List of disasters in Great Britain and Ireland by death toll

Last updated on 16 November 2017

The following list of disasters in Great Britain and Ireland is a list of major disasters (excluding acts of war but including acts of terrorism) which relate to the United Kingdom since 1801, or the states that preceded it (England and Wales and Scotland before 1707, Ireland and Great Britain from 1707 to 1800), or involved their citizens, in a definable incident or accident such as a shipwreck, where the loss of life was forty or more.

Over 200 fatalities

Deaths
Italics indicate an
estimated figure
Event Year Notes
3,500,000 Black Death pandemic 1347–1350 See discussion of death toll estimates at Black Death in England#Death toll.
1,000,000[1] to 1,500,000 Great Irish Famine 1845–1849 See discussion of death toll estimates at Great Famine (Ireland)#Death toll.
250,000 Spanish flu pandemic 1918 (Sep–Nov) An estimated 200,000 people died in England and Wales.[2] Although the official number of deaths in Scotland due to the pandemic is 17,575, a modern estimate of total pandemic mortality in Scotland is between 27,641 and 33,771.[3] About 20,000 died in Ireland.[4]
100,000 – see note opposite Great Irish Famine (18th century – also known as The Great Frost) 1740–1741 Estimates now indicate that the death toll in this famine was up to 500,000 from starvation and disease. Sources: http://www.independent.ie/irish-news/our-cold-snap-was-nothing-compared-to-the-great-irish-frost-of-1740-26609822.html and https://www.irishtimes.com/news/the-great-frost-and-forgotten-famine-1.282539
65,000 Year Without a Summer 1816 Famine and typhoid fever in Ireland[5] and food riots in England and France, caused by the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora affecting the weather.
60,000 Great Plague of London 1665
20,000 [6] Laki volcano fissure eruption 1783–1784 (Jun–Feb)
8,000 Great Storm of 1703 1703 (26 November)
5,000+ Great Famine (14th century) 1315–1317
4,000 to 12,000 "The Great Smog", London 1952 (December)
4,000+ Blockade of Porto Bello 1726–1727 Deaths resulting from yellow fever.
3,500+ 1782 Central Atlantic hurricane 1782 (16–17 Sep) Loss of HMS Ramillies, HMS Centaur; storeships Dutton and British Queen; captured French prize ships Ville de Paris, Glorieux, Hector and Caton; plus other merchantmen.
3,000 1212 Great Fire of London 1212 (July) Source for fatalities is the Guinness Book of Records,[7] but historical evidence unclear.
2,400+ Tainted blood scandal 1970s–1980s (deaths up to decades later)[8] .
2,139 [9] 2003 European heat wave 2003 (4–13 August)
2,000 Bristol Channel floods 1607 (30 January)[10]
2,000 Sweating sickness (sudor anglicus) 1485 ff.
1,900+ Christmas Eve storm 1811 (24 December) Wrecks HMS St George, HMS Defence and HMS Fancy off Thorsminde, Jutland; and HMS Hero and HMS Archimedes off Texel, Netherlands.
1,550+ Scilly naval disaster 1707 (22 October) HMS Association, HMS Eagle, HMS Romney and HMS Firebrand.
1,517 RMS Titanic 1912 (15 April) US Senate inquiry gave 1,517 fatalities.[11]
1,200 Strait of Gibraltar storm 1694 (1 March)[10] Wrecks HMS Sussex and accompanying ships.
1,012 RMS Empress of Ireland 1914 (29 May) Ship registered in London, crew almost entirely from Merseyside.
1,000 1867 Barbados hurricane 1867 RMS Rhone, RMS Wye and up to 50 other vessels driven ashore.[12]
1,000 Great Hurricane of 1780 1780 (10 October) Royal Navy ships lost included HMS Cornwall, HMS Experiment and HMS Ontario
900+ Plymouth Sound storm 1691 (3 September) Wrecks HMS Coronation and HMS Harwich.
