Magnum Photos

This page was last edited on 27 November 2017, at 09:28.

Magnum Photos is an international photographic cooperative owned by its photographer-members, with offices in New York City, Paris, London and Tokyo. According to co-founder Henri Cartier-Bresson, "Magnum is a community of thought, a shared human quality, a curiosity about what is going on in the world, a respect for what is going on and a desire to transcribe it visually."[1]

Magnum Photos
Industry Photography
Founded 1947
Founder Robert Capa, David "Chim" Seymour, Henri Cartier-Bresson, George Rodger, William Vandivert, Rita Vandivert, Maria Eisner
Headquarters New York City, Paris, London, Tokyo
Area served
Products Photojournalism, stock photography

Founding of agency

Robert Capa, David "Chim" Seymour, Henri Cartier-Bresson, George Rodger and William Vandivert (all photographers), Rita Vandivert and Maria Eisner were the founding members of Magnum in Paris in 1947, based on an idea of Capa's. Seymour, Cartier-Bresson and Rodger were all absent from the meeting at which it was founded.[2] (In response to a letter telling him that he was a member, Rodger wrote that Magnum seemed a good idea but, "It all sounded too halcyon to be true," when Capa had told him of it and, "I rather dismissed the whole thing from my mind".[3]) Rita Vandivert was the first President, and head of the New York office; Maria Eisner the head of the Paris office.[4] The plan was for Rodger to cover Africa and the Middle East; Cartier-Bresson to cover south and east Asia; Seymour and William Vandivert to cover Europe and the United States, respectively; and Capa to be free to follow his curiosity and events.[4]

Magnum is one of the first photographic cooperatives, owned and administered entirely by members. The staff serve a support role for the photographers, who retain all copyrights to their own work.

The Magnum cooperative has included photojournalists from across the world, who have covered many historical events of the 20th century. The cooperative's archive includes photographs depicting family life, drugs, religion, war, poverty, famine, crime, government and celebrities. Magnum In Motion is the multimedia offshoot of Magnum Photos and is based in New York City.

Although it has been asserted that the name "Magnum" was chosen because the founding members always drank a bottle of champagne during the first meetings,[5] Russell Miller writes:

It was . . . presumably agreed by those present [at the first meeting] that Magnum was a fine new name for such a bold new venture, indicative as it was of greatness in its literal Latin translation, toughness in its gun connotation and celebration in its champagne mode.[6]

Boy destroying piano.jpg
Boy destroying piano at Pant-y-Waen, South Wales, by Philip Jones Griffiths, 1961

Elections of new members

In the early years of Magnum, membership had generally come about by the personal invitation of Robert Capa. However, in 1955 a three-stage membership system was set up that continues to this day[7] and is described below. Until 1953 there were also a large number of stringers who used Magnum but were not members.[8]

Magnum's photographers meet once a year, during the last weekend in June, in New York, Paris or London, to discuss the cooperative's business. One day of the meeting is reserved to review potential new members' portfolios and vote on admitting individuals. An approved applicant is invited to become a 'Nominee Member' of Magnum, a category of membership that provides a chance for members and the individual to get to know each other, but that includes no binding commitments on either side.

After two years of Nominee membership, a photographer may present another portfolio if wanting to apply for 'Associate Membership'. If successful, the photographer is bound by the rules of the agency, and enjoys its facilities and worldwide representation. The difference between an Associate Member and a full Member is that an Associate is not a Director of the Company and does not have voting rights in the corporate decision-making. After two more years, an Associate wanting to be considered for full membership presents another portfolio of work for consideration by the members. Once elected as a full member, the individual is a member of Magnum for life or for as long as the photographer chooses.

No member photographer of Magnum has ever been asked to leave.

