Markarian galaxies

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The Markarian galaxies are a class of galaxies that have nuclei with excessive amounts of ultraviolet emissions compared with other galaxies. Benjamin Markarian drew attention to these types of galaxies starting in 1963. The nuclei of the galaxies had a blue colour, associated to stars in the classes from O to A. This blue core did not match the rest of the galaxy. The spectrum in detail tends to show a continuum that Markarian concluded was produced non-thermally. Most of these have emission lines and are characterized by highly energetic activity.[1][2] Markarian Catalogue entries are of the form "Markarian ####", and can frequently use the abbreviations Mrk, Mkr, Mkn; and rarely Ma, Mk, Mark.[3]

Aladin2011.04.13-21-28-34.268.png
Sky plot showing locations of Markarian galaxies. White band is due to the Milky Way.

History

In 1964 Markarian decided to search for this kind of galaxy.[4] The First Byurakan Survey commenced in 1965 using the Schmidt telescope at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory. The telescope used a 132 cm mirror and 102 cm correcting plate. When this started it was the largest telescope to have a full aperture objective prism. The purpose of the survey was to find galaxies with an ultraviolet excess.[5] The optics used were corrected for blue violet. Prisms in this had a low dispersion of 180 nm/mm in order not to spread out the galactic core spectrum too much and confuse it with other objects. This permitted classification of galaxies with magnitudes down to 17.5.[4] Seventy galaxies with UV-continuum appeared on lists, and the term "Markarian galaxies" came into use.[4][6][7] Two more lists brought the number of galaxies up to 302 in 1969.[8][9] The FBS continued observations till 1978 with a full spectra survey at high galactic latitudes. 1980 saw the completion of plate analysis and picking the objects that would be included. Twelve more papers with objects from the First Byurakan Survey brought the list up to 1500 galaxies.[4][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]

A list titled "First Byurakan Survey" circulated in 1986, including the original 1500 galaxies and 32 extras numbered from 9001 to 9032.[22] In 1989 an extended list numbering up to 1515 was published.[4][23]

In 2005, the "Second Byurakan Survey" (SBS, SBSSS, BSS, MrkII, Markarian II) was carried out, extending the MrkI survey to fainter objects, making a catalogue of 3563 objects of 1863 galaxies (SBSG) and 1700 stars (SBSS); 761 of the galaxies are AGN (155 Seyferts, 596 quasars, 10 blazars).[24][25][26]

Characteristics

The catalogues of galaxies included a name, coordinates, spectral type, visible size and morphological type of galaxy.[4] A custom designator for the galaxy core of s for star-like or d for diffuse was used, with hybrids of ds or sd. A digit 1,2 or 3 indicated strong, moderate or weak UV emission. And a letter "e" was appended if emission lines were apparent. Eleven galaxies had a blue star in the foreground creating the ultraviolet excess, so these galaxies do not really fall into the class.[27] Another problem is duplicate entries where Mrk 107 is Mrk 20, Mrk 1318 is Mrk 49, and Mrk 890 is Mrk 503.[28]

The various objects in this catalogue include Seyfert galaxies, starburst galaxies, H II regions, active galactic nuclei, BL Lac objects and quasars.[27] Some objects are actually giant glowing regions of ionized hydrogen in a galaxy including Mrk 59, 71, 86b, 94, 256b, 404, 489b, 1039, 1236, 1315, and 1379a.[27] Other galaxies have black holes shooting hot gas in energetic jets. Many are variable, showing the brightness comes from a small region.