900 HMS Victory (1737) 1744 (3 October) Wrecked on the Casquets in the Channel Islands.
890+ Walker Expedition disaster 1711 (22 August) Seven transport ships and one storeship wrecked in thick fog on the Saint Lawrence River, Canada.
843 HMS Vanguard explosion 1917 (9 July) Magazine explosion.
800 HMS Royal George capsizes 1782 (29 August)
748+ Royal Charter Storm 1859 (26 October) The Royal Charter and other ships wrecked in Lligwy Bay, Anglesey.
738 HMS Bulwark explosion 1914 (26 November) Magazine explosion.
699 HMS Ramillies [13] 1760 (15 February) Runs aground off Bolt Head, Devon.
690 HMS Queen Charlotte fire 1800 (17 March)
646 SS Mendi 1917 (21 February) Rammed by SS Darro off the Isle of Wight.
640 Princess Alice disaster 1878 (3 September) Collision with the Bywell Castle in the River Thames near Woolwich.
635 SS Norge shipwreck 1904 (28 June)
612 Tramore storm 1816 (30 January) Wrecks the ships Sea Horse,[14] Boadicea and Lord Melville.[15]
600+ an unidentified troop ship 1796 (23 January) shipwreck possibly one of Admiral Christian's West Indies convoy wrecked on Loe Bar, Cornwall.[16]
600 HMS Coronation (1685) 1691 (3 September) 2nd rate ship foundered off Rame Head, Cornwall.[17]
564 SS Utopia disaster 1891 (17 March) Collision with HMS Anson off Gibraltar.[18]
546 RMS Atlantic 1873 (1 April)
531[19] 1953 North Sea storm and flood 1953 (31 Jan – 1 Feb) Included the ferry MV Princess Victoria.
520 HMS Namur 1749 (14 April) Wrecked in a storm near Fort St David.
500+ 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak 1854 (Aug–Sep) Cholera epidemic in London.
500 HMS Minotaur 1810 (22 December) Wrecked on Haak Bank near Texel, Netherlands.
500 "Black Monday" 1209 Massacre of English settlers by Irish clans, near Ranelagh, Dublin, on Easter Monday.
491 HMS York 1804 (Jan) Struck the Bell Rock and sank with the loss of her entire crew.
481 HMS Captain 1870 (6 September) Sank off Cape Finisterre, Spain.
480 SS City of Glasgow 1854 (March) Disappeared after leaving Liverpool for Philadelphia.
473 Cospatrick 1874 (18 November) Caught fire in the South Atlantic.
470 HMS Courageux 1796 (18 December) Shipwrecked at Apes' Hill, Barbary Coast (now Monte Hacho, Ceuta, Africa)[20]
454 Vryheid 1802 (23 November) Formerly the Melville Castle, shipwrecked in a gale off the Kent coast between Hythe and Dymchurch. 18 of 472 on board survived.
450 HMS Birkenhead 1852 (25 February) Shipwrecked near Cape Town.
439 Senghenydd Colliery Disaster 1913 (14 October) Gas explosion at the Universal Colliery, Senghenydd, Caerphilly, Glamorganshire. Britain's worst mining accident.
431 HMS Otranto 1918 (6 October) Shipwrecked off Islay. 351 United States troops and 80 crew perished.
421 HMS Natal 1915 (30 December) Magazine explosion. Precise number of deaths disputed; 421 is highest estimate.
421 Dumfries cholera epidemic 1832 (15 Sep – 27 Nov)
406 Cataraqui 1845 (4 August) Shipwrecked off King Island, Tasmania.
400+ Rochdale and Prince of Wales 1807 (19 November) Carried troops leaving Dublin for the Napoleonic Wars.
400+ HMS Invincible 1801 (16 March) Sank off Norfolk while en route to the Battle of Copenhagen.
400 HMS Winchester 1695 (1 September) Shipwrecked on a reef off Key Largo, Florida.
400 Pomona 1859 (30 April) carrying, mainly Irish, emigrants from Liverpool to New York. Shipwrecked on a sandbank at Ballyconigar, off Wexford, Ireland.
