LGBT rights by country or territory

This page was last edited on 14 December 2017, at 10:00.

Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory—everything from legal recognition of same-sex marriage or other types of partnerships, to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity. Laws that affect LGBT people include, but are not limited to, the following:

As of March 2017, 23 countries, most of them located in the Americas and Western Europe,[e] recognize same-sex marriage.

As of August 2017, 73 countries as well as five sub-national jurisdictions[f] have laws criminalizing homosexuality,[1] with most of them located in Asia and Africa. In 2006 that number was 92.[1] As of May 2016, 16 countries have an unequal age of consent law.[1]

In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights, which was followed up with a report from the UN Human Rights Commission documenting violations of the rights of LGBT people, including hate crime, criminalization of homosexuality, and discrimination. Following up on the report, the UN Human Rights Commission urged all countries which had not yet done so to enact laws protecting basic LGBT rights.[2][3]

World laws pertaining to homosexual relationships and expression.svg
Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse and freedom of expression and association
Same-sex intercourse legal
  
Marriage1
  
Marriage recognized but not performed1
  
Civil unions1
  
Unregistered cohabitation1
  
Same-sex unions not recognized
  
Laws restricting freedom of expression and association
Same-sex intercourse illegal
  
Unenforced penalty2
  
Imprisonment
  
Up to life in prison
  
Death penalty
Rings indicate areas where local judges have granted or denied marriages or imposed the death penalty in a jurisdiction where that is not otherwise the law or areas with a case-by-case application.
1Some jurisdictions in this category may currently have other types of partnerships.
2No arrests in the past three years or moratorium on law.
LGBT rights at the UN.svg
LGBT rights at the United Nations
  
Support Countries which have signed a General Assembly declaration of LGBT rights or sponsored the Human Rights Council's 2011 resolution on LGBT rights (initially 96 members, now 99 members).
  
Oppose Countries which signed a 2008 statement opposing LGBT rights (initially 57 members, now 54 members).
  
Neither Countries which, as regards the UN, have expressed neither official support nor opposition to LGBT rights (44 members).
  
Non-UN member Countries that are not members of the UN.

History of LGBT-related laws

Ancient Celts

According to Aristotle, although most "belligerent nations" were strongly influenced by their women, the Celts were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers (Politics II 1269b).[4][5] H. D. Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that "Athenaeus echoes this comment (603a) and so does Ammianus (30.9). It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity."[5] In book XIII of his Deipnosophists, the Roman Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus, repeating assertions made by Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC (Bibliotheca historica 5:32), wrote that Celtic women were beautiful but that the men preferred to sleep together. Diodorus went further, stating that "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused". Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Poseidonius and speculates that these authors may be recording "some kind of bonding ritual ... which requires abstinence from women at certain times".[5]

Ancient India

Throughout Hindu and Vedic texts there are many descriptions of saints, demigods, and even the Supreme Lord transcending gender norms and manifesting multiple combinations of sex and gender.[6] There are several instances in ancient Indian epic poetry of same sex depictions and unions by gods and goddesses. There are several stories depicting love between those of the same sex, especially among kings and queens. Kamasutra, the ancient Indian treatise on love talks about feelings for same sexes. Transsexuals are also venerated e.g. Lord Vishnu as Mohini and Lord Shiva as Ardhanarishwara (which means half woman).[7]

Ancient West Asia

Ancient Israel

The ancient Law of Moses (the Torah) forbids men lying with men (intercourse) in Leviticus 18 and gives a story of attempted homosexual rape in Genesis in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, the cities being soon destroyed after that. The death penalty was prescribed. In Deuteronomy 22:5, cross-dressing is condemned as being "abominable".

Ancient Persia

In Persia homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early Safavid era (1501–1723), male houses of prostitution (amrad khane) were legally recognized and paid taxes. Persian poets, such as Sa’di (d. 1291), Hafiz (d. 1389), and Jami (d. 1492), wrote poems replete with homoerotic allusions. The two most commonly documented forms were commercial sex with transgender young males or males enacting transgender roles exemplified by the köçeks and Sufi spiritual practices in which the practitioner admired the form of a beautiful boy in order to enter ecstatic states and glimpse the beauty of God.

Ancient Mesopotamia

In Assyrian society, sex crimes were punished identically whether they were homosexual or heterosexual.[8] An individual faced no punishment for penetrating someone of equal social class, a cult prostitute, or with someone whose gender roles were not considered solidly masculine.[8][9] Such sexual relations were even seen as good fortune.[10] However, homosexual relationships with fellow soldiers, slaves, royal attendants, or those where a social better was submissive or penetrated, were treated as bad omens.[11][12] Middle Assyrian Law Codes dating 1075 BC has a particularly harsh law for homosexuality in the military, which reads: "If a man have intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch."[13][14][15]

Ancient Rome

The "conquest mentality" of the ancient Romans shaped Roman homosexual practices.[16] In the Roman Republic, a citizen's political liberty was defined in part by the right to preserve his body from physical compulsion or use by others;[17] for the male citizen to submit his body to the giving of pleasure was considered servile.[18] As long as a man played the penetrative role, it was socially acceptable and considered natural for him to have same-sex relations, without a perceived loss of his masculinity or social standing.[19] The bodies of citizen youths were strictly off-limits, and the Lex Scantinia imposed penalites on those who committed a sex crime (stuprum) against a freeborn male minor.[20] Acceptable same-sex partners were males excluded from legal protections as citizens: slaves, male prostitutes, and the infames, entertainers or others who might be technically free but whose lifestyles set them outside the law.

"Homosexual" and "heterosexual" were thus not categories of Roman sexuality, and no words exist in Latin that would precisely translate these concepts.[21] A male citizen who willingly performed oral sex or received anal sex was disparaged, but there is only limited evidence of legal penalties against these men, who were presumably "homosexual" in the modern sense.[22] In courtroom and political rhetoric, charges of effeminacy and passive sexual behaviors were directed particularly at "democratic" politicians (populares) such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.[23]

Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a man of same-sex orientation. It was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable and questionable" had the same right as other citizens not to have his body subjected to forced sex.[24] A law probably dating to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar defined rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone"; the rapist was subject to execution, a rare penalty in Roman law.[25] A male classified as infamis, such as a prostitute or actor, could not as a matter of law be raped, nor could a slave, who was legally classified as property; the slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage.[26]

In the Roman army of the Republic, sex among fellow soldiers violated the decorum against intercourse with citizens and was subject to harsh penalties, including death,[27] as a violation of military discipline.[28] The Greek historian Polybius (2nd century BC) lists deserters, thieves, perjurers, and "those who in youth have abused their persons" as subject to the fustuarium, clubbing to death.[29] Ancient sources are most concerned with the effects of sexual harassment by officers, but the young soldier who brought an accusation against his superior needed to show that he had not willingly taken the passive role or prostituted himself.[30] Soldiers were free to have relations with their male slaves;[31] the use of a fellow citizen-soldier's body was prohibited, not homosexual behaviors per se.[32] By the late Republic and throughout the Imperial period, there is increasing evidence that men whose lifestyle marked them as "homosexual" in the modern sense served openly.[33]

Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, and in general Romans regarded marriage as a heterosexual union with the primary purpose of producing children, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites. Juvenal remarks with disapproval that his friends often attended such ceremonies.[34] The emperor Nero had two marriages to men, once as the bride (with a freedman Pythagoras) and once as the groom. His consort Sporus appeared in public as Nero's wife wearing the regalia that was customary for the Roman empress.[35]

Apart from measures to protect the prerogatives of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century of the Christian era when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, after the Roman Empire had come under Christian rule, passive homosexuality was punishable by burning.[36] "Death by sword" was the punishment for a "man coupling like a woman" under the Theodosian Code.[37] Under Justinian, all same-sex acts, passive or active, no matter who the partners, were declared contrary to nature and punishable by death.[38]

Congo

E. E. Evans-Pritchard recorded that in the past male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands. The practice had died out by the early 20th century, after Europeans had gained control of African countries, but was recounted to Evans-Pritchard by the elders to whom he spoke.[39]

Feudal Japan

In feudal Japan, homosexuality was recognized, between equals (bi-do), in terms of pederasty (wakashudo), and in terms of prostitution. The younger partner in a pederastic relationship often was expected to make the first move; the opposite was true in ancient Greece. In religious circles, same-sex love spread to the warrior (samurai) class, where it was customary for a boy in the wakashū age category to undergo training in the martial arts by apprenticing to a more experienced adult man. The man was permitted, if the boy agreed, to take the boy as his lover until he came of age; this relationship, often formalized in a "brotherhood contract",[40] was expected to be exclusive, with both partners swearing to take no other (male) lovers. The Samurai period was one in which homosexuality was seen as particularly positive. Later when Japanese society became pacified, the middle classes adopted many of the practices of the warrior class.

Lesotho

Anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle.[41]

Papua New Guinea

In Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture of certain tribes until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as wasteful and celebrated homosexuality instead. They believed that in sharing semen, they are sharing their life force, yet women simply wasted this force any time they didn't get pregnant after sex. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.[42]

Global LGBT rights maps

World laws pertaining to homosexual relationships and expression.svg
Laws regarding same-sex sexuality by country or territory
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation)
  Foreign same-sex marriages recognized
  No recognition of same-sex couples
  Laws restricting freedom of expression and association
  De jure penalty that is de facto not enforced
  Imprisonment
  Imprisonment (up to life sentence)
  Up to death
LGBT rights at the UN.svg
  Support
Countries which have signed a General Assembly declaration of LGBT rights and/or sponsored the Human Rights Council's 2011 resolution on LGBT rights (96 members)
  Oppose
Countries which signed a 2008 statement opposing LGBT rights (initially 57 members, now 54 members)
  Neither
Countries which, as regards the UN, have expressed neither official support nor opposition to LGBT rights (44 members)
Homosexual %22propaganda%22 laws by country or territory.svg
Homosexual "propaganda" and "morality" laws by country or territory
  Countries or territories that don't have homosexual "propaganda" or "morality" laws
  Fine[43]
  Unknown punishment
  Imprisonment
Decriminalization of Homosexuality by country or territory.svg
  Same-sex sexual intercourse always legal
  1791–1800
  1801–1810
  1811–1820
  1821–1830
  1831–1840
  1841–1850
  1851–1860
  1861–1870
  1871–1880
  1881–1890
  1891–1900
  1901–1910
  1911–1920
  1921–1930
  1931–1940
  1941–1950
  1951–1960
  1961–1970
  1971–1980
  1981–1990
  1991–2000
  2001–2010
  2011–2020
  Unknown date of legalization of same-sex intercourse
  Male same-sex sexual intercourse illegal
  Same-sex sexual intercourse illegal
Equalization of age of consent laws for same-sex couples by country or territory%27.svg
  1790–1829
  1830–1839
  1840–1859
  1860–1869
  1870–1879
  1880–1889
  1890–1929
  1930–1939
  1940–19491
  1950–1959
  1960–1969
  1970–1979
  1980–1989
  1990–1999
  2000–2009
  2010-present
  Unknown date for equal age of consent laws for opposite and same-sex couples
  No consent laws/equal age of consent laws always equal for opposite and same-sex couples
  Unequal age of consent laws for same-sex couples
  Same-sex sexual intercourse illegal
1During World War II, Nazi Germany annexed territory or established reichskommissariats which extended Germany's laws against same-sex sexual intercourse to those territories and reichskommissariats. Age of consent was previously equalized for same-sex couples in the following countries or territories before German annexation or establishment of reichskommissariats: Belluno (legal in 1890), Friuli-Venezia Giulia (legal in 1890), Poland (legal in 1932), and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (legal in 1890). All countries and territories listed that where annexed or established into reichskommissariats by Nazi Germany during World War II where restored as independent countries or reincorporated into their previous countries during or after the war and thus re-legalized equal age of consent laws for same-sex couples in those areas.
World same-sex adoption laws.svg
  Joint adoption allowed1
  Second-parent adoption allowed2
  No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples
1In Finland a law will come into force in 2017
Military service - sexual orientation.svg
  All LGBT people can serve
  GBT men can serve
  LGB people can serve
  GB men can serve
  Ambiguous/unknown policy
  LGBT people are banned from serving
  No military
LGBT employment discrimination laws by country or territory.svg
  Sexual orientation and gender identity: all employment
  Sexual orientation with anti–employment discrimination ordinance and gender identity solely in public employment
  Sexual orientation: all employment
  Gender identity: all employment
  Sexual orientation and gender identity: federal public employment and federal contractors
  Sexual orientation and gender identity: public employment
  Sexual orientation: public employment
  No national-level employment laws covering sexual orientation and/or gender identity
Countries and territories with LGBT anti-discrimination laws in goods and services.svg
Countries and territories with LGBT anti-discrimination laws in goods and services
  Sexual orientation and gender identity covered
  Sexual orientation covered
  Gender identity covered
  No national or local level anti-discrimination laws covering sexual orientation and/or gender identity in goods and services
LGBT constitutional discrimination laws by country or territory.svg
  Sexual orientation and gender identity covered
  Sexual orientation covered
  Gender identity covered
  No national or local level constitutional discrimination laws covering sexual orientation and/or gender identity
LGBT hate crime laws by country or territory.svg
  Sexual orientation and gender identity hate crime laws
  Sexual orientation hate crime laws
  No LGBT hate crime laws
Incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation and gender identity prohibited by country or territory.svg
  Incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation and gender identity prohibited
  Incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation prohibited
  No prohibition on incitement to hatred based on sexual orientation and gender identity
Bans on conversion therapy for minors on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity by country.svg
  Ban on conversion therapy for minors on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity
  No prohibition on conversion therapy for minors on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity
LGBT immigration equality by country or territory.svg
  Recognition of same-sex couples in national immigration laws
  Unknown/ambiguous
Bans on same-sex unions by country.svg
  No specific prohibition of same-sex marriages or unions
  Constitution bans same-sex marriage
MSM Blood Donation Map New.svg
  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral
  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral, except for blood transfusions1
  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; Temporary deferral1
  Men who have sex with men may not donate blood; Permanent deferral1
  No Data
1No restriction in Israel, Belgium and the United States of America if last MSM activity was before 1977.
Female partners of men who have sex with men blood ban by country.svg
  Female sex partners of men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral
  Female sex partners of men who have sex with men may donate blood; Temporary deferral
  Female sex partners of men who have sex with men may not donate blood; Permanent deferral
  No Data
Laws concerning gender identity-expression by country or territory.svg
  Legal identity change
  No legal identity change
  Unknown/Ambiguous
World map nonbinary gender recognition.svg
  Nonbinary / third gender available as voluntary opt-in
  Opt-in for intersex people only
  Mandatory for some born intersex
  Nonbinary / third gender not legally recognized / no data