Photographic collection

In February 2010, Magnum announced that Michael Dell's venture capital firm MSD Capital had acquired a collection of nearly 200,000 original press prints of images taken by Magnum photographers. It had formed a partnership with the Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas at Austin to preserve, catalog, and make photographs available to the general public.[9][10][11] In September 2013 it was announced MSD Capital donated the collection to the Ransom Center.[12] A preliminary inventory is available for researchers who wish to use the collection.[13]

Graduate Photographers Award

The Graduate Photographers Award was established in 2015.[14]

Member list

Name Nationality Status Active years Note
Abbas Attar Iran Active (full Member) 1981–[15] Member from 1985[15]
Christopher Anderson United States Active (full Member) 2005– Nominee from 2005; Full Member from 2010[16]
Ansel Adams United States Deceased Nonmember correspondent 1956[17]
Eve Arnold United States Deceased 1951– Associate Member from 1951;[18] Member from 1957[19] First female Member.
Olivia Arthur United Kingdom Active (full Member) 2008– Nominee from 2008[20]
Micha Bar-Am Israel Active (Correspondent) 1968– Correspondent from 1968[21]
Bruno Barbey France Active (full Member) 1964–[22] Member from 1968.[22]
Jonas Bendiksen Norway Active (full Member) 2004– Nominee from 2004; Member from 2008[23]
Ian Berry United Kingdom Active (full Member) 1967[17] Member from 1962.[24]
Werner Bischof Switzerland Deceased 1948–1954 Associate member from 1948, full member from 1949[25]:454[26]
Matt Black United States Active (Nominee) 2015–[27]
Brian Brake New Zealand Withdrawn 1957–1966[17] Deceased
René Burri Switzerland Deceased 1955[17]–2014 Associate Member from 1955; Member from 1959[28]
Cornell Capa Hungary / United States Deceased 1954–2008 Member from 1954;[29] Brother of Robert
Robert Capa Hungary / United States Deceased 1947–1954 Founding member
Henri Cartier-Bresson France Deceased 1947–2004 Founding member; Contributor from 1966[17]
Chien-Chi Chang Taiwan Active (full Member) 1995–[30] Member from 2001[30]
Antoine D'Agata France Active (full Member) 2004–[31] Nominee from 2004; Member from 2008.[31]
Bruce Davidson United States Active (full Member) 1956–[32] Member from 1959[32]
Carl De Keyzer Belgium Active (full Member) 1990–[33] Member from 1994[33]
Luc Delahaye France Withdrawn 1994–2004
Raymond Depardon France Active (full Member) 1978– Associate Member from 1978; Member from 1979[34]
Bieke Depoorter Belgium Active (full Member) 2012–[35]
Carolyn Drake United States Active (Associate) 2015–[27]
Thomas Dworzak Germany Active (full Member) 2004– Nominee from 2000; member from 2004[36]
Nikos Economopoulos Greece Active (full Member) 1990– Member from 1994[37]
Elliott Erwitt France / United States Active (full Member) 1953–[38] Member from 1954[38]
Martine Franck Belgium Deceased 1980–2012[39] Member from 1983[39]
Stuart Franklin United Kingdom Active (full Member) 1985–[40] Member from 1990.[40]
Leonard Freed United States Deceased 1956[41]–2006 Member from 1972[41]
Paul Fusco United States Active (full Member) 1974- Member from 1974
Cristina García Rodero Spain Active (full Member) 2005–[42] Member from 2009[42]
Jean Gaumy France Active (full Member) 1977–[43] Member from 1986[43]
Bruce Gilden United States Active (full Member) 1998–[44] Member from 2002[44]
Burt Glinn United States Deceased 1951[45]–2008 Associate Member from 1951;[18] Member from 1954[45]
Mark Godfrey United States Withdrawn 1974–1981[17]
Jim Goldberg United States Active (full Member) 2002–[46] Member from 2006[46]
Philip Jones Griffiths United Kingdom Deceased 1966–2008 Associate Member from 1966; Member from 1971[47]
Harry Gruyaert Belgium Active (full Member) 1981–[48] Member from 1986[48]
Ara Güler Turkey Withdrawn
Ernst Haas Austria Deceased 1950[17]–1986 Contributor from 1966[17]
Philippe Halsman Russia (Latvia) / United States Deceased 1951[49] Contributing member from 1956[49]
Hiroshi Hamaya Japan Deceased 1960–1999 Associate Member from 1960[50]
Charles Harbutt United States Withdrawn 1964–1981[17]
Erich Hartmann Germany / United States Deceased 1951[17][51]–1999 Member from 1952[51]
David Alan Harvey United States Active (full Member) 1993–[17][52] Member from 1997[52]
Bob Henriques United States 1957-1961 (circa)
Tim Hetherington United Kingdom Deceased 2011 Posthumous acceptance
Abigail Heyman United States Deceased 1970s;
Thomas Hoepker Germany Active (full Member) 1964–[53] Member from 1989[53]
David Hurn United Kingdom Active (full Member) 1965–[54] Associate Member from 1965;[55] Member from 1967[54]
Richard Kalvar United States Active (full Member) 1975[17] Associate Member from 1975; Member from 1977.[56]
Josef Koudelka Czech Republic Active (full Member) 1971[17] Associate Member from 1971; Member from 1974.[57]