384 Annie Jane 1853 (28 September) Emigrant ship out of Liverpool, wrecked Vatersay.
361 The Oaks explosion 1866 (12 December) Colliery disaster, Barnsley, Yorkshire. (383 claimed but not verified) [21]
380 Mary Rose 1545 (18 July) Sank off Portsmouth.
379 HMS Dasher (D37) 1943 (27 March) Accidental fuel explosion, Firth of Clyde.
374 Driver 1856 (February) Clipper ship out of Liverpool, disappeared while crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
372 Arniston 1815 (30 May) Wrecked at Waenhuiskrans, South Africa.
369[22] Queen 1814 (14 Jan) Wrecked in Carrick Roads, Cornwall.
360+ Elizabeth 1810 (18 December) Chartered East Indiaman wrecked off Dunkirk.
358 HMS Victoria 1893 (22 June) Rammed by HMS Camperdown in the Mediterranean Sea.
352 HMS Princess Irene 1915 (27 May) Explosion while on the River Medway, Sheerness.
347 HMS Athenienne 1806 (20 October) Wrecked off Tunisia. 100 survivors crammed into the ship's launch.
344 Pretoria Pit Disaster 1910 (21 December) Underground explosion at the Hulton Bank Colliery, Westhoughton, Lancashire.
340 Aeneas 1805 (23 October) Troopship wrecked on the Îles aux Mortes along the Canadian coastline while carrying troops to Quebec.
338 HMS Curaçao 1942 (2 October) Light cruiser run down and split in two by RMS Queen Mary.
335 SS Schiller 1875 (7 May) Shipwrecked off the Isles of Scilly.
329 Air India Flight 182 1985 (23 June) Act of terror: destroyed by a bomb, crashed into the Atlantic Ocean while in Irish airspace.
317[23] HMS Eurydice 1878 (22 March) Sank off the Isle of Wight. Commemorated by Gerard Manley Hopkins in the poem "The Loss of the Eurydice".
300 White Ship 1120 (25 November) Shipwrecked off Barfleur, Normandy, taking the only legitimate son of King Henry I of England.
300 Sibylle 1834 (11 September) Emigrant ship out of Cromarty wrecked off St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia.
300+ HMS Amphion 1796 (22 September) Magazine explosion while at Plymouth, Devon.
300 HMS London 1665 Accidental explosion while in the Thames Estuary.
299 Kapunda 1887 (20 January) Emigrant ship out of London, collided with the barque Ada Melmore off Brazil.
297 RMS Tayleur 1854 (21 January) Shipwrecked off Lambay Island, Dublin Bay during its maiden voyage after its iron hull deflected its compass.
293 Northfleet 1873 (22 January) Rammed at night by a Spanish steamboat while anchored off Dungeness.
290 HMS Sceptre 1799 (5 December) Wrecked during a storm in Table Bay, near the Cape of Good Hope.
290 Albion Colliery explosion 1894 (23 June) Firedamp explosion.[24][25]
285 Gordon Riots 1780 (2–13 June) Rioters shot by troops.
281 HMS Atalanta 1880 (31 January) HMS Eurydice's sister ship, disappeared after leaving Bermuda bound for Falmouth, Cornwall.
276 VOC Hollandia 1743 (13 June) Shipwrecked off Annet, Isles of Scilly.
270 Great Sheffield Flood 1864 Caused by collapse of Dale Dike Reservoir during its first filling.
270[26] Pan Am Flight 103 1988 (21 December) Blown apart at 31,000 ft over Lockerbie, Scotland, by terrorist bomb in forward hold.
