Kangxi Emperor

The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 1654 – 20 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty,[1] the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.

The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history (although his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, had the longest period of de facto power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world.[2] However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang.

The Kangxi Emperor is considered one of China's greatest emperors.[3] He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan and assorted Mongol rebels in the North and Northwest to submit to Qing rule, and blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River, retaining Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China.

The Kangxi Emperor's reign brought about long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. He initiated the period known as the "Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong" or "High Qing",[4] which lasted for several generations after his death. His court also accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary.

Kangxi Emperor
Portrait of the Kangxi Emperor in Court Dress
4th Emperor of the Qing Dynasty
Reign 5 February 1661 – 20 December 1722
Coronation 1667
Predecessor Shunzhi Emperor
Successor Yongzheng Emperor
Regent Sonin (1661–1667)
Ebilun (1661–1667)
Suksaha (1661–1667)
Oboi (1661–1669)
Born 4 May 1654
Jingren Palace, Forbidden City, Beijing, Qing dynasty, China
Died 20 December 1722 (aged 68)
Yuanmingyuan Profile, Beijing, Qing dynasty, China
Burial Jingling, Eastern Qing Tombs, Zunhua, Tangshan, Hebei Province, China
Full name
Chinese: Aixin-Jueluo Xuanye(愛新覺羅·玄燁)
Manchu: Hiowan yei ᡥᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ ᠶᡝᡳ
Era name and dates
Chinese: Kāngxī (康熙)
Manchu: ᡝᠯᡥᡝ ᡨᠠᡳᡶᡳᠨelhe taifin

Mongolian: ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠠᠮᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠩ
Энх амгалан: 1662–1723
Posthumous name
Emperor Hétiān Hóngyùn Wénwǔ Ruìzhé Gōngjiǎn Kuānyù Xiàojìng Chéngxìn Zhōnghé Gōngdé Dàchéng Rén
合天弘運文武睿哲恭儉寬裕孝敬誠信中和功德大成仁皇帝 Listen 
Manchu: gosin hūwangdi (ᡤᠣᠰᡳᠨ
Temple name
Chinese: Shengzu (聖祖)
Manchu: šengdzu (ᡧᡝᠩᡯᡠ)
House House of Aisin Gioro
Dynasty Qing
Father Shunzhi Emperor
Mother Empress Xiaokangzhang
Religion Tibetan Buddhism

Early reign

Born on 4 May 1654 to the Shunzhi Emperor and Empress Xiaokangzhang in Jingren Palace, the Forbidden City, Beijing, the Kangxi Emperor was originally given the personal name Xuanye (Chinese: 玄燁; Möllendorff transliteration: hiowan yei). He was enthroned at the age of seven (or eight by East Asian age reckoning), on 7 February 1661.[5] His era name "Kangxi", however, only started to be used on 18 February 1662, the first day of the following lunar year.

Sinologist Herbert Giles, drawing on contemporary sources, described the Kangxi Emperor as "fairly tall and well proportioned, he loved all manly exercises, and devoted three months annually to hunting. Large bright eyes lighted up his face, which was pitted with smallpox."[6]

Young Kangxi
Portrait of the young Kangxi Emperor in court dress

Before the Kangxi Emperor came to the throne, Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang (in the name of Shunzhi Emperor) had appointed the powerful men Sonin, Suksaha, Ebilun, and Oboi as regents. Sonin died after his granddaughter became Empress Xiaochengren, leaving Suksaha at odds with Oboi in politics. In a fierce power struggle, Oboi had Suksaha put to death and seized absolute power as sole regent. The Kangxi Emperor and the rest of the imperial court acquiesced in this arrangement.

In the spring of 1662, the regents ordered a Great Clearance in southern China that evacuated the entire population from the seacoast to counter a resistance movement started by Ming loyalists under the leadership of Taiwan-based Ming general Zheng Chenggong, also titled Koxinga.

In 1669, the Kangxi Emperor had Oboi arrested with the help of his grandmother Grand Dowager Empress Xiaozhuang, who had raised him.[7] and began taking personal control of the empire. He listed three issues of concern: flood control of the Yellow River; repair of the Grand Canal; the Revolt of the Three Feudatories in south China. The Grand Empress Dowager influenced him greatly and he took care of her himself in the months leading up to her death in 1688.[7]

Military achievements


The Emperor mounted on his horse and guarded by his bodyguards
The Kangxi Emperor in ceremonial armor, armed with bow and arrows, and surrounded by bodyguards.