LGBT-related laws by country or territory

Africa

List of countries or territories by LGBT rights in Africa
This table:

Northern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Algeria Algeria No Illegal since 1966
Penalty: Fine and up to 2 years imprisonment.[1][44]
No No No No No No
Canary Islands Canary Islands
(Autonomous community of Spain)
Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes De facto unions legal since 2003[45] Yes Legal since 2005[46] Yes Legal since 2005[47]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[48]
Yes Spain responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[50]
Ceuta Ceuta (Autonomous city of Spain) Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes De facto union since 1998[51] Yes Legal since 2005[52] Yes Legal since 2005[53] Yes Spain responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[54] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[50]
Egypt Egypt No Male de facto illegal since 2000
Penalty: Up to 17 years imprisonment with or without hard labour and with or without fines under broadly-written morality laws
Emblem-question.svg Female uncertain.[1][55]
No No No No No No
Libya Libya No Illegal since 1953[56] No No No No No No
Madeira Madeira
(Autonomous region of Portugal)
Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes De facto union since 2001[57][58] Yes Legal since 2010[59] Yes Legal since 2016 (+automatic co-parent recognition)[60][61][62] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[49] Yes Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[63]
Melilla Melilla (Autonomous city of Spain) Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes De facto union since 2008[64] Yes Legal since 2005[52] Yes Legal since 2005[53] Yes Spain responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[54] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[50]
Morocco Morocco
(Including Southern Provinces)
No Illegal since 1962
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment.[1][65]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
(Excluding Southern Provinces)
No Illegal since 1944 (as part of the Overseas Province of Spanish Sahara)
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[1][66][67]
No No No No No No
South Sudan South Sudan No Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.[1][44]
No No Constitutional ban since 2011. No No No No
Sudan Sudan No No Illegal since 1899 (as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan)
Penalty: Death penalty on third offense for men and on fourth offense for women.[1]
No No No No No No
Tunisia Tunisia No Illegal since 1913 (as the French protectorate of Tunisia)
Penalty: 3 years imprisonment.[1][68]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Western Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Benin Benin Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1][69] (Age of consent discrepancy)[1] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1] No No Constitutional ban since 1991. No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Cape Verde Cape Verde Yes Legal since 2004
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[1] Emblem-question.svg
The Gambia Gambia No Illegal since 1888 (as Gambia Colony and Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to Iife imprisonment.[1][70][44]
No No No No No No
Ghana Ghana No Male illegal since 1860s (as Gold Coast)
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more
Yes Female always legal.[1][71][44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Guinea Guinea No Illegal since 1988
Penalty: 6 months to 3 years imprisonment.[1][72]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Yes Legal since 1993[1]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Liberia Liberia No Illegal since 1976
Penalty: 1 year imprisonment.[1][73]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mali Mali Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Mauritania Mauritania No No Illegal since 1983
Penalty: Death by stoning[1][74]
No No No No No No
Niger Niger Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[1] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Nigeria Nigeria No Illegal under federal law since 1901 (as Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment
No No Illegal in the states of Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto, Yobe, and Zamfara
Penalty: Death penalty for men. Whipping and/or imprisonment for women.[1][75][44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Senegal Senegal No Illegal since 1966
Penalty: 1 to 5 years imprisonment.[1][76]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone No Male illegal since 1861 (as Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (Not enforced)
Yes Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Togo Togo No Illegal since 1884 (as Togoland)
Penalty: Fine and 3 years imprisonment.[1][44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Central Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Cameroon Cameroon No Illegal since 1972
Penalty: Fines to 5 years imprisonment.[1][44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Central African Republic Central African Republic Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Chad Chad No Illegal since 2017
Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1] No No Constitutional ban since 2005. No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Yes Legal since 1968.[1][77] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Gabon Gabon Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Yes Legal (No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[1] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Saint Helena Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Emblem-question.svg Yes/No (In Ascension and Tristan da Cunha since 2017)[78] Emblem-question.svg Yes Since 2000. UK responsible for defence. Yes Constitutional ban all anti-gay on discrimination. Yes Since 2013.
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe Yes Legal since 2012
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg

Southeast Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Burundi Burundi No Illegal since 2009
Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment.[1][79]
No No Constitutional ban since 2005. No Emblem-question.svg No No
Kenya Kenya No Illegal since 1897 (as East Africa Protectorate)
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment.[1][44]
No No Constitutional ban since 2010.[80] No No No No
Rwanda Rwanda Yes Legal since 1980[1][81]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban since 2003. No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Uganda Uganda No Male illegal since 1894
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment[82] or vigilante execution.[82]
Emblem-question.svg Female uncertain.
No No Constitutional ban since 2005. No No No No
Tanzania Tanzania No Illegal since 1864 (only Zanzibar)
Illegal since 1899
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment.[1][44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Horn of Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Djibouti Djibouti Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country).[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Eritrea Eritrea No Illegal since 1957 (as part of the Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea)
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment[1][83]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Ethiopia Ethiopia No Illegal
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Somalia Somalia No No Illegal since 1962
Penalty: Up to death[84]
No No No No No No
Somaliland Somaliland No No Illegal
Penalty: Up to death[84]
No No No No No No

Indian Ocean States

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
British Indian Ocean Territory British Indian Ocean Territory
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Since 2014, UK Military Personnel only. Yes Since 2014, UK Military Personnel only. Emblem-question.svg Yes Since 2000. UK responsible for defence. Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Comoros Comoros No Illegal since 1982
Penalty: 5 years imprisonment & fines[1][85]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(Overseas territory of France)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the department).[1]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.
Madagascar Madagascar Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the country). (Age of consent discrepancy)[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Mauritius Mauritius No Male illegal since 1838 (as part of British Mauritius)
Penalty: Up to 5 years imprisonment
Yes Female always legal[86]
+ UN decl. sign.[1][87]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[88][89] Emblem-question.svg
Mayotte Mayotte
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity have ever existed in the department).[1]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.
Réunion Réunion
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791[1] Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.
Seychelles Seychelles Yes Legal since 2016[90]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[1] Emblem-question.svg

