List of Presidents of the United States by previous experience

Last updated on 27 July 2017

Although many paths may lead to the Presidency of the United States, the most common job experience, occupation or profession of U.S. presidents has been lawyer.[1] This sortable table enumerates all holders of that office, along with major elective or appointive offices or periods of military service prior to election to the Presidency. The column immediately to the right of the Presidents' names shows the position or office held just before the Presidency. The next column to the right lists the next previous position held, and so on. Note that the total number of previous positions held by an individual may exceed four; the number of columns was limited to what would fit within the page width. The last two columns on the right list the home state (at the time of election to the Presidency) and primary occupation of each future President, prior to beginning a political career.

By the numbers

Of the 44[a] different people who have served as President:

26 Presidents had previously been lawyers

22 Presidents had previous military experience; 9 were Generals in the US Army.[2]

18 Presidents previously served as U.S. Representatives; 6 of 18 held this office prior to the four 'previous positions' shown in this table. Only two - James A. Garfield and Abraham Lincoln - were Representatives immediately before election as President. Only John Quincy Adams served as a U.S. Representative after being President. Additionally, after being president, John Tyler served in the Provisional Confederate Congress and was later elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but he died before taking his seat.[3] Tyler had served as a U.S. Representative prior to becoming president.

17 Presidents previously served as Governors; 16 were State Governors; 9 were Governors immediately before election as President. Only one, William Howard Taft, served as a Territorial Governor.

16 Presidents previously served as U.S. Senators; only 3 immediately before election as President. Only one president, Andrew Johnson, ever served as a U.S. Senator after his presidency.

14 Presidents previously served as Vice-President. All except Nixon were VP immediately before election as President; 9 of the 14 succeeded to the Presidency because of the death or resignation of the elected President; 5 of those 9 were not re-elected.

8 Presidents were out of office (for at least one year) immediately before election as President.

8 Presidents previously served as Cabinet Secretaries; 6 as Secretary of State; 5 of the 8 served immediately before election as President.

7 Presidents had previous experience in foreign service.[4]

7 Presidents came from the state of New York (8 if Grover Cleveland is counted twice),[5] 7 each from Ohio and Virginia; 4 from Massachusetts; 3 each from the states of Tennessee, California, Texas and Illinois. Presidents have come from 9 other states, 18 different states in all.

5 Presidents were close family relations of previous presidents: John Quincy Adams (son of John Adams), Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), Zachary Taylor (second cousin of James Madison), Franklin Roosevelt (nephew-in-law and distant cousin of Theodore Roosevelt), and George W. Bush (son of George H. W. Bush).

5 Presidents had never been elected to public office before becoming President: Zachary Taylor, Ulysses S. Grant, Herbert Hoover, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Donald Trump. Hoover had formerly served as Secretary of Commerce, an appointed office. Taylor, Grant and Eisenhower had never held political office prior to their presidencies, but they had served as leading American generals in the Mexican-American War, American Civil War and World War Two, respectively.

1 President had never served in elected public office, the military, or government before becoming president: Donald Trump. Trump was a real estate developer, businessman, and television personality who served as chairman of the Trump Organization.

1 President served as Speaker of the House of Representatives, James K. Polk.

1 President served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, William Howard Taft. He did this after his presidency.