The main army of the Qing Empire, the Eight Banners Army, was in decline under the Kangxi Emperor. It was smaller than it had been at its peak under Hong Taiji and in the early reign of the Shunzhi Emperor; however, it was larger than in the Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors' reigns. In addition, the Green Standard Army was still powerful with generals such as Tuhai, Fei Yanggu, Zhang Yong, Zhou Peigong, Shi Lang, Mu Zhan, Shun Shike and Wang Jingbao.

The main reason for this decline was a change in system between the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors' reigns. The Kangxi Emperor continued using the traditional military system implemented by his predecessors, which was more efficient and stricter. According to the system, a commander who returned from a battle alone (with all his men dead) would be put to death, and likewise for a foot soldier. This was meant to motivate both commanders and soldiers alike to fight valiantly in war because there was no benefit for the sole survivor in a battle.

By the Qianlong Emperor's reign, military commanders had become lax and the training of the army was deemed less important as compared to during the previous emperors' reigns. This was because commanders' statuses had become hereditary; a general gained his position based on the contributions of his forefathers.

Revolt of the Three Feudatories

The Revolt of the Three Feudatories broke out in 1673 when Wu Sangui's forces overran most of southwest China and he tried to ally himself with local generals such as Wang Fuchen. The Kangxi Emperor employed generals including Zhou Peigong and Tuhai to suppress the rebellion, and also granted clemency to common people caught up in the war. He intended to personally lead the armies to crush the rebels but his subjects advised him against it. The Kangxi Emperor used mainly Han Chinese Green Standard Army soldiers to crush the rebels while the Manchu Banners took a backseat. The revolt ended with victory for Qing forces in 1681.


In 1683, the naval forces of the Ming loyalists on Taiwan—organized under the Zheng dynasty as the Kingdom of Tungning—were defeated off Penghu by 300-odd ships under the Qing admiral Shi Lang. Koxinga's grandson Zheng Keshuang surrendered Tungning a few days later and Taiwan became part of the Qing Empire. Zheng Keshuang moved to Beijing, joined the Qing nobility as the "Duke Haicheng" (海澄公), and was inducted into the Eight Banners as a member of the Han Plain Red Banner. His soldiers—including the rattan-shield troops (藤牌营, tengpaiying)—were similarly entered into the Eight Banners, notably serving against Russian Cossacks at Albazin.

A score of Ming princes had joined the Zheng dynasty on Taiwan, including Prince Zhu Shugui of Ningjing and Prince Honghuan (w:zh:朱弘桓), the son of Zhu Yihai. The Qing sent most of the 17 Ming princes still living on Taiwan back to mainland China, where they spent the rest of their lives.[8] The Prince of Ningjing and his five concubines, however, committed suicide rather than submit to capture. Their palace was used as Shi Lang's headquarters in 1683, but he memorialized the emperor to convert it into a Mazu temple as a propaganda measure in quieting remaining resistance on Taiwan. The emperor approved its dedication as the Grand Matsu Temple the next year and, honoring the goddess Mazu for her supposed assistance during the Qing invasion, promoted her to "Empress of Heaven" (Tianhou) from her previous status as a "heavenly consort" (tianfei).[9][10] Belief in Mazu remains so widespread on Taiwan that her annual celebrations can gather hundreds of thousands of people; she is sometimes even syncretized with Guanyin and the Virgin Mary.

The end of the rebel stronghold and capture of the Ming princes allowed the Kangxi Emperor to relax the Sea Ban and permit resettlement of the Fujian and Guangdong coasts. The financial and other incentives to new settlers particularly drew the Hakka, who would have continuous low-level conflict with the returning Punti people for the next few centuries.


In 1673, the Kangxi Emperor's government helped to mediate a truce in the Trịnh–Nguyễn War in Vietnam, which had been ongoing for 45 years since 1627. The peace treaty that was signed between the conflicting parties lasted for 101 years until 1774.[11]


Kangxi Emperor 1686
Kangxi Emperor at 32 (from le Comte's Nouveaux Memoires, 1696)

In the 1650s, the Qing Empire engaged the Tsardom of Russia in a series of border conflicts along the Amur River region, which concluded with the Qing gaining control of the area after the Siege of Albazin.

The Russians invaded the northern frontier again in the 1680s. A series of battles and negotiations culminated in the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689, by which a border was agreed and the Amur River valley was given to the Qing Empire.