Southern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Angola Angola No De facto illegal since 1886 (as part of the Province of Angola)
Penalty: Fines, restrictions or penal labor (Not enforced)[1][91] (decriminalization pending)[92][93]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Botswana Botswana No Illegal since 1885 (as part of the Bechuanaland Protectorate)
Penalty: Fine to up to 7 years imprisonment (Not enforced)[1][44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Legal gender and name change is allowed since 2017. Judicial permission required.
Lesotho Lesotho Yes Male legal since 2012
Female always legal[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Malawi Malawi No Illegal since 1891 (as part of the Shire Highlands Protectorate and the Nyasaland Districts Protectorate)
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment & whippings (Law suspended from usage since 2012)[1][94][44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mozambique Mozambique Yes Legal since 2015[95][96] No No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[1][88] Emblem-question.svg
Namibia Namibia No Male illegal since 1920 (as part of South-West Africa; not enforced)[44]
Yes Female always legal[1][97][98]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
South Africa South Africa Yes Male legal since 1998
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Limited recognition of unregistered partnerships since 1998; Same-sex marriage since 2006. Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Legal since 2002 Yes Since 1998 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity; legal gender may be changed after surgical or medical treatment.
Swaziland Swaziland No Male illegal since the 1880s
Yes Female always legal[1][44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Zambia Zambia No Illegal since 1911 (as part of the British South Africa Company rule of Rhodesia)
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment[1][44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe No Male illegal since 1891 (as part of the British South Africa Company rule of Rhodesia)
Yes Female legal[1][44]
No No Constitutional ban since 2013 No Emblem-question.svg No No

Americas

List of countries or territories by LGBT rights in the Americas



Tables:

North America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bermuda Bermuda
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1994 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Yes Legal since 2017[99] Yes Legal since 2015[100] Yes UK responsible for defense. No Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[101] No
Canada Canada Yes Legal since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[1][102]
Yes Domestic partnership in Nova Scotia (2001)[103];
Civil union in Quebec (2002)[104];
Adult interdependent relationship in Alberta (2003)[105];
Common-law relationship in Manitoba (2004)[106]
Yes Legal in some provinces and territories since 2003,
nationwide since 2005
.[107]
Yes Legal in some provinces and territories since 1996,
nationwide since 2010.[108]
Yes Since 1992[109] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, and hate speech. Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal in Manitoba and Ontario since 2015 (proposed in other jurisdictions). Yes Transgender persons can change their gender identity or expression and name without completion of medical intervention and human rights protections explicitly includes gender identity or expression protections within all of Canada since 2017.[110][111][112][113]
Greenland Greenland
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership since 1996[114] Yes Legal since 2016 Yes Step-child adoption since 2009.[115] Joint adoption since 2016.[116] Yes Since 1978 (Denmark responsible for defense) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[1] No
Mexico Mexico Yes Legal since 1871
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes/No Civil union in Mexico City (2007), Coahuila (2007),[117] Colima (2013),[118] Campeche (2013),[119] Jalisco (2014)[120] Yes/No Legal in Mexico City (2010),[121] Quintana Roo (2012),[122] Coahuila (2014), Chihuahua (2015), Guerrero (2015), Nayarit (2015), Jalisco (2016), Campeche (2016), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016), Morelos (2016), Chiapas (2017), Puebla (2017), Baja California (2017).
All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal.[121]
(Proposed nationwide).[123][124]

The Supreme Court has declared that it is unconstitutional to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples in all states,[125] but as state constitutions were not invalidated, individual injunctions must still be obtained from the court.[126][127]

Yes/No Explicitly legal in Mexico City (2010)[128], Coahuila (2014), Michoacán (2016), Colima (2016). [129]
Nationwide, married same-sex couples may adopt.[130]
Yes Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[131] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City since 2008.[132] Mexico adopted a legal protocol for gender identity and sexual orientation in 2014 based upon constitutional provisions to equally protect the rights of all citizens.[133]
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre et Miquelon
(Overseas collectivity of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[134] Yes Legal since 2013[135] Yes Legal since 2013[136] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Yes Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[137]
United States United States Yes Legal in some states since 1962,
nationwide since 2003.
[1]
Yes Domestic partnership in California (1999),[138] the District of Columbia (2002),[139] Maine (2004),[140] Oregon (2008),[141] Maryland (2008),[142] Wisconsin (2009)[143] and Nevada (2009)[144];
Civil union in New Jersey (2007),[145] Illinois (2011),[146] Hawaii (2012),[147] and Colorado (2013)[148]
Yes Legal in some states since 2004,
nationwide since 2015
(except American Samoa).[149]
Yes Legal in some states since 1993,
nationwide since 2015 (except American Samoa).[150]
Yes "Don't ask, don't tell" policy was abolished by president Barack Obama in 2011, meaning that since then LGB people are allowed to serve openly in the military.[151]
Despite U.S. president Donald Trump's opposition,[152] transgender people are expected to be allowed to serve in the military from January 1, 2018 according to a ruling by a federal judge.[153]
Yes/No Federal executive order prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation for employees in the federal civilian workforce, along with the government employment in the District of Columbia, and the United States Postal Service, since 1998 (see Executive Order 12968 and Executive Order 13087). Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation with minors by mental health professionals illegal in some states. (Banned in California, Connecticut, Illinois, New Mexico, Vermont, New York, Nevada, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, the District of Columbia and some cities such as Miami Beach, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh and Seattle). Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009.
(Sexual orientation discrimination in public and private employment)
Yes/No Gender identity discrimination in employment and healthcare insurance banned since 2012.[154][155] Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009. Employment discrimination based on sexual orientation banned since 2015.[156]
(Gender identity discrimination in public and private employment)

Central America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belize Belize Yes Legal since 2016[157] No No No No Yes Section 16(3) of the constitution bans discrimination on the basis of sex, race, place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed[158] The ruling overturning Section 53 of the criminal code specifically stated "sex" as mentioned in Section 16(3) of the constitution, includes sexual orientation.[159][160] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal name without surgeries.

No Gender change is not allowed.[161]

Costa Rica Costa Rica Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2014;
(De facto union pending)[162][163]
No (Court decision pending) No(Court decision pending) LGBT individuals may adopt.[164] Has no military. Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[1] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal name without surgeries. Judicial permission required.

No Gender change is not allowed.

El Salvador El Salvador Yes Legal since the 1800s
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Court decision pending) No (Constitutional ban pending) (Court decision pending)[165] No(Court decision pending) Yes[166] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[166] Yes Bans hate crimes based on gender identity.[167][168]

Yes Transgender persons can change their legal name. Judicial permission required.