Publications listing the Markarian galaxies

I 1-70 Markaryan, B. E. (1967). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. I". Astrofizika. 3: 24-3. Bibcode:1967Afz.....3...24M. [29]
II 71-200 Markaryan, B. E. (1971). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. II". Astrophysics. 5 (3): 206. Bibcode:1969Ap......5..206M. doi:10.1007/BF01004709. [30]
III 201-302 Markaryan, B. E. (1972). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. III". Astrophysics. 5 (4): 286. Bibcode:1969Ap......5..286M. doi:10.1007/BF01003911. [31]
IV 303-401 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1974). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. IV". Astrophysics. 7 (4): 299. Bibcode:1971Ap......7..299M. doi:10.1007/BF01003012. [32]
V 402-507 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1974). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum V". Astrophysics. 8 (2): 89. Bibcode:1972Ap......8...89M. doi:10.1007/BF01002156. [33]
VI 508-604 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1975). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. VI". Astrophysics. 9 (4): 283. Bibcode:1973Ap......9..283M. doi:10.1007/BF01002512. [34]
VII 605-700 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1975). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. VII". Astrophysics. 10 (3): 185. Bibcode:1974Ap.....10..185M. doi:10.1007/BF01001549. [35]
VIII 701-797 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1977). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. VIII". Astrophysics. 12 (3): 241. Bibcode:1976Ap.....12..241M. doi:10.1007/BF01003320. [36]
IX 798-895 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1977). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. IX". Astrophysics. 12 (4): 429. Bibcode:1976Ap.....12..429M. doi:10.1007/BF01000934. [37]
X 896-995 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1978). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. X". Astrophysics. 13 (2): 116. Bibcode:1977Ap.....13..116M. doi:10.1007/BF01005701. [38]
XI 996-1095 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1978). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XI". Astrophysics. 13 (3): 215. Bibcode:1977Ap.....13..215M. doi:10.1007/BF01001214. [39]
XII 1096-1194 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1979). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XII". Astrophysics. 15 (2): 130. Bibcode:1979Ap.....15..130M. doi:10.1007/BF01006033. [40]
XIII 1195-1302 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1980). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XIII". Astrophysics. 15 (3): 235. Bibcode:1979Ap.....15..235M. doi:10.1007/BF01004367. [41]
XIV 1303-1399 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1980). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XIV". Astrophysics. 15 (4): 363. Bibcode:1979Ap.....15..363M. doi:10.1007/BF01005372. [42]
XV 1400-1500 Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1982). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XV". Astrophysics. 17 (4): 321. Bibcode:1981Ap.....17..321M. doi:10.1007/BF01004228. [43]

Gallery

Hubble Interacting Galaxy NGC 3690 (2008-04-24).jpg

171

NGC 4319 I HST2002.jpg

205

Markarian 209.png

209

Hubble Interacting Galaxy UGC 8058 (2008-04-24).jpg

231

Hubble Interacting Galaxy NGC 5256 (2008-04-24).jpg

266

Hubble Interacting Galaxy Mrk 273 (2008-04-24).jpg

273

Hubble Interacting Galaxy UGC 12812 (2008-04-24).jpg

331

Mark421-U3WS2701M.jpg

421

MRK 0501 2MASS.jpg

501

Markarian 509 (HST).tiff

509

Hubble Interacting Galaxy NGC 7674 (2008-04-24).jpg

533

Markarian 817 (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope).jpg

817

Hubble Interacting Galaxy VV 705 (2008-04-24).jpg

848

Further reading

  • Petrosian, A.; McLean, B.; Allen, R. J.; MacKenty, J. W. (May 2007). "Markarian Galaxies. I. The Optical Database and Atlas". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 170 (1): 33–70. Bibcode:2007ApJS..170...33P. doi:10.1086/511333.
    • Petrosian, A.; McLean, B.; Allen, R. J.; MacKenty, J. W. (August 2008). "Erratum: 'Markarian Galaxies. I. The Optical Database and Atlas'". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 177 (2): 645–646. Bibcode:2008ApJS..177..645P. doi:10.1086/588098.