The Inner Mongolian Chahar leader Ligdan Khan, a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing until he died of smallpox in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols under his son Ejei Khan surrendered to the Qing and he was given the title of Prince (Qin Wang, 親王). The Inner Mongolian nobility now became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu Qing rule, he was placed under house arrested in 1669 in Shenyang and the Kangxi Emperor gave his title to his son Borni.

Abunai bided his time then, with his brother Lubuzung, revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, with 3,000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt. The revolt was put down within two months, the Qing defeating the rebels in battle on April 20, 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols were then put under the direct control of the Qing Emperor unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy.

The Emperor at the Kherlen river
Emperor Kangxi's camp on Kerulen during the campaign of 1696.

The Outer Khalkha Mongols had preserved their independence, and only paid tribute to the Qing Empire. However, a conflict between the houses of Tümen Jasagtu Khan and Tösheetü Khan led to a dispute between the Khalkha and the Dzungars over the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. In 1688, the Dzungar chief, Galdan Boshugtu Khan, attacked the Khalkha from the west and invaded their territory. The Khalkha royal families and the first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu crossed the Gobi Desert and sought help from the Qing Empire in return for submission to Qing authority. In 1690, the Dzungars and Qing forces clashed at the Battle of Ulan Butung in Inner Mongolia, in which the Qing eventually emerged as the victor.

In 1696, the Kangxi Emperor personally led three armies, totaling 80,000 in strength, in a campaign against the Dzungars in the early Dzungar–Qing War. The western section of the Qing army defeated Galdan's forces at the Battle of Jao Modo and Galdan died in the following year.

Manchu Hoifan and Ula rebellion against the Qing

Kangxi Emperor
The Kangxi Emperor at the age of 45, painted in 1699

In 1700, some 20,000 Qiqihar Xibe were resettled in Guisui, modern Inner Mongolia, and 36,000 Songyuan Xibe were resettled in Shenyang, Liaoning. The relocation of the Xibe from Qiqihar is believed by Liliya M. Gorelova to be linked to the Qing's annihilation of the Manchu clan Hoifan (Hoifa) in 1697 and the Manchu tribe Ula in 1703 after they rebelled against the Qing; both Hoifan and Ula were wiped out.[12]


In 1701, the Kangxi Emperor ordered the reconquest of Kangding and other border towns in western Sichuan that had been taken by the Tibetans. The Manchu forces stormed Dartsedo and secured the border with Tibet and the lucrative tea-horse trade.

The Tibetan desi (regent) Sangye Gyatso concealed the death of the 5th Dalai Lama in 1682, and only informed the emperor in 1697. He moreover kept relations with Dzungar enemies of the Qing. All this evoked the great displeasure of the Kangxi Emperor. Eventually Sangye Gyatso was toppled and killed by the Khoshut ruler Lha-bzang Khan in 1705. As a reward for ridding him of his old enemy the Dalai Lama, the Kangxi Emperor appointed Lha-bzang Khan Regent of Tibet (翊法恭顺汗; Yìfǎ gōngshùn Hán; "Buddhism Respecting, Deferential Khan").[13] The Dzungar Khanate, a confederation of Oirat tribes based in parts of what is now Xinjiang, continued to threaten the Qing Empire and invaded Tibet in 1717. They took control of Lhasa with a 6,000 strong army and killed Lha-bzang Khan. The Dzungars held on to the city for three years and at the Battle of the Salween River defeated a Qing army sent to the region in 1718. The Qing did not take control of Lhasa until 1720, when the Kangxi Emperor sent a larger expedition force there to defeat the Dzungars.

Chinese nobility

The Kangxi Emperor granted the title of Wujing Boshi (五经博士; 五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Shao Yong, Zhu Xi, Zhuansun Shi, Ran family (Ran Qiu, Ran Geng, Ran Yong), Bu Shang, Yan Yan (disciple of Confucius), and the Duke of Zhou's offspring.[14][15]

Economic achievements

The Kangxi Emperor returning to Beijing after a southern inspection tour in 1689.

The contents of the national treasury during the Kangxi Emperor's reign were:

1668 (7th year of Kangxi): 14,930,000 taels
1692: 27,385,631 taels
1702–1709: approximately 50,000,000 taels with little variation during this period
1710: 45,880,000 taels
1718: 44,319,033 taels
1720: 39,317,103 taels
1721 (60th year of Kangxi, second last of his reign): 32,622,421 taels

The reasons for the declining trend in the later years of the Kangxi Emperor's reign were a huge expenditure on military campaigns and an increase in corruption. To fix the problem, the Kangxi Emperor gave Prince Yong (the future Yongzheng Emperor) advice on how to make the economy more efficient.

