Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) (Hangul: 한국방송공사; Hanja: 韓國放送公社; RR: Han-guk Bangsong Gongsa; MR: Han'guk Pangsong Kongsa) is the national public broadcaster of South Korea. It was founded in 1927, and operates radio, television and online services, being one of the biggest South Korean television networks.
|Korean Broadcasting System (KBS)|
Logo used since 2 October 1984
Main Building of Korean Broadcasting System
|Revised Romanization||Han-guk Bangsong Gongsa|
|McCune–Reischauer||Han'guk Pangsong Kongsa|
|Predecessor||Kyeongseong Broadcasting Corporation|
|Founder||Japanese Imperial Government|
|Headquarters||Yeouido, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, South Korea|
|Seung Dong Yang, President|
|Owner||Independent (publicly owned)|
Number of employees
|5,294 (As of 1 January 2017)|
KBS began as Kyeongseong Broadcasting Corporation (JODK, 경성방송국, 京城放送局) that was established by the Governor-General of Korea on 16 February 1927. This second radio station started using the call sign HLKA in 1947 after the Republic of Korea got the call sign HL of the International Telecommunication Union. After doing a national broadcast, the radio was renamed Seoul Central Broadcasting Station in 1948.
Television broadcasts in South Korea began on 12 May 1956 with the first television station HLKZ-TV. It was sold to KBS in 1961.
KBS station status changed from government to public broadcasting station on 3 March 1973. Construction of KBS headquarters in Yeouido started in 1976. In 1979, KBS radio began broadcasting on the FM wave with the launch of KBS Stereo (Now KBS 1FM).
KBS began accepting advertising in 1980, differing from the norm of advert-free broadcasting by public broadcasters, after the forced merger of several private broadcasters into KBS by the military government of Chun Doo-hwan (see Controversies).
In 1981, KBS launched KBS 3TV and Educational FM, and on 27 December 1990, the channels split from KBS to form the Educational Broadcasting System (EBS).
After a revision of the television licensing fee system in 1994, KBS1 stopped broadcasting commercials.
KBS is a public corporation (공사, 公社) funded by the South Korean government and license fees, but managed independently. As part of the Constitution, the president of KBS is chosen by the President of South Korea, after being recommended by its board of directors. Political parties in South Korea also have the right to name members of the KBS board of directors.
Because of this system, which gives politicians effective control over choosing the president of KBS, as well as its board of directors, people who are critical of the system cite political intervention in KBS's governance as reason for revising the current system of recruiting .
|1||Hong Kyung-mo||February 1973||February 1979||N/A|
|3||Choi Se-kyung||February 1979||July 1980||N/A|
|4||Lee Won-hong||July 1980||February 1985||N/A|
|6||Park Hyun-tae||February 1985||August 1986||N/A|
|7||Jung Koo-ho||August 1986||November 1988||N/A|
|8||Seo Young-hoon||November 1988||March 1990||N/A|
|9||Seo Ki-won||April 1990||March 1993||N/A|
|10||Hong Doo-pyo||March 1993||April 1998||N/A|
|12||Park Kwon-sang||20 April 1998||10 March 2003||N/A|
|14||Seo Dong-koo||22 March 2003||2 April 2003||N/A|
|15||Jung Yeon-joo||28 April 2003||11 August 2008||Dismissed|
|18||Lee Byung-soon||28 August 2008||23 November 2009||N/A|
|19||Kim In-kyoo||24 November 2009||23 November 2012||N/A|
|20||Kil Hwan-young||23 November 2012||10 June 2014||Dismissed after strike|
|21||Jo Dae-hyun||28 July 2014||23 November 2015||N/A|
|22||Ko Dae-young||24 November 2015||January 2018||Dismissed after strike|
KBS1 and KBS2 phased out analogue services on 31 December 2012 as part of the switchover to digital television.
These six channels are carried by cable and satellite operators in South Korea. There are 100+ Cable operators in South Korea and Skylife is the sole satellite television service provider. These channels are managed and operated by KBS N, a subsidiary company of KBS.
KBS World is the international television and radio service of KBS. It officially launched on 1 July 2003. It is broadcast on a 24hr schedule with programs ranging from news, sports, television dramas, entertainment, and children's. KBS World television is broadcast locally and around the world. As of July 2007, around 65% of its programs are broadcast with English subtitles, it is available in 32 countries, and reportedly more than 40 million households around the world can access KBS World. It has two overseas subsidiaries: KBS America and KBS Japan. KBS Japan is independently operated by a KBS subsidiary in Japan, and most programs are provided with Japanese subtitles.