References

  1. ^ Koioian, Gabriel; Dickinson, D. F.; Tovmassian, H.; Purton, C. R.; Sramek, R. A. (15 January 1976). "The Radio Spectra of Markarian Galaxies". Astrophysical Journal. 203 (1): 323–328. Bibcode:1976ApJ...203..323K. doi:10.1086/154082.
  2. ^ Markarian, Benjamin Y. (1963). "NASA Extragalactic Database". Soobshcheniya Byurakan Observatory. 34: 3. Bibcode:1963SoByu..34....3M.
  3. ^ "info cati Mrk$". Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects. SIMBAD. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanian, J. A.; Erastova, L. K.; Shapovalova, A. I. (1989). The First Byurkan Survey: A Catalogue of Galaxies with UV-Continuum. Soobshcheniya Spetsial'noj Astrofizicheskoj Observatorii. 62. p. 5. Bibcode:1989SoSAO..62....5M.
  5. ^ Massaro, E.; Mickaelian, A.; Nesci, R.; Weedman, D. (2008). The Digitized First Byurakan Survey (PDF). ISBN 978-88-548-2421-8.
  6. ^ Markarian, B. E. (1967). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum". Astrofizika. 3: 55. Bibcode:1967Afz.....3...55M.
  7. ^ Markarian, B. E. (1968). Non-stable Phenomena in Galaxies. IAU Symposium No. 29. Yerevan: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of Armenian SSR.
  8. ^ Markarian, Benjamin E. (1969). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. I". Astrofizika. 5: 443. Bibcode:1969Afz.....5..443M.
  9. ^ Markarian, B. E. (1969). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. II". Astrofizika. 5: 581. Bibcode:1969Afz.....5..581M.
  10. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1971). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. IV". Astrofizika. 7: 511. Bibcode:1971Afz.....7..511M.
  11. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1972). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. V". Astrofizika. 8: 155. Bibcode:1972Afz.....8..155M.
  12. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1973). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. VI". Astrofizika. 9: 487. Bibcode:1973Afz.....9..487M.
  13. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1974). "Galaxies with Ultraviolet continuum. VII". Astrofizika. 10: 307. Bibcode:1974Afz....10..307M.
  14. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1976). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. VIII". Astrofizika. 12: 389. Bibcode:1976Afz....12..389M.
  15. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1976). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. IX". Astrofizika. 12: 657. Bibcode:1976Afz....12..657M.
  16. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanian, J. A. (1977). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continua. X". Astrofizika. 13: 225. Bibcode:1977Afz....13..225M.
  17. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanian, J. A. (1977). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XI". Astrofizika. 13: 397. Bibcode:1977Afz....13..397M.
  18. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanian, J. A. (1979). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XII". Astrofizika. 15: 201. Bibcode:1979Afz....15..201M.
  19. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanian, J. A. (1979). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XIII". Astrofizika. 15: 363. Bibcode:1979Afz....15..363M.
  20. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanian, J. A. (1979). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XIV". Astrofizika. 15: 549. Bibcode:1979Afz....15..549M.
  21. ^ Markarian, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanian, J. A. (1981). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XV". Astrofizika. 17: 619. Bibcode:1981Afz....17..619M.
  22. ^ Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanian, J. A. (1986). "First Byurakan Survey". unpublished.
  23. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions: NED and other catalogs". 29 May 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  24. ^ Stepanian, J. A. (2005). "The Second Byurakan Survey. General Catalogue". Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (published April 2005). 41: 155–368. Bibcode:2005RMxAA..41..155S.
  25. ^ "info cati SBSS$". Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects. SIMBAD. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  26. ^ "info cati SBSG$". Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects. SIMBAD. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  27. ^ a b c "The Data". Atlas and Database of Markarian Galaxies - Petrosian et al. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  28. ^ Petrosian. "The Optical Database". Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  29. ^ Markaryan, B. E. (1967). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. I". Astrofizika. 3: 24-3. Bibcode:1967Afz.....3...24M.
  30. ^ Markaryan, B. E. (1971). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. II". Astrophysics. 5 (3): 206. Bibcode:1969Ap......5..206M. doi:10.1007/BF01004709.
  31. ^ Markaryan, B. E. (1972). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. III". Astrophysics. 5 (4): 286. Bibcode:1969Ap......5..286M. doi:10.1007/BF01003911.
  32. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1974). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. IV". Astrophysics. 7 (4): 299. Bibcode:1971Ap......7..299M. doi:10.1007/BF01003012.
  33. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1974). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum V". Astrophysics. 8 (2): 89. Bibcode:1972Ap......8...89M. doi:10.1007/BF01002156.
  34. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1975). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. VI". Astrophysics. 9 (4): 283. Bibcode:1973Ap......9..283M. doi:10.1007/BF01002512.
  35. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1975). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. VII". Astrophysics. 10 (3): 185. Bibcode:1974Ap.....10..185M. doi:10.1007/BF01001549.
  36. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1977). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. VIII". Astrophysics. 12 (3): 241. Bibcode:1976Ap.....12..241M. doi:10.1007/BF01003320.
  37. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A. (1977). "Galaxies with an ultraviolet continuum. IX". Astrophysics. 12 (4): 429. Bibcode:1976Ap.....12..429M. doi:10.1007/BF01000934.
  38. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1978). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. X". Astrophysics. 13 (2): 116. Bibcode:1977Ap.....13..116M. doi:10.1007/BF01005701.
  39. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1978). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XI". Astrophysics. 13 (3): 215. Bibcode:1977Ap.....13..215M. doi:10.1007/BF01001214.
  40. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1979). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XII". Astrophysics. 15 (2): 130. Bibcode:1979Ap.....15..130M. doi:10.1007/BF01006033.
  41. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1980). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XIII". Astrophysics. 15 (3): 235. Bibcode:1979Ap.....15..235M. doi:10.1007/BF01004367.
  42. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1980). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XIV". Astrophysics. 15 (4): 363. Bibcode:1979Ap.....15..363M. doi:10.1007/BF01005372.
  43. ^ Markaryan, B. E.; Lipovetskii, V. A.; Stepanyan, Dzh A. (1982). "Galaxies with ultraviolet continuum. XV". Astrophysics. 17 (4): 321. Bibcode:1981Ap.....17..321M. doi:10.1007/BF01004228.

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