List of shortest-lived sovereign states

This page was last edited on 21 November 2017, at 21:56.

This is a list of shortest-lived sovereign states. It lists all previous proclaimed sovereign states (excluding micronations) that lasted for less than 1 year. Some of these states represent transitional periods during the formation or reformation of states; an example of this is the State of Somaliland, formed by the independence of British Somaliland which, after 5 days of nominal existence in 1960, merged with the Trust Territory of Somaliland to form the Somali Republic. Some represent proclamations by secessionist or revolutionary movements that were quickly suppressed by established states, an example of this is the Republic of Puerto Rico declared in the 1868 Lares revolution which was quashed by Spain.

List

Legend
Short and formal names Declared Dissolved Lifespan Predecessors Successors Notes
Benin – Republic of Benin September 19, 1967 September 20, 1967 1 day Biafra  Nigeria Puppet state of Biafra.
Carpatho-Ukraine March 15, 1939 March 16, 1939 1 day Czechoslovakia Kingdom of Hungary
Crimea – Republic of Crimea March 17, 2014 March 18, 2014[1][2] 1 day Ukraine Russia Declared unilateral independence from Ukraine, which continues to claim it as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol. Recognized only by Russia.
Republic of Puerto Rico September 23, 1868 September 24, 1868 1 day Kingdom of Spain El Grito de Lares - diverse groups of people fighting together for the revolutionary change of Puerto Rican society.
Faroe Islands September 18, 1946 September 20, 1946 2 days  Kingdom of Denmark
Mindanao – Federal Republic of Mindanao October 4, 1990 October 6, 1990 2 days  Philippines
State of Somaliland June 26, 1960 July 1, 1960 5 days British Somaliland Somali Republic
Republic of Martyazo 1 May 1972 9 May 1972 8 days  Burundi
 Prekmurje – Republic of Prekmurje May 29, 1919 June 6, 1919 8 days Austria-Hungary Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Kruševo Republic – Republic of Kruševo August 3, 1903 August 13, 1903 10 days Ottoman Empire Political entity proclaimed in 1903 by rebels from the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization in Kruševo during the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising.
Louisiana – Republic of Louisiana January 26, 1861 February 8, 1861 13 days United States Confederate States
 Banat Republic November 1, 1918 November 15, 1918 14 days Austria-Hungary Kingdom of Romania Recognized only by Hungary.
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Soviet Slovakia June 16, 1919 July 7, 1919 21 days Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia Puppet state of the Hungarian Soviet Republic
Hungarian Soviet Republic
Republic of Kuwait[3] August 4, 1990 August 28, 1990 24 days Kuwait Ba'athist Iraq Puppet state of Ba'athist Iraq. Created after the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait in order to request its own annexation and incorporation as Iraq's 19th Governorate during the lead up to the Gulf War. Recognised only by Iraq.
Republic of Alba (1944) October 10, 1944 November 2, 1944 24 days Italian Social Republic A local resistance against Italian fascism during World War II. The one of 20 Italian Partisan Republics
California Republic June 14, 1846 July 9, 1846 25 days Mexico United States
Alabama Republic – Alabama Republic January 11, 1861 February 8, 1861 28 days United States Confederate States
Florida – Republic of Florida January 10, 1861 29 days
Texas – Republic of Texas February 1, 1861 March 2, 1861 29 days
Mississippi – Republic of Mississippi January 9, 1861 February 8, 1861 30 days
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs October 29, 1918 December 1, 1918 33 days Austria-Hungary Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
West Florida – Republic of West Florida September 23, 1810 October 27, 1810 34 days Spanish West Florida United States
