Luna-Glob

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Luna-Glob (Russian: Луна-Глоб, meaning Lunar sphere) is a Moon exploration programme by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) meant to progress toward the creation of a fully robotic lunar base.

The programme is based on plans dating back to 1997. Due to financial problems, however, the programme's first mission, the Luna 25 lander, was put on hold only to be revived a few years later. Initially scheduled for launch in 2012[1] by a Soyuz-2 rocket,[2] the first mission has been delayed many times, first to 2014, then to 2015[3][4] and 2016[5][6] and 2018[7] and 2019.[8] As of June 2015, Luna 25 is planned to be launched in 2021.[9] Russia's Roscosmos State Space Corporation said it approved a model of the Luna 25.[10]

History

The Luna-Glob programme is a continuation of the Soviet Union Luna programme that sent at least twenty-four orbiters and landers between 1959 and 1976 to the Moon, of which fifteen were successful. The last mission was Luna 24, launched on 9 August 1976.

Initially, the first Luna-Glob mission was planned as orbiter with ground penetrating sensors.[11] Four Japanese-built penetrators inherited from the Lunar-A were to be used, each 45 kg (100 lb), including 14 kg (31 lb) for the penetrator proper. Furthermore, seismic experiments were planned, including the use of four penetrators, which will slam into the lunar surface equipped to detect seismic signals. These experiments are expected to help clarify the origin of the Moon. Two of the penetrators are planned to land near the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 landing sites, taking advantage of seismic data gathered there from 1969 to 1974. The payload of the orbiter will total 120 kg (260 lb) and include astrophysics experiments, dust monitors, plasma sensors, including the LORD astronomy payload, designed to study ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.[12]

Luna-Resurs (Luna 27) was initially planned as a joint orbiter-rover mission (the orbiter was to be the Indian Chandrayaan-2) that will feature a 58 kg Russian Polar Moon Rover and lander, as part of the International Lunar Network.[13] This mission will land in Moon's south pole, examine a crater and operate for up to one year. The six wheeled, solar powered rover will land near one of the poles and will survive for a year, roving up to 150 km at a speed of 360 m/h.[13] Because the loss of the Fobos-Grunt in 2011 which was planned as a test for the landing system, Russia cited its inability to provide the lander within the proposed time. India then decided to develop the lunar mission independently.[14] Next lander will carry a large 400 kg rover capable of in-situ soil analysis. Lander with a 400 kg ascent stage will return up to 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of surface and rock samples.[15]

List of missions

Unlike their predecessors, the new Luna missions are targeted at the lunar poles.[16] As of November 2014, the next five missions have been announced:[17][18][19]

Future lunar base

It was planned in 2008, that a robotic lunar base that follows Luna-Glob would be a "Robotic proving ground", having several components: solar power station, telecommunication station, technological station, scientific station, long-range research rover, landing and launch area, orbiting satellite.[22][23] This project was planned for after 2020, with an expected completion date of 2037.[24]

As of 2017, Russia is planning to launch a lunar probe in 2021 to scout out locations, and to begin building a human colony on the moon by 2030. Initially, the moon base will be manned by no more than 4 people, with their number later rising to maximum of 12 people.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fundamental Space Studies". Russian Federal Space Agency. Archived from the original on 2008-04-07. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
  2. ^ "Lavochkin begins phase B work for Luna-Glob 1 orbiter". www.flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
  3. ^ Российский зонд Луна-Глоб отправится исследовать Луну в 2015 году
  4. ^ "First Russian moon mission delayed". Space Exp. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
  5. ^ Roscosmos: Fundamental space researches
  6. ^ "Future planetary missions". Space Exp. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
  7. ^ Russia will launch Luna spacecraft in 2018
  8. ^ "Russian Moon missions face three-year delay". Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  9. ^ "Russia presenting model of Luna-25 Moon exploration spacecraft at Le Bourget Air Show 2015". TASS (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-11-21.
  10. ^ "Roscosmos Approves Luna-25 Space Station Model in Moon Exploration Project". Retrieved 2017-08-18.
  11. ^ "Russia Plans Ambitious Robotic Lunar Mission". Aviation Week. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
  12. ^ Luna-Glob at Skyrocket
  13. ^ a b Luna-Resurs at RussianSpaceweb
  14. ^ "Chandrayaan-2: India to go it alone". The Hindu. 2013-01-22. Retrieved 2013-01-22.
  15. ^ "Program of the Moon Exploration by Automatic Space Complexes". ESA. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  16. ^ Russian Moon exploration programme. Russian Research Institute (IKI). 2017.
  17. ^ Russian Moon missions face three-year delay
  18. ^ Manned Moon Mission to Cost Russia $2.8 Bln – Space Research Institute
  19. ^ Russian Luna-25 Mission to Cost Billions: Space Agency
  20. ^ Space Operations: Contributions from the Global Community. Craig Cruzen, Michael Schmidhuber, Young H. Lee, Bangyeop Kim. Springer, Mar 30, 2017 - Technology & Engineering - 718 pages.
  21. ^ Emerging Space Markets. Stella Tkatchova. Springer, September 19, 2017 - Technology & Engineering - 139 pages.
  22. ^ "Russian project Luna-Glob: goals and status" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  23. ^ "RETURN TO THE MOON: NEXT STEPS" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  24. ^ "Russia To Build Lunar Base By 2037", Xinhua, , 26 January 2011.
  25. ^ "Russia will send 12 cosmonauts to the moon by 2030". Mail Online. 22 June 2016.

External links

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