Kent Klich Sweden Withdrawn 1998–2002
Hiroji Kubota Japan Active (full Member) 1971– Associate Member from 1971;[58] Member from 1989.[59]
Dorothea Lange United States Deceased Nonmember correspondent 1956[17]
Sergio Larraín Chile Deceased 1959–2012 Associate Member from 1959; Member from 1961; Contributor from 1970[60]
Russell Lee United States Deceased Nonmember correspondent 1956[17]
Guy Le Querrec France Active (full Member) 1976–[61] Member from 1977.[61]
Erich Lessing Austria Active (full Member) 1950–[62] Member from 1955;[63] later Contributor[62]
Herbert List Germany Deceased Contributor 1951–1975[64]
Paul Lowe United Kingdom Withdrawn
Danny Lyon United States Withdrawn 1966–1968[17]
Alex Majoli Italy Active (full Member) 1996–[65] Member from 2001.[65]
Constantine Manos United States Active (full Member) 1963[17][66] Member from 1965.[66]
Mary Ellen Mark United States Deceased 1977–1981[17]
Diana Markosian Armenia Active (Nominee) 2016– Nominee Member from 2016[67]
Peter Marlow United Kingdom Deceased 1952–2016 Member from 1986[68] to his death in 2016.
Fred Mayer Switzerland Withdrawn 1967[69] - 2009
Don McCullin United Kingdom Withdrawn 1968–1969[17]
Steve McCurry United States Active (full Member) 1986– Member from 1986.[70]
Susan Meiselas United States Active (full Member) 1976–[71] Member from 1980.[71]
Lorenzo Meloni Italy Active (Nominee) 2015–[27]
Wayne F. Miller United States Deceased Nonmember correspondent 1956[17]–1958; member 1958[17]–2013 Member from 1958, later a contributor.[72]
Inge Morath Austria Deceased 1953[73]–2002 Member from 1955.[73]
Richard Mosse Ireland Withdrawn 2015–[27]
James Nachtwey United States Withdrawn 1986–2001
Dominic Nahr Switzerland Withdrawn 2010–2015
Trent Parke Australia Active (full Member) 2002–[74] Member from 2007.[74]
Suzy Parker United States Deceased According to John G. Morris, "Capa showed model Suzy Parker how to take pictures, and for a while she was listed as a Magnum photographer".[75]
Martin Parr United Kingdom Active (full Member) 1988–[76] Member from 1994.[76]
Paolo Pellegrin Italy Active (full Member) 2001–[77] Nominee from 2001; Member from 2005.[77]
Gilles Peress France Active (Contributor) 1970–[78] As of 2010, a Contributor.[78]
Max Pinckers Belgium Active (Nominee) 2015–[27]
Gueorgui Pinkhassov Russia Active (full Member) 1986–[79] Member from 1994.[79]
Mark Power United Kingdom Active (full Member) 2002–[80] Member from 2007.[80]
Raghu Rai India Active (Correspondent) 1977–
Eli Reed United States Active (full Member) 1983–
Marc Riboud France Deceased 1955[17]–2016
Eugene Richards United States Withdrawn 1983–
Miguel Rio Branco Brazil Active (Correspondent) 1978– Associate Member from 1980[81]
George Rodger United Kingdom Deceased 1947–1995 Founding member; Contributor from 1970[17]
Sebastião Salgado Brazil Withdrawn 1979–1994
Moises Saman Spain Active (full member)[82] 2010– Nominee member from 2010; full member from 2014
Alessandra Sanguinetti United States / Argentina Active (full Member) 2007–
Lise Sarfati France Withdrawn 1997–
Ferdinando Scianna Italy Active (full Member) 1982– Member from 1989[83]
Jérôme Sessini France Active (full Member) 2012–[84]
David Seymour Poland, France, United States Deceased 1947–1956 Founding member
Marilyn Silverstone United States / Nepal Deceased 1964– Associate Member from 1964, Full Member from 1967, Contributor from 1975[85]
W. Eugene Smith United States Withdrawn[86] 1957[17]–1958[87] Deceased
Jacob Aue Sobol Denmark Active (full Member) 2007–
Alec Soth United States Active (full Member) 2004– Nominee from 2004; Member from 2008[88]
Chris Steele-Perkins United Kingdom Active (full Member) 1979– Nominee from 1979; Associate Member from 1981; Member from 1983[89]
Dennis Stock United States Deceased 1951–2009 Associate Member from 1951; Member from 1957[90]
Zoe Strauss United States Active (Nominee) 2012–[84]
Matt Stuart United Kingdom Active (Associate) 2016– Nominee Member from 2016[67]
Mikhael Subotzky South Africa Active (Nominee) 2007–
Krijn Taconis Netherlands Withdrawn 1954[17]–1960[17] Deceased
Newsha Tavakolian Iran Active (Associate) 2015–[27]
Nicolas Tikhomiroff Russia / France Withdrawn 1959–
Larry Towell Canada Active (full Member) 1988–
Ilkka Uimonen Finland Withdrawn 2002–
Burk Uzzle United States Withdrawn 1967–1983[91] 1979-1980 President[91]
Peter van Agtmael United States Active (Full Member) 2008– Member from 2013[92][93]
William Vandivert United States Deceased 1947[94]–1948[95] Founding member
John Vink Belgium Withdrawn 1993–2007[96] Member from 1997[97]
Alex Webb United States Active (full Member) 1976–
Simon Wheatley Singapore Withdrawn 2005–2011
Donovan Wylie United Kingdom Active (full Member) 1992– Member from 1997[98]
Patrick Zachmann France Active (full Member) 1985–