268 Abercarn mining disaster 1878 (11 September) Mining disaster at Abercarn, Monmouthshire.
266 Gresford Disaster 1934 (22 September) Mining accident near Wrexham, North Wales.
260 Earl of Abergavenny 1805 (5 February) Shipwrecked off Portland Bill.
253 HMS Saldanha 1811 (4 December) Shipwrecked during gale off Lough Swilly, Donegal, Ireland.
250+ Night of the Big Wind 1839 (6–7 January)
250 RMS Royal Adelaide 1849 Shipwrecked on a sandbank off Margate, Kent.
247 Doddington 1755 Shipwrecked in Algoa Bay, South Africa.
246 HMS Avenger 1847 (20 December) Wrecked off the Galite Islands, Tunisia.
241 Exmouth of Newcastle 1847 (28 April) Shipwrecked off Islay.[27]
240 HMS Lutine 1799 (9 October) Shipwrecked off Vlieland.
238[28] MV Dara 1961 (8 April) British-India Steam Navigation Company passenger liner evacuated in the Persian Gulf off Dubai following explosion and fire.
238 HMS Tribune 1797 (16 November) Wrecked during a storm off Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
237 SS Anglo Saxon 1863 (27 April) Wrecked in dense fog off Cape Race, Newfoundland, Canada.
226 Quintinshill rail crash 1915 (22 May) Three-train collision in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland.
224 Neva 1835 (13 May) Convict ship out of Cork wrecked on reefs off King Island, Tasmania.
220 SS London 1866 (11 January) Sank during gale in the Bay of Biscay.[29]
220 Great Blizzard of 1891 1891 (9–13 March) [30]
220 Hartley Colliery Disaster 1862 (16 January) Caused by steam engine metal fatigue.
215 Lady of the Lake 1833 (11 May) Struck iceberg in the North Atlantic and sank.
212 Sovereign 1814 (18 October) Wrecked off St. Paul Island (Nova Scotia).
210 Rinaldo 1878 (18 December) Collision with French steamship Byzantin in the Dardanelles.[12]
208 Harpooner 1818 (November) Military transport ship shipwrecked off Newfoundland.
207 Blantyre mining disaster 1877 (22 October) Gas explosion.
205 SS Hungarian 1860 (20 February) An Allan Line Royal Mail Steamer out of Liverpool and Queenstown (Cobh) wrecked off Cape Sable Island (Nova Scotia).[31]
201 HMS Iolaire 1919 (1 January) Admiralty yacht returning soldiers to Scotland after World War I. Sank off Stornoway in the Outer Hebrides.[32]

100–199 fatalities

Deaths
Italics indicate an
estimated figure
Event Year Notes
193 MS Herald of Free Enterprise 1987 (6 March) Ferry capsized off Zeebrugge in under one minute after its RORO bow doors were left open. Unlawful killing verdict.
192 Transport ship Dispatch and Brig-of-War HMS Primrose ( Royal Navy) 1809 (22 January) Both ships sank after hitting The Manacles.[33]
191 SS City of Boston (Inman Line) 1870 (after 28 January) Ship out of New York City and Halifax, Nova Scotia disappeared in the Atlantic Ocean. Possibly struck an iceberg.
189 Lundhill Colliery explosion 1857 (19 February) Colliery disaster, Wombwell, Yorkshire.
189 Wood Pit Colliery explosion 1878 (7 June) Colliery disaster, Haydock, Lancashire. The total fatalities, which included one man and all of his five sons, may have been 204 or more.[34]
189 HMS Orpheus 1863 (7 February) Sank off Auckland due to outdated nautical charts and shortcuts.
189 Eyemouth Disaster 1881 (14 October) Local fishing fleet sank during a European Windstorm that struck the southeast coast of Scotland. [1]
186 Theatre Royal, Exeter 1887 (5 September) Fire caused by gas lights.
183 Victoria Hall disaster 1883 (16 June) Stampede at Sunderland after a children's Variety show to get prizes and gifts resulted in compressive asphyxia and trampling.
179 SS Cambria 1870 (19 October) Shipwrecked at Inishtrahull.
178 Ferndale Colliery disaster 1867 (8 November) Mining disaster in the Rhondda Valley, Glamorganshire.
178 Ocean Monarch 1848 (24 August) Shipwreck and fire off Great Orme, Llandudno caused by steerage passengers' smoking materials.