No Gender change is not allowed.[169]

Guatemala Guatemala Yes Legal since 1800's
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Proposed) No (Proposed) No (Proposed) Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. Yes Transgender persons can change their legal name without surgeries. Judicial permission required.[170]

No Gender change is not allowed.

Honduras Honduras Yes Legal since 1899
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutional ban since 2005.[171][172] No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech.[173] Yes Bans hate crimes based on gender identity.[1]
Nicaragua Nicaragua Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[1] No
Panama Panama Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No(Court decision pending) No(Court decision pending) No(Court decision pending) Has no military. Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[174]

(Anti-discrimination law proposed).[175]

Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2006.[176] Legal name change, without surgeries, is allowed since 2016.[177]

Caribbean

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Anguilla Anguilla
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Yes UK responsible for defense. No No
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda No Illegal
Penalty: 15-year prison sentence (not enforced).[1]
No No No No No No
Aruba Aruba
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil Unions since 2016[178] No (Proposed)/Yes
Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized.[179]
No (Proposed) Yes The Netherlands responsible for defense. No No
The Bahamas Bahamas Yes Legal since 1991 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Yes[1] No No
Barbados Barbados No Illegal
Penalty: Life imprisonment (not enforced) (Proposed) .[1]
No No No No No No
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Yes UK responsible for defense. Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[180] No
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands
(Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba; Special municipalities of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership since 2012[181] Yes Legal since 2012[182] Yes[183] Yes The Netherlands responsible for defense. Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[184] Yes[185]
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001 (age of consent discrepancy)[1]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No/Yes Same-sex marriage not expressly prohibited under Cayman Islands law, but Constitutional right of a man and a woman to marry a person of the opposite sex since 2009.[186] Same-sex marriages performed in a foreign country are now recognized for immigration purposes. [187] No Yes UK responsible for defense. No No
Cuba Cuba Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Proposed) No Constitutional ban since 1976. No Yes[1] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[188][189] Yes[190]
Curaçao Curaçao
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Proposed) No (Proposed)/Yes Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized.[179] No (Proposed) Yes The Netherlands responsible for defense. No No
Dominica Dominica No Illegal
Penalty: 10-year prison sentence or incarceration in a psychiatric institution (Not enforced)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No No No No
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Yes Legal since 1822
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutional ban since 2010.[191] No No[192] No No
Grenada Grenada No Male illegal
Penalty: 10-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal.[1]
No No No Has no military. No No
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[134] Yes Legal since 2013[135] Yes Legal since 2013[136] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Yes Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[137]
United States Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
(Extraterritorial jurisdiction of the United States)
Yes Legal since 1903 Yes Yes Legal Yes Legal Yes/No USA responsible for defense.[151][152] Yes[193] Yes[194]
Haiti Haiti Yes Legal since 1986[1] No No No Has no military. No No
Jamaica Jamaica No Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years hard labor (not enforced)
Yes Female always legal.[1]
No No (Constitutional ban since 1962) No No No No
Martinique Martinique
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[134] Yes Legal since 2013[135] Yes Legal since 2013[136] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Yes Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[137]
Montserrat Montserrat
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutional ban since 2010.[195] No Yes UK responsible for defense. Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[196] No
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
(Commonwealth of the United States)
Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015[197] Yes Legal since 2015 Yes/No Since 2011[151][152] Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002 and anti–employment discrimination since 2013. US hate crime laws also apply. Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002 and anti–employment discrimination since 2013. US hate crime laws also apply.
Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local).svg Saint Barthélemy
(Overseas collectivity of France since 2007)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[134] Yes Legal since 2013[135] Yes Legal since 2013[136] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Yes Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[137]
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis No Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years (not enforced).
Yes Female always legal.[1]
No No No No No No
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia No Male illegal
Penalty: fine and/or 10-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal.[1]
No No No Has no military. No No
Flag of France.svg Saint Martin
(Overseas collectivity of France since 2007)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[134] Yes Legal since 2013[135] Yes Legal since 2013[136] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Yes Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[137]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No Illegal
Penalty: fine and/or 10-year prison sentence.[1]
No No No Has no military. No No
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Proposed) No (Proposed)/Yes Same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands recognized.[179] No (Proposed) Yes The Netherlands responsible for defense. No No
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago No Illegal
Penalty: 25-year prison sentence (not enforced).[1]
No No No No No No
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutional ban since 2011.[198] No Yes UK responsible for defense. Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[1] No
United States United States Minor Outlying Islands
(Unincorporated organized territory of the United States)
Yes Legal Yes Yes Legal Yes Legal Yes/No USA responsible for defense.[151][152] No No
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands
(Insular area of the United States)
Yes Legal since 1985
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Since 2015[150] Yes Legal since 2015[150] Yes Legal since 2015[150] Yes/No Since 2011[151][152] Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well. Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well.

South America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGBT people allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Argentina Argentina Yes Legal since 1887
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil union in Buenos Aires (2003)[199] and Rio Negro (2003)[200]
Cohabitation union nationwide since 2015[201]
Yes Legal since 2010.[202] Yes Legal since 2010 Yes Since 2009[203] Yes/No Legal protection in some provinces (federal law pending).[204] Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal. Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission since 2012.[205]
Bolivia Bolivia Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No Constitutional ban on free unions.[206]
(Family life agreement pending)[207]
No Constitutional ban since 2009.[208] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[209] Emblem-question.svg[210][211][212] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech.[1] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission since 2016.[213][214][215][216]
Brazil Brazil Yes Legal since 1831
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes "Stable unions" legal in some states since 2004. All rights as recognized family entities available nationwide since 2011.[217][218] Yes Legal in some states since 2012,
nationwide since 2013
.[219][220]
Yes Legal since 2010[221] Yes Since 1969[222] Yes/No All state-sanctioned social discrimination of citizens since 1988. Legal protection for sexual orientation in many jurisdictions (expansion of anti-discrimination (all) national Constitutional amendment discussed in the Senate).[223] Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 1999.[224][225] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2009.[226][227][228]
Chile Chile Yes Legal since 1999 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil union agreement since 2015.[229] No (Pending).[230] No/Yes (Pending) Same-sex couples may adopt, although only one is recognized as legal parent.