Transcaucasian Federation – Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic April 22, 1918 May 28, 1918 36 days Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic First Republic of Armenia
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Democratic Republic of Georgia
 Labin Republic March 2, 1921 April 8, 1921 37 days Kingdom of Italy
Biak-na-Bato – Republic of the Philippines November 1, 1897 December 15, 1897 44 days Spanish East Indies
Sovereign Tagalog Nation First Philippine Republic
Republic of Ossola September 8, 1944 October 23, 1944 45 days Italian Social Republic A local resistance against Italian fascism during World War II. The one of 20 Italian Partisan Republics
Democratic Republic of Yemen May 21, 1994 July 7, 1994 47 days  Yemen
Palmetto Republic – Republic of South Carolina December 20, 1860 February 8, 1861 50 days United States Confederate States
Republic of Bolivar – Republic of Bolivar August 11, 1825 October 3, 1825 51 days Spanish Empire Bolivia
Land of Iceland – Kingdom of Island June 26, 1809 August 22, 1809 58 days Denmark Danish adventurer Jørgen Jørgensen managed to arrest the governor and proclaimed himself Protector of Iceland, promising that he would reinstate the Althing as soon as the Icelandic people were able to govern themselves.
Inner Mongolian People's Republic September 9, 1945 November 6, 1945 58 days Soviet occupation of Manchuria Communist-controlled China (1927–49)
Sovereign Council of Asturias and León 24 August 1937 21 October 1937 59 days Second Spanish Republic Spanish State
Mali Federation June 20, 1960 August 20, 1960 62 days French Senegal, French Sudan Senegal, Mali
Saskatchewan – Provisional Government of Saskatchewan March 19, 1885 May 20, 1885 62 days Canada
Bangsamoro Republik – United Federated States of Bangsamoro Republik July 27, 2013 September 28, 2013 64 days  Philippines
Commune of the Working People of Estonia November 29, 1918 February 1, 1919 65 days  Estonia Puppet state of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic during the Estonian War of Independence. Officially disestablished later in exile, on 5 June 1919.
United Baltic Duchy September 22, 1918 November 28, 1918 67 days German Empire Latvian Provisional Government
Estonia
Client state of the German Empire
Spanish Haiti – Republic of Spanish Haiti November 30, 1821 February 9, 1822 71 days Santo Domingo Ozama and the Cibao
Soviet Republic of Naissaar – Soviet Republic of Soldiers and Fortress-Builders of Naissaar December 17, 1917 February 26, 1918 72 days Russian Soviet Republic Ober Ost A Soviet Republic on a tiny Estonian island in the aftermath of the October Revolution and during the time of dual power in the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia.
 Ras al-Khaimah – Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah December 1, 1971 February 11, 1972 72 days Trucial States  United Arab Emirates
Lower California – Republic of Baja California November 3, 1853 January 21, 1854 79 days Mexico Republic of Sonora
Komancza Republic November 4, 1918 January 23, 1919 80 days  Austria-Hungary Second Polish Republic
The Great Republic of Rough and Ready April 7, 1850 July 4, 1850 88 days  USA The town Rough and Ready declared its secession from the Union as "the Great Republic of Rough and Ready" in 1850, largely to avoid mining taxes, but voted to rejoin the Union the following year.[4]
Rauracian Republic December 17, 1792 March 23, 1793 96 days Prince-Bishopric of Basel French Republic Client state of France.
Vemerana – Republic of Vemerana May 28, 1980 September 1, 1980 96 days New Hebrides  Vanuatu Recognized only by France.
Azawad – Independent State of Azawad April 6, 2012 July 12, 2012 97 days  Mali
Finland – Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic 29 January 1918 5 May 1918 97 days  Finland (Pehr Evind Svinhufvud's first senate) Kingdom of Finland (1918-19)
Tanna – Nation of Tanna May 24, 1974 June 29, 1974 97 days New Hebrides
Finland – Finnish Democratic Republic December 1, 1939 March 12, 1940 102 days  Finland  Soviet Union Recognized only by the Soviet Union.