178 Clifton Hall Colliery explosion 1885 (18 June) Explosion of firedamp gas in a colliery at Salford.
176 Llannerch, Cwmnantddu 1890 (6 February) Colliery gas explosion near Pontypool, Monmouthshire after the mine refused safety lamps by its MD two months earlier.
173 Bethnal Green tube station panic 1943 (3 March) Crowd stampede caused by British anti-aircraft battery salvo.
172 HMS Serpent 1890 (9 November) Royal Navy torpedo cruiser launched in 1887 shipwrecked off Camariñas, Galicia.
168 Burns Pit Disaster 1909 (16 February) Mining disaster at Stanley, County Durham.
167 Piper Alpha 1988 (6 July) Oil platform gas leak, explosion and fire 30m above cold seas in the North Sea.
166 Bombing of underground shelter at Edge Hill, Liverpool 1940 (29 November) Direct hit on the shelter at Durning Road during the Liverpool Blitz of World War 2.
164 Seaham Colliery accident 1880 (8 September) Mining accident at Seaham, County Durham.
159 Ferndale Colliery explosions 1867 (8 November) Mining explosions in the Rhondda Valley, Glamorganshire, caused by gas and miners tampering with safety lamps.
157 Deutschland 1875 (6 December) Shipwrecked during a blizzard on Kentish Knock sandbank, Thames Estuary. Tugboat rescue delayed until the next day, most died of hypothermia.
155 Minnie Pit disaster 1918 (12 January) Mining disaster at Podmore Hall, Halmer End, Staffordshire.
150 Clifford's Tower fire massacre 1190 (16 March) Massacre in York of medieval Jews by a mob.
146 Risca Blackvein Disaster 1860 (1 December) Coal mining disaster at Risca, Monmouthshire caused by a gas explosion.
146 Dan-Air Flight 1008 1980 (25 April) Whilst in a holding pattern the plane flew into Mount Esperanza, Tenerife, after turning the wrong way.
146 Aberfan disaster 1966 (21 October) Coal-waste spoil tip collapsed onto a junior school, Glamorganshire.
143 Swaithe Main Colliery disaster 1875 (6 December) Mining disaster at Worsbrough, Yorkshire.
141 SS Berlin 1907 (21 February) Great Eastern Railway steamship out of Harwich wrecked off Hook of Holland.
140 RMS Amazon 1852 (4 January) Steam engine of a wooden mail paddle steamer caught fire, 60 miles west of Isles of Scilly.
140 HMS Condor 1901 (3 December) Ship lost with all hands in a gale off Vancouver Island.
140 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami 2004 (26 December) UK victims only; see Countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
139 George III 1835 (12 April) Convict ship wrecked in D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Tasmania.
139 Combs Pit disaster 1893 (4 July) Mining disaster at Thornhill, Yorkshire.
137 National Shell Filling Factory explosion 1918 (1 July) Munitions explosion at Chilwell in Nottinghamshire. Eight tons of TNT exploded.
136 Wellington Colliery disaster 1910 (11 May) Coal mining disaster at Whitehaven, Cumberland.
135 Alexander 1815 (27 March) Ship out of Bombay wrecked near Portland within sight of shore. The ship was caught in a gale and ran aground at night.
133 Amphitrite 1833 (31 August) Convict ship from Woolwich to Australia wrecked off Boulogne.
133 MV Princess Victoria 1953 (31 January) Early roll-on/roll-off ferry disaster in the North Channel during a storm.
131 Lincoln typhoid fever epidemic 1904 (November) – 1905 (April)
130 Rothsay Castle 1831 (18 August) Paddle steamer from Liverpool shipwrecked in the Menai Strait under the command of a drunken captain.
129 John Franklin's Northwest Passage expedition 1845–1848 HMS Erebus and HMS Terror caught in pack ice; the crews endured botulism, lead poisoning and cannibalism before starvation.
128 TSMS Lakonia 1963 (22 December) Caught fire and sank off Madeira. Resulted in 98 (mainly British) passenger deaths, plus 33 crew fatalities.