  • America in Crisis. New York, NY: Ridge Press; Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969. ISBN 9780030810206. Text by Mitchel Levitas, edited by Charles Harbutt and Lee Jones, photographs by Eve Arnold, Cornell Capa, Bruce Davidson, Elliott Erwitt, Burt Glinn, Philip Jones Griffiths, Charles Harbutt, Danny Lyon, Constantine Manos, Donald McCullin, Dennis Stock, Mary Ellen Mark and possibly others.
  • In Our Time: The World as Seen by Magnum Photographers. New York; London: W W Norton & Co Inc, 1989. ISBN 0-393-02767-8. By William Manchester. With essays by Manchester ("Images: a Wide Angle"), Jean Lacouture ("The Founders") and Fred Ritchin ("What is Magnum?"), and "Biographical Notes and Selected Bibliographies" and "Bibliography and Chronology of Magnum" by Stuart Alexander.
  • Magnum Landscape. London: Phaidon, 1996. With a foreword by Ian Jeffrey and texts by Henri Peretz, "The Phenomenon of Landscape" and "Chronology of Landscape Photography".
    • Hardback, 1996.
    • Paperback, 2005. ISBN 0-7148-4522-1.
  • magnum°. London: Phaidon, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7148-4356-8. Text by Michael Ignatieff, design by Julia Hasting.
  • Magnum Stories by Chris Boot. London: Phaidon, 2004. ISBN 0-7148-4245-1.
  • Our World In Focus. London: Trolley Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904563-22-8.
  • Magnum Magnum. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007. Edited by Brigitte Lardinois.[99]
    • Compact flexibound edition. London: Thames & Hudson, 2009, 2010. ISBN 978-0-500-28830-6.
  • Pop Sixties by Magnum Photos. New York, NY: Abrams, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8109-9526-0.
  • Reading Magnum: A Visual Archive of the Modern World, edited by Steven Hoelscher. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-292-74843-9.
  • Magnum Analog Recovery. Paris: Le Bal, 2017. English and French editions.

