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A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.[1][2][3][4] A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a new idea with prescriptive notions for carrying out changes the author believes should be made. It often is political or artistic in nature, but may present an individual's life stance. Manifestos relating to religious belief are generally referred to as creeds.


It is derived from the Italian word manifesto, itself derived from the Latin manifestum, meaning clear or conspicuous. Its first recorded use in English is from 1620, in Nathaniel Brent's translation of Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent: "To this citation he made answer by a Manifesto" (p. 102). Similarly, "They were so farre surprised with his Manifesto, that they would never suffer it to be published" (p. 103).[5]

Notable manifestos


Examples of notable manifestos:


Premiere manifeste de la Revue de stijl
1IERE MANIFESTE DE LA REVUE D'ART "LE STYLE" [sic], published in 1918

Scientific and Educational

  • The Behaviorist Manifesto (1913) issued by John B. Watson in opposition to the introspection method in psychology[14]
  • Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto (1969) written by Vine Deloria, Jr.
  • The UNESCO Public Library Manifesto[15] (2001)
  • The History Manifesto (2014) written by Jo Guldi and David Armitage, published by Cambridge University Press



See also


  1. ^ Merriam-Webster online dictionary definition of Manifesto.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013. (in German), article on "Wahlprogramm", literally "election programme".
  3. ^ definition of Manifesto.
  4. ^ David Robertson, The Routledge Dictionary of Politics, Edition 3, Psychology Press, 1890 p. 295, ISBN 0415323770, 9780415323772
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  6. ^ Oi Ki Ling (1999). The Changing Role of the British Protestant Missionaries in China, 1945-1952. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-8386-3776-0.
  7. ^ Malevich, Kazimir. "Suprematist Manifesto Unovis".
  8. ^ "La Transdisciplinarité - Manifeste". Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  9. ^ "Werner Herzog Film: Home". Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  10. ^ "Manifesto of Neo-Futuristic City". Retrieved August 18, 2014.
  11. ^ "The Neofuturistic City Manifesto released online". July 13, 2014. Archived from the original on September 14, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
  12. ^ Luko, C. S. (2011). "Reflections on the versatilist manifesto" (in Portuguese). USP. Retrieved 2014-09-13.
  13. ^ Critical Arts: A Journal of South-North Cultural and Media Studies 27(6), An Van Dienderen & Kris Rutten, 2013, p. 655-660.
  14. ^ "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it". Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  15. ^ "UNESCO Public Library Manifesto". Unesco. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  16. ^ "A Brief History of Debian - The Debian Manifesto". December 31, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  17. ^ "A Cypherpunk's Manifesto".
  18. ^ "The dotCommunist Manifesto". Retrieved Dec 5, 2017.
  19. ^ "The Mozilla Manifesto". Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  20. ^ "Guerilla Open Access Manifesto". External link in |website= (help)
  21. ^ "15-312 Principles of Programming Languages". Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  22. ^ "The Hardware Hacker Manifesto - I, Hacker". Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  23. ^ "The BINC Manifesto". Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  24. ^ "The Reactive Manifesto". Retrieved September 16, 2014.

External links

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