1 President served as President of the United States for two non-consecutive terms, Grover Cleveland

President Previous 1 Previous 2 Previous 3 Previous 4 State[6] Occupation
1 George-Washington.jpg George Washington out of office[7] Constitutional Convention[8] out of office military[9] Virginia planter, land surveyor
2 Johnadams.jpg John Adams Vice-President foreign service[10] Continental Congress State legislator Massachusetts lawyer
3 02 Thomas Jefferson 3x4.jpg Thomas Jefferson Vice-President Secretary of State foreign service Congressman Virginia planter, lawyer
4 James Madison.jpg James Madison Secretary of State U.S. Representative Constitutional Convention State legislator[11] Virginia planter
5 James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif James Monroe Secretary of State foreign service State governor U.S. Senator Virginia lawyer
6 John Quincy Adams.jpg John Quincy Adams Secretary of State foreign service U.S. Senator State legislator Massachusetts lawyer
7 Andrew Jackson.jpg Andrew Jackson out of office U.S. Senator military U.S. Senator Tennessee lawyer
8 MVanBuren.png Martin Van Buren Vice-President Secretary of State State governor[12] U.S. Senator New York lawyer, political organizer
9 William Henry Harrison.jpg William Henry Harrison Local government foreign service U.S. Senator State legislator Ohio military
10 Johntyler.jpg John Tyler Vice-President[13] State legislator U.S. Senator State governor Virginia lawyer
11 JKP.tif James K. Polk out of office State governor Speaker of the House State legislator Tennessee lawyer
12 Zachary Taylor restored and cropped.png Zachary Taylor military ---- ---- ---- Louisiana military
13 Millard Fillmore.jpg Millard Fillmore Vice-President[14] State office out of office U.S. Representative New York lawyer
14 Mathew Brady - Franklin Pierce - alternate crop.jpg Franklin Pierce out of office military U.S. Senator U.S. Representative New Hampshire lawyer
15 James Buchanan.jpg James Buchanan foreign service out of office Secretary of State U.S. Senator Pennsylvania lawyer
16 Abrahamlincoln.jpg Abraham Lincoln out of office U.S. Representative State legislator Military Illinois[15] lawyer
17 Andrew Johnson.jpg Andrew Johnson Vice-President[16] military governor[17] U.S. Senator State governor Tennessee tailor
18 Ulysses S. Grant 1870-1880.jpg Ulysses S. Grant military ---- ---- ---- Illinois[18][19] military
19 President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880.jpg Rutherford B. Hayes State governor out of office State governor U.S. Representative Ohio lawyer
20 James A. Garfield.jpg James A. Garfield U.S. Representative military State legislator ---- Ohio lawyer
21 Chester A. Arthur.jpg Chester A. Arthur Vice-President[20] out of office Federal office[21] out of office New York lawyer
22 Grover Cleveland.jpg Grover Cleveland State governor Local office[22] ---- ---- New York lawyer
23 Benjamin Harrison.jpg Benjamin Harrison out of office U.S. Senator out of office military Indiana lawyer
24 Grover Cleveland.jpg Grover Cleveland out of office President of the U.S. State governor Local office[22] New York lawyer
25 William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896.jpg William McKinley State governor U.S. Representative military ---- Ohio lawyer
26 President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg Theodore Roosevelt Vice-President[23] State governor military Federal office[24] New York military historian
27 William Howard Taft.jpg William Howard Taft Secretary of War Territorial governor[25] judicial[26] Federal office[27] Ohio lawyer
28 President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg Woodrow Wilson State governor ---- ---- ---- New Jersey academic
29 Warren G Harding portrait as senator June 1920.jpg Warren G. Harding U.S. Senator out of office State legislator ---- Ohio journalist
30 29 Calvin Coolidge 3x4.jpg Calvin Coolidge Vice President[28] State Governor State office State legislator Massachusetts[29] lawyer
31 President Hoover portrait.tif Herbert Hoover Secretary of Commerce out of office[30] ---- ---- California mining engineer
32 FDR in 1933.jpg Franklin D. Roosevelt State governor out of office Federal office[24] State legislator New York lawyer
33 Harry S. Truman.jpg Harry S. Truman Vice President[31] U.S. Senator County commissioner (County court) military Missouri businessperson
34 President Eisenhower Portrait 1959.tif Dwight D. Eisenhower military ---- ---- ---- Kansas military, University President
35 John Fitzgerald Kennedy.png John F. Kennedy U.S. Senator U.S. Representative military ---- Massachusetts politician
36 37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg Lyndon B. Johnson Vice-President[32] U.S. Senator U.S. Representative Federal office[33] Texas teacher
37 Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.jpg Richard Nixon out of office Vice-President U.S. Senator U.S. Representative California lawyer
38 Gerald Ford.jpg Gerald Ford Vice-President[34] U.S. Representative military ---- Michigan[35] lawyer
39 JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg Jimmy Carter out of office State governor State legislator military Georgia farmer
40 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg Ronald Reagan out of office State governor ---- Military California[36] actor
41 George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg George H. W. Bush Vice-President out of office Federal office[37] foreign service Texas[38] businessperson
42 44 Bill Clinton 3x4.jpg Bill Clinton State governor State Attorney General ---- ---- Arkansas lawyer, teacher
43 George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush State governor out of office[39] military[40] ---- Texas businessperson
44 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama U.S. Senator State Legislator ---- ---- Illinois[41] lawyer, teacher
45 Donald Trump Pentagon 2017.jpg Donald Trump ---- ---- ---- ---- New York businessperson, television producer

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Grover Cleveland was elected to two nonconsecutive terms, and as such is considered the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; only 44 people have served.