Incorporated in 1940 as the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic.

Zanzibar – People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba January 12, 1964 April 26, 1964 104 days Sultanate of Zanzibar  Tanzania Recognized by most Eastern Bloc states.
Juliana Republic July 24, 1839 November 15, 1839 114 days Empire of Brazil
Moldavian Republic – Moldavian Democratic Republic December 15, 1917 April 9, 1918 115 days Russian Republic Kingdom of Romania
Sonora – Republic of Sonora January 10, 1854 May 8, 1854 118 days Lower California Mexico
Mexico
Hungary – Hungarian State April 14, 1849 August 13, 1849 121 days Austrian Empire
Hungary – Hungarian People's Republic November 16, 1918 March 21, 1919 125 days Hungarian Kingdom Hungarian Soviet Republic
Mirdita – Republic of Mirdita July 17, 1921 November 20, 1921 126 days Principality of Albania Recognized only by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Republic of Užice July 28, 1941 December 1 1941 129 days Kingdom of Yugoslavia Axis occupation of Serbia
Soviet Hungary – Hungarian Soviet Republic March 21, 1919 August 1, 1919 133 days Hungarian People's Republic
Texas – Republic of Texas April 6, 1813 August 18, 1813 134 days New Spain
Parthenopean Republic January 21 1799 June 13 1799 143 days Kingdom of Naples Recognized only by the French First Republic and Puppet state of the French First Republic
Roman Republic (19th century) February 9, 1849 July 2, 1849 144 days Papal States One of Italian revolutionary state in 1848-49.
Syria – Arab Kingdom of Syria March 8, 1920 July 24, 1920 138 days  Occupied Enemy Territory Administration State of Aleppo
State of Damascus
Jabal Druze State
Ezo – Republic of Ezo January 27, 1869 June 27, 1869 151 days Tokugawa Shogunate Empire of Japan Recognized by France and the United Kingdom.
Formosa – Democratic State of Taiwan May 23, 1895 October 21, 1895 151 days Qing Dynasty Empire of Japan
 Hutsul Republic January 8, 1919 June 11, 1919 154 days Austria-Hungary Czechoslovakia
West Ukrainian People's Republic
Cabinda – Republique du Kabinda August 1, 1975 January 4, 1976 156 days Cabinda Province  Angola
People's Republic of Korea September 6, 1945 February 8, 1946 155 days Korea under Japanese rule Provisional People's Committee for North Korea
United States Army Military Government in Korea
Arab Federation January 1, 1958 July 30, 1958 169 days Kingdom of Iraq Iraqi Republic
 Jordan
Zimbabwe Rhodesia – Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia June 1, 1979 December 12, 1979 194 days Rhodesia Southern Rhodesia
Dubrovnik Republic (1991) 15 October 1991 4 May 1992 202 days Croatia
Hungary – Hungarian Republic August 8, 1919 February 29, 1920 205 days Hungarian People's Republic Kingdom of Hungary
SSR Abkhazia – Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia May 21, 1921 December 16, 1921 209 days Democratic Republic of Georgia  Soviet Union
Tafea – Tafea Nation February 14, 1958 August 2, 1958 211 days New Hebrides  Vanuatu
Genoa – Republic of Genoa April 26, 1814 January 7, 1815 211 days First French Empire Kingdom of Sardinia
Political Committee of National Liberation 10 March 1944 9 October 1944 214 days Hellenic State (1941–44) Kingdom of Greece
Freistaat Schwenten January 5, 1919 August 10, 1919 218 days German Empire Weimar Republic After the 1st World war the townsfolk of Schwenten took their fate into their own hands, the inhabitants of Schwenten declared their independence — and their neutrality. When it became clear that Schwenten would remain part of Germany, the state disbanded itself on 10 August 1919, declaring itself part of Germany. This only took effect on 9 June 1920, when the Treaty of Versailles came into force.[5]
Markovo Republic October 31, 1905 June 18, 1906 231 days Russian Empire One of about 14 local authorities, who founded the first Russian Revolution of 1905.
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia March 8, 1918 November 8, 1918 245 days German Empire Latvian Provisional Government Client state of the German Empire
Ukraine – Ukrainian State April 29, 1918 December 14, 1918 249 days Ukrainian People's Republic Directorate of Ukraine
Bagysstan – Independent Bagys-Kazakh Republic December 30, 2001 September 9, 2002 254 days Uzbekistan Kazakhstan A period of a territorial dispute between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan: the Uzbek village of Kazakh residents declaring independence, in September after the national agreement village for compensation becomes a Kazakh territory
Norway – Kingdom of Norway 16 February, 1814 4 November, 1814 261 days Denmark–Norway United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway Norway declared its independence, as a result of the refusal of the Treaty of Kiel after the Napoleonic Wars, adopted a Constitution and elected Danish Prince Christian Frederik as its own king. Resulting to a short war with Sweden, leading to Norway accepting entering into a personal union with Sweden at the Convention of Moss.
Lithuania – Kingdom of Lithuania February 16, 1918 November 9, 1918 266 days German Empire Lithuania Client state of the German Empire
West Ukraine – West Ukrainian People's Republic October 18, 1918 July 17, 1919 272 days Austria-Hungary First Czechoslovak Republic
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
Ukrainian People's Republic
Goshen – State of Goshen October 24, 1882 August 6, 1883 286 days No predecessor United States of Stellaland
White Ruthenian Democratic Republic – Belarusian People's Republic March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 286 days Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic The Rada of the BDR is the oldest existing government in exile.
Second Polish Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
Acre – Third Republic of Acre January 27, 1903 November 11, 1903 288 days  Bolivia  Brazil
Rio Grande – Republic of the Río Grande January 17, 1840 November 6, 1840 294 days  Mexico  Mexico
Republic of Texas
United States of Belgium January 11, 1790 December 2, 1790 325 days Habsburg Monarchy
North Solomons – Republic of the North Solomons September 1, 1975 August 7, 1976 341 days Papua & New Guinea

References

  1. ^ "Putin Reclaims Crimea for Russia and Bitterly Denounces the West". The New York Times. March 18, 2014. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
  2. ^ "State Duma adopts documents on Crimea's joining the Russian Federation". ITAR-Tass. March 20, 2014. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
  3. ^ Schofield, Clive. The Middle East And Africa. p. 147.
  4. ^ "The Great Republic of Rough and Ready, by Arthur Winfield Knight [secession, California, CA]". Theava.com. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  5. ^ Jacobs, Frank. "Life, Liberty, and Free Beer: the Short-lived Freistaat Schwenten". Bigthink.com. Retrieved 27 October 2017.

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