128 HMS Gladiator 1908 (25 April) Shipwrecked in a collision with an American steamship during a snowstorm, Isle of Wight.
127 Maxwelltown Cholera epidemic 1832 (September–November)
125 HMS Primrose 1809 (22 January) Shipwrecked on The Manacles, Cornwall.
125 SS Hilda 1905 (18 November) London and South Western Railway steamship wrecked in snow squalls off Saint-Malo.
124 BOAC Flight 911 1966 (5 March) Aircraft broke up in flight near Mount Fuji, Japan. A significant percentage of the fatalities were American and Japanese citizens.
124 SS Daphne 1883 (3 July) Capsized during her ship naming and launching, River Clyde, Glasgow.
123 Ocean Queen 1856 (February) Clipper ship out of London disappeared in the Atlantic Ocean.
121 Dunbar 1857 (20 August) Clipper out of Plymouth wrecked at Sydney Cove, Australia.
120 New Risca pit explosion 1880 (5 July) Coal mining disaster, Risca, Monmouthshire.
120 Dover Straits earthquake 1580 (6 April) Earthquake causing freak waves, possible tsunami and flooding in France, Flanders and England.
120+ Bibighar Massacre 1857 (15 July) Massacre of European women and children at Cawnpore (Kanpur), India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
119 National Colliery explosion 1905 (11 July) Coal mine explosion at Wattstown, Rhondda Valley, Glamorganshire.
118 British European Airways Flight 548 1972 (18 June) Crashed into a field at Staines. Possible heart attack in the pilot after takeoff.
114 Rhondda Colliery gas explosion 1856 (13 July) Coal mine explosion at Cymmer, Porth, Glamorganshire.
112 SS Stella 1899 (30 March) London and South Western Railway steamship wrecked on a granite reef in fog at full speed, sinking in 8 minutes, at the Casquets, Channel Islands.
112 Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash 1952 (12 October) Three trains collided in patchy fog in morning rush hour.
112 Dan-Air Flight 1903 1970 (3 July) De Havilland Comet crashed into a mountain in Catalonia, Spain.
111 Caledonian Airways Flight 153 1962 (4 March) Crashed after take-off from Douala, Cameroon.
110 Parc Slip Colliery gas explosion 1892 (26 August) Gas explosion due to a damaged Davy lamp, Tondu, Glamorganshire.
109 Faversham gunpowder mill explosion 1916 (2 April)
108 Invicta International Airlines Flight 435 1973 (10 April) Crashed into a forested, snowy hillside near Hochwald, Switzerland.
106 SS Avalanche 1877 (11 September) Ship out of London for Wellington, New Zealand, collided with Forest Queen off Isle of Portland, English Channel. Both sank.
106 SS Mohegan 1898 (14 October) Shipwrecked off The Manacles, Cornwall.
104 William Pit disaster 1947 (15 August) Coal mining disaster at Whitehaven, Cumberland.[35]
104 HMS Brazen 1800 (26 January) Shipwrecked off Newhaven, Sussex.
102 Pelican 1793 (20 March) Sank in the River Mersey.
102 HMS Feversham 1711 (7 October) Shipwrecked off Scatterie Island, Louisbourg, Nova Scotia.
101 Naval Steam Colliery explosion 1880 (10 December) Colliery explosion, Tonypandy, Rhondda Valley. 4 bodies unidentified.[36]
100+ HMS Lizard 1748 (27 February) Wrecked on the Seven Stones reef.[37]
100 "Battle" of May Island 1918 (31 January–1 February) Two Royal Navy submarines sunk after collisions during naval exercise.
100 Moray Firth fishing disaster 1848 (19 August) Open hulled fishing fleet storm disaster.
100 HMS Confiance 1822 (21 September) 36-gun, 393 ton brig sloop was wrecked between Mizen Head and Three Castles Head, at the south-westernmost point of Ireland.

Fewer than 100 fatalities

See also

References

  1. ^ Jim Donnelly (2011). "The Irish Famine". BBC.