LGBT individuals may adopt (Joint and step-child adoption pending).[231]

Yes Since 2012.[232] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2012.[233] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2007. Judicial permission required.[234] Currently, a broader gender identity law (which would not require any surgeries or judicial permission) is being discussed by the congress.[235][236]
Colombia Colombia Yes Legal since 1981
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes De facto marital union since 2007.[237] Yes Legal since 2016.[238] Yes Step-child adoption since 2014.[239] Joint adoption since 2015.[240] Yes Since 1999. Since 2009 the military special social security system can be used by same sex couples in the army.[1] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination including hate speech since 2011.[241] Yes Since 2015, transgender persons can change their legal gender and name manifesting their solemn will before a notar, no surgeries or judicial order required.[242]
Ecuador Ecuador Yes Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes De facto union since 2009.[243][244] No Constitutional ban since 2009.[245] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[246] Emblem-question.svg[247] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[248] Yes Since 2016, transgender persons are allowed to change their birth name and gender identity (instead of the sex assigned at birth) on legal documents. No surgeries or judicial order required.[249][250][251]
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Legal since 2017.[252] Yes Legal since 2017.[252] Yes Legal since 2017. Yes UK responsible for defense. Yes Constitutional ban on all anti-gay discrimination.[253] No
French Guiana French Guiana
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999.[134] Yes Legal since 2013.[135] Yes Legal since 2013.[136] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[54] Yes Under French law since 2017, sterilization was abolished for gender transitioning.[137]
Guyana Guyana No Illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (not enforced).[1]
No No Emblem-question.svg[254] Yes[255] No No
Paraguay Paraguay Yes Legal since 1880 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No Constitutional ban since 1992.[256] No Constitutional ban since 1992.[257] No Emblem-question.svg No (Proposed).[258] No
Peru Peru Yes Legal since 1836-1837
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Pending)[259] No No Yes Since 2009.[260] No[261][262][263][264] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2016. Judicial permission required.[265][266]
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Overseas territory of the United Kingdom) Yes Legal No No Yes Yes UK responsible for defense Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Suriname Suriname Yes Legal since 1869 (age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech since 2015.[267] No (Court decision pending).[268][269]
Uruguay Uruguay Yes Legal since 1934
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Concubinage union since 2008.[270] Yes Legal since 2013[271] Yes Legal since 2009[272] Yes Since 2009.[273] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2004.[274] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name since 2009.[275]
Venezuela Venezuela Yes Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Proposed) No (Proposed).[276] No(Proposed) No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination.[1] No

Asia

List of countries or territories by LGBT rights in Asia
This table:

Central Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Yes Legal since 1998[1] No No Constitutionally banned since 2016.[277] No Emblem-question.svg No Yes[278]
Tajikistan Tajikistan Yes Legal since 1998[1] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Yes[278]
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 2-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 3-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Eurasia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Abkhazia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Since 2005 Yes Legal since 2014 Emblem-question.svg Yes Britain responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[279] Emblem-question.svg
Armenia Armenia Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No/Yes Constitutionally banned since 2015.[280][281] Marriages performed abroad recognized since 2017.[282] No No/Yes No explicit ban. However, LGBT persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[283] No No
Republic of Artsakh Artsakh Yes Legal since 2000 No No Constitutionally banned since 2006 [284] No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[1] No No No Yes[285] No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[286]
Cyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Since 2015 No No No (only EU country to ban LGBT people from militry service) Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[287] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
No Gender change is not legal.
Georgia (country) Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutionally banned from 2018 No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[288] Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[286]
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[1] No No No No[289] No Yes[278]
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[290][291][1] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[290][291] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[290][291]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

Russia Russia Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[292][1]
No Illegal in practice in Chechnya, where homosexuals are abducted and sent to concentration camps based on their perceived sexual orientation. See Gay concentration camps in Chechnya for more information.
No No (Constitutional ban proposed)[293] No Yes No Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[286]
South Ossetia South Ossetia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Turkey Turkey Yes Legal since 1858[1] No No No No (Proposed)[294] No (Proposed)[294] Yes (Legal since 1988, Requires sterilisation for change[295])

West Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bahrain Bahrain Yes Legal since 1976 (Age of consent discrepancy)[1] No No No No No No
Iran Iran No No Illegal
Penalty: For men 74 lashes for immature men and death penalty for mature men (although there are recorded cases of minors who were executed because of their sexual orientation[296]). For women 50 lashes for women of mature sound mind and if consenting. Death penalty offense after fourth conviction.[1]
No No No No No Yes Legal gender recognition in Iran is legal if accompanied by a medical intervention.[297]
Iraq Iraq Yes Legal since 2003[298] Vigilante executions are common. The government and citizens both ignore the legality of same sex relations. No No No No No No
Israel Israel Yes Legal since 1963 (de facto), 1988 (de jure)[299]
+ UN decl. sign.[1][300]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 1994. No/Yes There are no civil marriages available in Israel for same-sex or opposite sex couples, and any non-religious marriage is unrecognized if performed in country. However, foreign same-sex marriages are recognized by the government and recorded in the population registry of the Ministry of the Interior. No The country is de-facto preventing adoption by same-sex couples.[301] Yes Since 1993 Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination;[302][303] Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty applies to homosexuals and bisexuals.[304] Yes Full recognition of gender's ID without a surgery or medical intervention;[305] equal employment opportunity law bars discrimination based on gender identity;[306][307] Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty applies to transgender individuals.[306][308]
Jordan Jordan Yes Legal since 1951[1] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Yes Legal since 2014[309]
Kuwait Kuwait No Male illegal
Penalty: Fines or up to 6-year prison sentence
Yes Female always legal[1][310]
No No No No No No
Lebanon Lebanon Yes Legal since 2014[311] No No No No No Yes Legal gender change allowed
Oman Oman No Illegal
Penalty: Fines and prison sentence up to 3 years (Only enforced when dealing with "public scandal")[1]
No No No No No No
State of Palestine Palestinian Territories (Gaza Strip) West Bank:
Yes Legal since 1951 (As part of Jordan)[1]
Gaza:No
No Male illegal
Penalty: (de facto) Death/ Extra judicial Execution, (de jure) Up to 10 years imprisonment
Yes Female always legal[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Qatar Qatar No No Illegal
Penalty: Fines, prison sentence up to 7 years[1] or death penalty[312].
No No No No No No
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia No No Illegal
Penalty: Prison sentences of several months to life, fines and/or whipping/flogging, castration, torture or death can be sentenced on first conviction. A second conviction merits execution.[1]
No No No No No No
Syria Syria No Illegal
Penalty: Prison sentence up to 3 years (Law in de-facto suspended)[313][1]
No No No No No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates No No Illegal under federal law
Penalty: deportation, fines, prison sentences or death penalty[312]
Illegal in the emirate of Dubai
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment
Illegal in the emirate of Abu Dhabi
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment[1]
No No No No No Yes Sex reassignment surgery for people whose gender is unclear or whose physical features do not match their physiological, biological and genetic characteristics.[314][315][316]
Yemen Yemen No No Illegal
Penalty: Unmarried men punished

with 100 lashes of the whip or a maximum of one year of imprisonment, married men with death by stoning. Women punished up to three years of imprisonment; where the offense has been committed under duress, the punishment is up to seven years detention.[1]