KBS World television is a television channel that runs mostly programs commissioned for KBS' 2 terrestrial networks: KBS1 and KBS2. KBS World television is distributed over several international communication and broadcasting satellites such as IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Apstar 6 & 7, Eutelsat Hotbird 13A, Galaxy 11, 18 & 23, Badr 6, Vinasat 1, Palapa D, SES 7, Telkom 1, Thaicom 5, EchoStar 15, Anik F3. Local cable and/or satellite operators receive the signal from one of these satellite and carry the signal to end subscribers of their own networks. KBS doesn't allow individual viewer to receive the signal from IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Asiasat 5, and Galaxy 18. The signal from Badr 6 and Eutelsat Hotbird 13A is Free-to-Air.
|ABC and SBS||Australia|
|France Televisions and TV5MONDE||France|
|NET., RCTI, SCTV and TVRI||Indonesia|
|NHK and TBS||Japan|
|ABS-CBN, GMA Network and Solar Entertainment||Philippines|
|VGTRK and Channel One Russia||Russia|
|Mediacorp, StarHub TV and Singtel TV||Singapore|
|CTV and TTV||Taiwan|
|MCOT, Channel 5 and NBT||Thailand|
|ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC and PBS||United States|
|Sony Pictures Networks||India|
KBS passed the reorganization plan on January 1, 2017, after it was approved by the board of directors. The reorganization plan is to reform the existing 6 head offices and 4 center systems to 1 office, 6 head offices, 2 centers, and 1 operation division. The KBS reorganization plan is to completely reform the organization with a 'business center', including the newly established broadcasting headquarters.
KBS being one of Korea's oldest broadcasters, also had controversies like SBS and MBC, but has more controversies than the two broadcasters, which has given them nicknames such as Soonkyu Bangsong and The Department of Last Resort.
During the Chun Doo-hwan regime of the eighties, the president passed a law to force several public broadcasters to merge with the public run KBS. After these broadcasters had shown news stories against Chun, he used this law to stifle their criticism of him. It included:
Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) was also affected. MBC was originally a federation of 20 loosely affiliated member stations located in various parts of Korea. Although they shared much of their programming, each member station was privately owned. After the consolidation, however, each affiliate was forced to give up majority of their shares to the MBC based in Seoul, and MBC Seoul, in turn, was forced to give up majority of its shares to KBS.
In 2011, Sohn Hak-kyu, the chairman of the opposition Democratic Party, accused KBS of wiretapping the party's closed-door meeting on TV subscription charges.
Sohn said that “We believe the firm bugged the meeting to secure information about our party's handling of the TV subscription policy. KBS should admit that it resorted to the deplorable method of gathering information.”
The ruling Grand National Party initially sought to put a bill concerning the TV subscription charge to a vote, but failed to do so amid strong opposition from the Democrats.
The National Assembly's subcommittee on culture, tourism, broadcasting and communication, was scheduled to deliberate on 28 June 2011, but the meeting was cancelled due to the Democrats' protest.
The scandal erupted on 23 June when Han Sun-kyo, chairman of the parliamentary subcommittee, criticized the Democrats' opposition to increasing the TV subscription charge during a subcommittee meeting.
The GNP lawmakers eventually approved a bill raising the charge by 1,000 won to 3,500 won at a subcommittee meeting in the absence of Democrat lawmakers. That led to a Democrat boycott of a June extraordinary parliamentary session for half a day on 21 June 2011.
Bak Han-yong (박한용), head of the Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities, criticized KBS for censoring negative remarks from a documentary about Chinilpa individuals and Rhee Syngman who had pardoned them. This includes the Chinilpa Paik Sun-yup.
The journalists working for KBS (along with MBC, SBS and YTN) have protested against the biased journalism practices that favor the Lee Myung-bak government. The new union for KBS headed by Kim Hyeon-seok released a video clip Reset KBS News 9 (리셋 KBS 뉴스9) on the internet that discusses the Prime Minister's Office Civilian Surveillance Incident and the controversial money-spending on renovating President Lee Myung-bak's alleged birth house on 13 March 2012.
Global Youth League DN filed an injunction at Seoul Central District Court against broadcaster KBS for using the name "Lee Soon-shin" in the title of the drama. The injunction requested that the broadcast be halted immediately, that "Lee Soon-shin" is removed from the title and the character name changed. The group claimed that historical figure Lee Soon-shin (or Yi Sun-sin), an admiral famed for his victories against the Japanese Navy in the Imjin War during the Joseon Dynasty, is an official national symbol whose status will "deteriorate" when associated with the "weak and clumsy" protagonist that lead actress IU plays. KBS and production company A Story responded that they have no plans of changing the title or character name. Instead, they altered the original drama poster where several cast members are sitting on a pile of 100 won coins that have an image of Admiral Yi, by digitally replacing the coins with a plain gold platform.
In early May 2014, Gil Hwan-young removed the KBS news chief after alleged improper remarks over the sinking of the Sewol ferry. The chief then accused Gil of interference with news editing, with an alleged pro-government bias.
After the board postponed a decision on whether or not to dismiss Gil, two of the broadcaster's largest unions went on strike.
As a result of the boycott, most of the broadcaster's news output was affected. The hour-long KBS News 9 ran for just 20 minutes, and during local elections on 4 June 2014, KBS was unable to send reporters to interview candidates.
The strike ended after the board of directors voted to dismiss Gil. The board passed a motion on 5 June 2014 demanding the discharge of President Gil. The majority vote decision was sent to be approved by the country's president Park Geun-hye, who has the power to appoint the broadcaster's head.
On August 2017, KBS union decided to hold a strike, which was started on 4 September, due to allegedly influencing news coverage to be in favor of former president Park Geun-hye's administration. As a result of the boycott, there has been a severe reduction in the airing of KBS news programs, culture programs, radio shows, and variety shows due to most staff members taking part in the strike. After 141 days, the strike was over when the broadcasting company’s board of directors approved the dismissal of KBS president Ko Dae-young.