See also

Further reading

  • Magnum: Fifty Years at the Front Line of History: The Story of the Legendary Photo Agency. New York, NY: Grove Press, 1999. By Russell Miller. ISBN 0-8021-3653-2.


  1. ^ Magnum Official Website
  2. ^ Russell Miller, Magnum: Fifty Years at the Front Line of History (New York: Grove, 1998; ISBN 0-8021-3653-2), pp. 49–50.
  3. ^ Miller, Magnum, p. 53
  4. ^ a b Miller, Magnum, p.51.
  5. ^ Die Leica-Geschichte, TV-Documentary, can be viewed here (YouTube).
  6. ^ Miller, Magnum, p.49.
  7. ^ Miller, Magnum, p.127.
  8. ^ Miller, Magnum, pp. 70, 97, 106.
  9. ^ Randy Kennedy (2010-02-01). "News Photos, on the Move, Make News". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  10. ^ Press Release (2010-02-02). "Historic Photo Print Archive, Featuring Iconic 20th Century Images, Has New Owner and Home". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  11. ^ Gerald Rich (2010-02-04). "UT Receives Historical Treasure: Harry Ransom Center acquires 20th-century photography archive". The Daily Texan. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
  12. ^ Michael J. de la Merced (2013-09-21). "Dell-Led Trio to Donate Magnum Photo Archive to University of Texas". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  13. ^ Harry Ransom Center. "Magnum Photos, Inc.: A Preliminary Inventory of Its Collection in the Photography Collection at the Harry Ransom Center". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  14. ^ Graduate Photographers Award 2015 - Magnum Photos Event
  15. ^ a b "Abbas", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  16. ^ "Christopher Anderson", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Chronology, Magnum Photos (London: Thames & Hudson, 2008; ISBN 978-0-500-41094-3), not paginated.
  18. ^ a b "Burt Glinn", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  19. ^ "Eve Arnold", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  20. ^ "Olivia Arthur", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-17.
  21. ^ "Micha Bar-Am", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  22. ^ a b "Bruno Barbey", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-18.
  23. ^ "Jonas Bendiksen", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  24. ^ "[1]", Magnum Photos.
  25. ^ Manchester, William (1989). In Our Time: The World as Seen by Magnum Photographers. W W Norton & Co Inc. ISBN 0-393-02767-8.
  26. ^ "Werner Bischof", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-18.
  27. ^ a b c d e f "Magnum announces latest nominees". British Journal of Photography. Apptitude Media. 162 (7839): 7. 2015.
  28. ^ "Rene Burri", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  29. ^ "Cornell Capa", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-18.
  30. ^ a b "Chien-Chi Chang", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  31. ^ a b "Antoine D'Agata", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  32. ^ a b "Bruce Davidson", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  33. ^ a b "Carl De Keyzer", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  34. ^ "Raymond Depardon", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  35. ^ "Magnum Photos Photographer Profile". Retrieved 2016-09-03.
  36. ^ "Thomas Dworzak", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  37. ^ "Nikos Economopoulos", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  38. ^ a b "Elliott Erwitt", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  39. ^ a b "Martine Franck", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  40. ^ a b "Stuart Franklin", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  41. ^ a b "Leonard Freed", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  42. ^ a b "Cristina García Rodero", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  43. ^ a b "Jean Gaumy", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  44. ^ a b "Bruce Gilden", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  45. ^ a b "Burt Glinn", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  46. ^ a b "Jim Goldberg", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-19.
  47. ^ "Philip Jones Griffiths", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  48. ^ a b "Harry Gruyaert", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-21.
  49. ^ a b "Philippe Halsman", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-21.
  50. ^ Amanda Hopkinson (1999-03-26). "Have camera, will travel". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  51. ^ a b "Erich Hartmann", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-21.
  52. ^ a b "David Alan Harvey", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-21.