  2. ^ "British Influenza Epidemic of 1918–19" in Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present (3rd ed. 2008: ed. George Childs Kohn), Infobase, p. 46.
  3. ^ Niall P.A.S. Johnson, Scottish flu – The Scottish Experience of 'Spanish Flu', Scottish Historical Review, Jan 2008, vol. 83, No. 2, pp. 216–226.
  4. ^ Michael B. A. Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues, and History, Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 174.
  5. ^ Bill Bryson; A Short History...;p 372; ISBN 0-385-40818-8
  6. ^ Estimate of mortality in England.
  7. ^ "In July 1212, 3,000 were killed in the crush, burned or drowned when London Bridge caught fire at both ends". (p.184) Norris McWhirter and Ross McWhirter (1971). Guinness Book of Records. Guinness Superlatives Limited. ISBN 0-900424-05-2.
  8. ^ http://www.taintedblood.info/background.php accessed 01/09/2015
  9. ^ Difference between the number of deaths in that period and the average number in other years.
  10. ^ a b New style dating.
  11. ^ "Passenger List and Survivors of Steamship Titanic". United States Senate Inquiry. 30 July 1912. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  12. ^ a b Marshall, Logan, Sinking of the Titanic and Great Disasters of the Sea, 1912.
  13. ^ Formerly HMS Royal Katherine.
  14. ^ Andy Taylor. "The Wreck of the Sea Horse". Discover Tramore. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  15. ^ Grocott, Terence (1999). Shipwrecks of the Revolutionary & Napoleonic Eras. Journal of Navigation: Cambridge University Press 52 p.149–162.
  16. ^ Treglown, Tony (2011). Porthleven in years gone by Local Shipwrecks. Ashton: Tony Treglown. ISBN 978-0-9539019-7-5.
  17. ^ Eekelers, Dirk; Lettens, Jan. "HMS Coronation (north part) [+1691]". wrecksite. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  18. ^ 562 passengers and crewmembers of Utopia and two rescuers from HMS Immortalité. "The Dead of the Utopia", The New York Times, 20 March 1891.
  19. ^ British victims only.
  20. ^ Grocott, p41.
  21. ^ "Oaks Disaster Victims". Dearne Valley Landscape Partnership. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  22. ^ Allen, Tony. "Queen [+1814]". wrecksite. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  23. ^ 317 named fatalities (Memorials & Monuments in St Ann's Church – HMS Eurydice).
  24. ^ "Albion Colliery". BBC Wales. 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
  25. ^ "Albion Colliery Cilfynydd". Welsh Coal Mines. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
  26. ^ All victims, regardless of nationality.
  27. ^ Islay Info
  28. ^ Mostly non-British nationals.
  29. ^ http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~nzbound/london.htm
  30. ^ Woodward, Antony and Penn, Robert (2007). The Wrong Kind of Snow. ISBN 978-0-340-93787-7
  31. ^ http://museum.gov.ns.ca/mma/wrecks/wrecks/shipwrecks.asp?ID=2197
  32. ^ "Sinking of HMY Iolaire - list of all on board at time of grounding". Across Two Seas. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  33. ^ "The Manacles". Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  34. ^ Ian Winstanley, Those Who Died
  35. ^ – Photograph of William Pit
  36. ^ "Naval Colliery disasters". Welsh Coal Mines. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
  37. ^ Larn, Richard (1992). The Shipwrecks of the Isles of Scilly. Nairn: Thomas & Lochar. ISBN 0 946537 84 4.
  38. ^ Lettens, Jan. "HMS Jasper (+1817)". wrecksite. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
  39. ^ Nitshill 15 March 1851 scottishmining.co.uk, accessed 5 April 2009
  40. ^ Noall, Cyril (1968). Cornish Lights and Ship-Wrecks. Truro: D Bradford Barton.
  41. ^ Larn, Richard; Larn, Bridget (1997). Shipwreck Index of the British Isles. London: Lloyd's Register of Shipping.
  42. ^ "The Catastrophe in the Regent's Park", The Times, 22 January 1867, p.12

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