References

  1. ^ International Law, US Power: The United States' Quest for Legal Security, p 10, Shirley V. Scott - 2012
  2. ^ George Washington was commanding general of the Continental Army, the pre-independence equivalent of the US Army. The 9 US Army Generals were Jackson, W. H. Harrison, Taylor, Pierce, Grant, Hayes, Garfield, B. Harrison and Eisenhower. Others with military experience were Monroe, McKinley, T. Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, L. B. Johnson, Nixon, Carter, Ford, Reagan, G. H. W. Bush, G. W. Bush.
  3. ^ Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861–1865 Volume 1. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1904. pp. 303, 658.
  4. ^ Martin van Buren's brief foreign service is not counted since, although he was appointed Ambassador to the United Kingdom, the appointment was rejected by the U.S. Senate
  5. ^ Cleveland served nonconsecutive presidential terms.
  6. ^ "State" refers to the state generally considered "home", not necessarily the state where the president was born
  7. ^ This designation is used whenever the subject was out of public office for more than one year
  8. ^ Washington was first chosen by the Virginia State Legislature to be a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. Then he was elected by the delegates to be president of the convention.
  9. ^ Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War
  10. ^ This is a general designation for any appointive position representing the United States to a foreign government
  11. ^ This is a general designation for any elected state legislator
  12. ^ Van Buren served just over two months of his term as Governor of New York before President Jackson appointed him Secretary of State
  13. ^ Tyler succeeded President Harrison, who died in office. He was not elected.
  14. ^ Fillmore succeeded President Taylor, who died in office. He was not elected.
  15. ^ Lincoln was born in Kentucky, but moved to Indiana, then Illinois at an early age
  16. ^ Johnson succeeded President Lincoln, who was assassinated. He was not elected.
  17. ^ President Lincoln appointed Johnson military governor of Tennessee during the Civil War
  18. ^ Grant was born and raised in Ohio. He rose to prominence as a Civil War general from Illinois and Illinois was his residence for his political career."The Congressional Globe". Library of Congress. 1868. p. 1063.
  19. ^ McFeely, William S. (1981). Grant: A Biography. Norton. pp. 232–233. ISBN 0-393-01372-3.
  20. ^ Arthur succeeded President Garfield, who was assassinated. He was not elected.
  21. ^ This is a general designation for appointive domestic Federal offices below cabinet level
  22. ^ a b This is a general designation for local elective offices
  23. ^ Roosevelt succeeded President McKinley, who was assassinated. He was elected once (1904), chose not to run again in 1908, and ran unsuccessfully in 1912.
  24. ^ a b Assistant Secretary of the Navy
  25. ^ President McKinley appointed Taft Governor-General of the Philippines
  26. ^ United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
  27. ^ Solicitor General of the United States
  28. ^ Coolidge succeeded President Harding, who died in office. He was elected to a second term.
  29. ^ Born and raised in Vermont and spent time in Vermont politics. Permanently moved to Massachusetts to attend college.
  30. ^ During and following World War I, Hoover was involved with several humanitarian organizations.
  31. ^ Truman succeeded President Roosevelt, who died in office. He was elected to a second term.
  32. ^ Johnson succeeded President Kennedy, who was assassinated. He was elected to a second term.
  33. ^ head of the National Youth Administration in Texas
  34. ^ Ford succeeded President Nixon, who resigned. He was not elected. Previously, Ford was appointed Vice-President after Spiro Agnew resigned. Currently only President not to have been elected to the Executive Branch.
  35. ^ Ford was born in Nebraska, but moved to Michigan at an early age
  36. ^ Reagan was born, raised and educated in Illinois; he moved permanently to California after graduation from college.
  37. ^ Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
  38. ^ Bush was born and raised in Massachusetts, but moved to Texas after graduation from college.
  39. ^ P.O. Box 400406. "George W. Bush: Life Before the Presidency—Miller Center". Millercenter.org. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
  40. ^ York, Byron. "Byron York on George W. Bush & National Guard on National Review Online". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2008-08-30. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
  41. ^ Obama was born in Hawaii and mostly raised there. His career was based in Illinois

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