duchess of Buckingham
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Maud Herbert, Countess of Northumberland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Anne Devereaux
 
 
 
 
 
 

External links

References

  1. ^ a b Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  2. ^ Nichols, John Gough, ed., The Chronicle of Calais, Camden Society (1846), 170
  3. ^ Hart, Kelly (June 1, 2009). The Mistresses of Henry VIII (First ed.). The History Press. pp. 194–197. ISBN 0-7524-4835-8.

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