No No No No No No

South Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Afghanistan Afghanistan No No Illegal
Penalty: Long imprisonment or death penalty (No known cases of death sentences have been handed out for same-sex sexual activity after the end of Taliban rule)[1]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1971 No No No No
Bangladesh Bangladesh No Illegal
Penalty: 10 years to life imprisonment[1]
No No No No No Yes A third option (hijra) beside male and female[317]
Bhutan Bhutan No Illegal
Penalty: Prison sentence up to 1 year (Not enforced)[1]
No No No No No No
India India No Illegal under section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. Penalty: Up to life imprisonment[318][319][320] as well as torture, vigilante executions and fines[321] [322] [323] No No explicit recognition. No No explicit recognition.[324] No No[325] No laws not enforced No/Yes "Third gender" allowed in Kerala and Tamil Nadu only
Maldives Maldives No Illegal
Penalty: For men the punishment is banishment for nine months to one year or a whipping of 10 to 30 strokes. For women is house arrest for nine months to one year.[1]
No No No No No No
Nepal Nepal Yes Legal since 2007
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Proposed: By Supreme Court in 2008) No (Proposed: By Supreme Court in 2008) No Under consideration Yes Yes Constitution bans all anti-gay discrimination since 2015. Yes Gender change is legal since 2007.
Constitution bans all discrimination.[326]
Pakistan Pakistan No Illegal
Penalty: 2 years to life sentence[1]
No No No No No Yes Right to change gender; transgender and intersex citizens have protection form all discrimination and harassment.[327]
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka No Illegal
(Decriminalization proposed)
No No No No No (proposed)[328][329] Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name after completion of medical intervention since 2016.[330][331]

East Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
China China
(People's Republic of)
Yes Legal since 1997[1] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.
Hong Kong Hong Kong
(Special administrative region of China)
Yes Legal since 1991[1] No No No LGBT individuals may adopt.[332] Emblem-question.svg
The People's Republic of China is in charge of Hong Kong's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Hong Kong.
No/Yes Government employment, goods and services only. Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.
Macau Macau
(Special administrative region of China)
Yes Legal since 1996[1] No No No Emblem-question.svg
The People's Republic of China is in charge of Macau's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Macau.
Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Emblem-question.svg
Japan Japan Yes Legal since 1880
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No/Yes Non-legally binding partnerships in 6 municipal jurisdictions (Shibuya, Setagaya, Iga, Takaraduka, Naha, Sapporo) No No Yes No/Yes No nationwide protections, but some cities ban some anti-gay discriminations[1] (Nationalwide workplace protections pending) No/Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery and in case that the individual has no child under 20 years old.
Mongolia Mongolia Yes Legal since 1961
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Yes Due to conscription. Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender
North Korea North Korea Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg Unknown although there are heavily obeyed gender roles for both male and female. See Let's trim our hair in accordance with the socialist lifestyle
South Korea South Korea Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Life partnership proposed) No No No No Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender
Taiwan Taiwan, Republic of China Yes Legal since 1895[333] Yes check.svgSince July 3, 2017.[334] No/Yes check.svg(Legal since May 24, 2019[335]) No (Pending. LGBT individuals may adopt.) Yes Due to military draft Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (in work and education) Yes Transgender people allowed to change legal gender. Surgery no longer a requirement beginning in 2015[336]

Southeast Asia

LGBT rights in Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Brunei Brunei No No Illegal
Penalty: Fines and imprisonment up to 10 years or death by stoning[1]
No No No No No No
Myanmar Myanmar (Burma) No Illegal
Penalty: Up to life sentence (Not enforced) [1]
No No No No No No
Cambodia Cambodia Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[1]
No No There has been at least one recorded case of a legally registered and recognized same-sex marriage. No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
East Timor East Timor Yes Legal since 1975
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Emblem-question.svg
Indonesia Indonesia Yes Legal nationwide, except;
No Illegal in the provinces of Aceh and South Sumatra and the city of Palembang (Applies only to Muslims)[337][338][1] (Age of consent discrepancy)
No No No No[339] No No
Laos Laos Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Malaysia Malaysia No Male illegal
Penalty: fines, prison sentence (2-20 years), or whippings

Yes Female always legal[1]

No No No No No Yes[340]
Philippines Philippines Yes Legal nationwide since 1933
[341][1][342]
No (Pending)[341] No (Pending)[343] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[344] Yes Since 2009 No/Yes[345] Cebu[346] Quezon City, Davao[347] and Albay have anti-discrimination ordinances[348] (National bill pending but still not made into law) No (Pending)[349]
Singapore Singapore No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 2 years prison sentence (Not enforced since 1999)
Yes Female legal since 2007[1]
No No No No/Yes Due to conscription, but gays are not allowed to go to command school or serve in sensitive units. No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery.
Thailand Thailand Yes Legal since 1956
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Proposed)[350] No No Yes Since 2005 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Yes Transsexuals may change their legal name after having a sex change operation.[351]
Vietnam Vietnam Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)[1]
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Yes Sex-change recognized and legalized by the National Assembly after the Civil Code amended in November 24, 2015 and officially practised from 2017[352][353]. Before 2017, sex-change were only legalized for persons of congenital sex defects and unidentifiable sex.

Europe

List of countries or territories by LGBT rights in Europe


Tables:

European Union

Main article: LGBT rights in the European Union
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European Union European Union Yes Legal in all 28 member states.[354] Yes/No Legal in 22/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 13/28 member states.
Yes/No Joint adoption legal in 14/28 member states.
Step-child adoption legal in 18/28 member states.
Yes/No Legal in 27/28 member states.
Yes Membership requires a state to ban anti-gay discrimination in employment. Yes/No Legal in 26/28 member states.[355]

Central Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Austria Austria Yes Legal since 1971[1]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Registered partnership since 2010[356] No/Yes (Legal from January 2019)[357] Yes Step-child adoption since 2013.
Joint adoption since 2016.[358][359]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[360]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Gender change is legal.[286]
Croatia Croatia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Life partnership since 2014[361] No Constitutionally banned since the 2013 referendum.[362] No/Yes Partner-guardianship since 2014 (parental responsibility and a permanent next-of-kins relationship between a life partner and their partner's child which is registered in the child's birth certificate) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49][363] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination bans all types discrimination based on both gender identity and gender expression. Gender change is regulated by special policy issued by Ministry of Health.[364]
Czech Republic Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[365] No No LGBT individuals in a registered partnership may adopt;[366] step-child adoption pending[367] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Legal recognition is granted and birth certificate is amended after reassignment surgery (with mandatory sterilisation).[368]
Germany Germany Yes Legal in East Germany since 1968
Legal in West Berlin and West Germany since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[1][369]
Yes Registered life partnership from 2001 to 2017 (existing partnerships and new foreign partnerships still recognised)[370][371] Yes Legal since 2017.[372] Yes Legal since 2017.[372] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[373][374] Yes Gender change is legal.[375]
Hungary Hungary Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership since 2009[376] No[377][378]
Constitutionally banned since 2012.[379][380]
No LGBT individuals may adopt; (Joint and step-child adoption pending)[378] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] No No legal recognition.[368]
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership since 2011[381] No No LGBT individuals may adopt.[382] Has no military No (Proposed) No Gender change is not legal.[368]
Poland Poland Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No[383] No Constitutionally banned since 1997.[384] No LGBT individuals may adopt, joint adoption forbidden.[385] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes
Slovakia Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962 (As part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2014[386] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[387] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[388][389] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[368])
Slovenia Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[390];
Unregistered cohabitation since 2017[391]
No No/Yes Step-child adoption since 2011[392] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Gender change is legal.[393]
Switzerland Switzerland Yes Legal nationwide since 1942
Legal in the cantons of Geneva (as part of France), Ticino, Valais, and Vaud since 1798
+ UN decl. sign.[1][394]
Yes Registered partnership in Geneva (2001),[395] Zurich (2003),[396] Neuchâtel (2004)[397] and Fribourg (2004)[397]
Nationwide since 2007[398]
No (Pending)[399] No/Yes Step-child adoption from January 1, 2018 Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending)[400] Yes Legal documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity. Sterilisation is technically required but has not been enforced since 2012. Registered Partnership can become Marriage between the new opposite-sex couple.[401]