  53. ^ a b "Thomas Hoepker", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-21.
  54. ^ a b "David Hurn", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-21.
  55. ^ "David Hurn", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  56. ^ "Richard Kalvar", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-14.
  57. ^ "Josef Koudelka", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-14.
  58. ^ "Hiroji Kubota", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-14.
  59. ^ "Hiroji Kubota", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-14.
  60. ^ "Sergio Larrain", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-14.
  61. ^ a b "Guy Le Querrec", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-17.
  62. ^ a b "Erich Lessing", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-17.
  63. ^ "Erich Lessing", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  64. ^ "Herbert List", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-21.
  65. ^ a b "Alex Majoli", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-21.
  66. ^ a b "Constantine Manos", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-02-21.
  67. ^ a b Bainbridge, Simon (27 June 2016). "Magnum Photos announces two new nominee members following its 69th AGM". British Journal of Photography. Apptitude Media Ltd. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  68. ^ "Peter Marlow", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  69. ^ "
  70. ^ "Steve McCurry", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  71. ^ a b "Susan Meiselas", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-03-07.
  72. ^ "Wayne Miller", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-03-07.
  73. ^ a b "Inge Morath", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-03-07.
  74. ^ a b "Trent Parke", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-03-20
  75. ^ Staff writers (2011-04-19). "The photographic collection of John G Morris". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-04-03.
  76. ^ a b "Martin Parr", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-03-20
  77. ^ a b "Paolo Pellegrin", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-03-20
  78. ^ a b "Gilles Peress", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-03-20
  79. ^ a b "Gueorgui Pinkhassov", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-03-20
  80. ^ a b "Mark Power", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-03-20
  81. ^ "Miguel Rio Branco", Magnum Photos. 16 January 2009.
  82. ^ "Moises Saman: Spanish, American. b. 1974: Biography". Magnum Photos. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  83. ^ "Ferdinando Scianna", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  84. ^ a b Magnum Photos Announces 3 Nominees, PDN Online. July 2012.
  85. ^ "Marilyn Silverstone", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  86. ^ Shadow and Substance (McGraw-Hill, 1989), p. 397: "'I think it will be more interesting, and more profitable - with more work used, and uniquely used.' That was the positive view. The negative aspect is found in a draft for a letter to Magnum in which Gene tried to respond to a recent decision by Magnum's members to censure him: 'I stand thoroughly censured, I'm broke, desperate, tired - however, the censure is right, I am guilty. I trust that the photographers of Magnum are willing to stand on their public records. I trust that the photographers of Magnum are willing that I publicly evaluate them accordingly as they have achieved. I am not interested in their excuses accordingly to their private confessions. Their blames, including Smith, will not be of my concern.'"
  87. ^ Shadow and Substance, p. 398.
  88. ^ "Alec Soth", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  89. ^ Miller, Magnum, p,268.
  90. ^ "Dennis Stock", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  91. ^ a b
  92. ^ "Peter van Agtmael: American/Dutch, b. 1981". Magnum Photos. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  93. ^ Murg, Stephanie (9 July 2013). "Magnum Photos Adds Olivia Arthur and Peter van Agtmael as Full Members". Adweek. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  94. ^ Miller, Magnum, pp. 49–51.
  95. ^ Miller, Magnum, pp. 66–67.
  96. ^ Diane Smyth, "John Vink leaves Magnum due to post-investment contract", British Journal of Photography, 15 June 2017. Accessed 2017-06-16.
  97. ^ "John Vink", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  98. ^ "Donovan Wylie", Magnum Photos. Accessed 2010-01-16.
  99. ^ "Shooting stars of Magnum light up one another". Tim Adams, The Guardian, 18 November 2007. Accessed 22 May 2017

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