Eastern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Abkhazia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Armenia Armenia Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No/Yes Constitutionally banned since 2015.[402][403] Marriages performed abroad recognized since 2017.[404] No No/Yes No explicit ban. However, LGBT persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[405] No No
Republic of Artsakh Artsakh Yes Legal since 2000 No No Constitutionally banned since 2006[406] No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[1] No No No Yes[407] No Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[368])
Belarus Belarus Yes Legal since 1994[1] No No Constitutionally banned since 1994[408] No No/Yes Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able.[409] No Yes
Donetsk People's Republic Donetsk Yes Legal since 1991
(as part of Ukraine)[410][411]
No No No No No Emblem-question.svg
Georgia (country) Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2018 No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[412] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[368])
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[1] No No No No No Yes[278]
Luhansk People's Republic Lugansk Yes Legal since 1991
(as part of Ukraine)[410][413]
No No No X mark.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Moldova Moldova Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1994[414] No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[368])
Romania Romania Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No LGBT individuals may adopt.[415] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Legal recognition and birth certificates amended after reassignment surgery (sterilisation mandatory)[368]
Russia Russia Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[416][1]
No Illegal in practice in Chechnya, where homosexuals are abducted and sent to concentration camps based on their perceived sexual orientation. See Gay concentration camps in Chechnya for more information.
No No (Constitutional ban proposed)[417] No Yes No Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[368])
South Ossetia South Ossetia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Transnistria Transnistria Yes Legal since 2002[418] No No No Emblem-question.svg No (Proposed)[419] Emblem-question.svg
Ukraine Ukraine Yes Legal since 1991
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1996[420] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[421] No/Yes Policies depend on the regional commissioners.[422] Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[423] Yes (Requires sterilisation for change[368])

Northern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Denmark Denmark Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[424] Yes Legal since 2012[425][426] Yes Step-child adoption since 1999.
Joint adoption since 2010.[427]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[428]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy.[429]
Estonia Estonia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Cohabitation agreement since 2016[430] Yes/No Marriage performed abroad recognized since 2016[431] Yes/No Step-child adoption since 2016. Couples where both partners are infertile may also jointly adopt non-biological children since 2016 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Gender reassignment legal.[368]
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Marriage since 2017 Yes Legal since 2017[432][433] Yes (For married couples) Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[434][435] No[436]
Finland Finland
Åland Islands(includes Åland Islands)
Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership from 2002 to 2017 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[437] Yes Legal since 2017[438] Yes Step-child adoption since 2009.
Joint adoption since 2017.
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilisation.[439]
Iceland Iceland Yes Legal since 1940
(As part of Denmark)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered cohabitation since 2006[440];
Registered partnership from 1996 to 2010 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[441]
Yes Legal since 2010[442][443] Yes Legal since 2006[444]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[445]
Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[446][368]
Latvia Latvia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2006[447] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[448] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[449]
Lithuania Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No (Cohabitation agreement pending)[450] No Constitutionally banned since 1992[451] No Only married couples can adopt.[452] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Gender change is legal since 2003.[453]
Norway Norway Yes Legal since 1972
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership from 1993 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[454] Yes Legal since 2009[455][456] Yes Legal since 2009[457]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[458]
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[286]
Sweden Sweden Yes Legal since 1944
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognised.)[459] Yes Legal since 2009[460] Yes Legal since 2003[461]
(+automatic co-parent recognition)[462]
Yes[463] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes[464]

Southern Europe

<
LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[1][465][466]
Yes(for members of British forces)[467] Yes (for members of British forces)[468] Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[469] Emblem-question.svg
Albania Albania Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[470]

No No legal recognition.[368]

Andorra Andorra Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Stable union since 2005[471]; Civil union since 2014.[82] No Yes Legal since 2014[472][82][473] Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] No No legal recognition.[368]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Legal since 1998 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska since 2000 and Brcko District since 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Protected in hate crime legislation, but requires surgery for change.[474]
Bulgaria Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1991[475] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[476] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity, but requires sterilisation for change[477][478]
Cyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil cohabitation since 2015[479] No No No (The only EU country to ban LGBT people in the military, not enforced)[480] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.[481]

No Gender change is not legal.

Gibraltar Gibraltar
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil partnership since 2014[482] Yes Legal since 2016[483] Yes Legal since 2014 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending)[484] X mark.svg (Pending)[485]
Greece Greece Yes Legal since 1951 + UN decl. sign.[1] Yes Civil union since 2015[486] No No LGBT individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Legal since 2017.[487][488]
Italy Italy Yes Legal since 1890
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil union since 2016[489][490] Yes/No(Pending)[491][492][493][494][495] Yes/No Stepchild adoption admitted by the Court of Cassation[496][497].

The Florence Court for Minors has recognised a foreign joint adoption by a gay couple[498]

Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[499] The Court of Cassation decided in 2015 that sterilisation is not required.[500]
Kosovo Kosovo Yes Legal since 1994
(as part of Yugoslavia)[1]
No No[501] No LGBT individuals may adopt.[502][503] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[504] No No legal recognition.[368]
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No No Yes No No
Malta Malta Yes Legal since 1973
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes Civil union since 2014[505] Yes Legal since 2017 Yes Legal since 2014 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[49]
Conversion therapy banned since 2016.
Yes Surgery not required since 2015.[506]
Montenegro Montenegro Yes Legal since 1977 (As part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2007[507][508] No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[49] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity, but requires sterilisation for change[286][368]
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[290][291][1] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[290][291] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[290][291]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

Portugal Portugal Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[1]
Yes De facto union since 2001[509][510] Yes Legal since 2010[511] Yes Legal since 2016 (+automatic co-parent recognition)[512][513][514] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[49] Yes Since 2011. All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[515]