Cultural achievements

Early Kangxi vase
A vase from the early Kangxi period (Musée Guimet)

During his reign, the Kangxi Emperor ordered the compilation of a dictionary of Chinese characters, which became known as the Kangxi Dictionary. This was seen as an attempt by the emperor to gain support from the Han Chinese scholar-bureaucrats, as many of them initially refused to serve him and remained loyal to the Ming dynasty. However, by persuading the scholars to work on the dictionary without asking them to formally serve the Qing imperial court, the Kangxi Emperor led them to gradually taking on greater responsibilities until they were assuming the duties of state officials.

In 1705, on the Kangxi Emperor's order, a compilation of Tang poetry, the Quantangshi, was produced.

The Kangxi Emperor also was interested in Western technology and wanted to import them to China. This was done through Jesuit missionaries, such as Ferdinand Verbiest, whom the Kangxi Emperor frequently summoned for meetings, or Karel Slavíček, who made the first precise map of Beijing on the emperor's order.

From 1711 to 1723, Matteo Ripa, an Italian priest sent to China by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, worked as a painter and copper-engraver at the Qing court. In 1723, he returned to Naples from China with four young Chinese Christians, in order to groom them to become priests and send them back to China as missionaries. This marked the beginning of the Collegio dei Cinesi, sanctioned by Pope Clement XII to help the propagation of Christianity in China. This Chinese Institute was the first school of Sinology in Europe, which would later develop to become the Istituto Orientale and the present day Naples Eastern University.

The Kangxi Emperor was also the first Chinese emperor to play a western musical instrument. He employed Karel Slavíček as court musician. Slavíček was playing Spinet; later the emperor would play on it himself. He also invented a Chinese calendar. China's famed blue and white porcelain probably reached its zenith during the Kangxi Emperor's reign.


Jesuit astronomers with Kangxi Emperor 1690-1705 Beauvais
Jesuit astronomers of the Jesuit China missions, with the Kangxi Emperor (Beauvais, 1690–1705)

In the early decades of the Kangxi Emperor's reign, Jesuits played a large role in the imperial court. With their knowledge of astronomy, they ran the imperial observatory. Jean-François Gerbillon and Thomas Pereira served as translators for the negotiations of the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The Kangxi Emperor was grateful to the Jesuits for their contributions, the many languages they could interpret, and the innovations they offered his military in gun manufacturing[16] and artillery, the latter of which enabled the Qing Empire to conquer the Kingdom of Tungning.[17]

The Kangxi Emperor was also fond of the Jesuits' respectful and unobtrusive manner; they spoke the Chinese language well, and wore the silk robes of the elite.[18] In 1692, when Fr. Thomas Pereira requested tolerance for Christianity, the Kangxi Emperor was willing to oblige, and issued the Edict of Toleration,[19] which recognized Catholicism, barred attacks on their churches, and legalized their missions and the practice of Christianity by the Chinese people.[20]

However, controversy arose over whether Chinese Christians could still take part in traditional Confucian ceremonies and ancestor worship, with the Jesuits arguing for tolerance and the Dominicans taking a hard-line against foreign "idolatry". The Dominican position won the support of Pope Clement XI, who in 1705 sent Charles-Thomas Maillard De Tournon as his representative to the Kangxi Emperor, to communicate the ban on Chinese rites.[16][21] On 19 March 1715, Pope Clement XI issued the papal bull Ex illa die, which officially condemned Chinese rites.[16]

In response, the Kangxi Emperor officially forbade Christian missions in China, as they were "causing trouble".[22]

Succession disputes

The Kangxi Emperor on a tour, seated prominently on the deck of a junk.

A prolonged struggle between various princes emerged during the Kangxi Emperor's reign over who should inherit the throne – the Nine Lords' War (九子夺嫡).

The Kangxi Emperor's first spouse, Empress Xiaochengren, gave birth to his second surviving son Yinreng, who at the age of two was named crown prince – a Han Chinese custom, to ensure stability during a time of chaos in the south. Although the Kangxi Emperor left the education of several of his sons to others, he personally oversaw the upbringing of Yinreng, grooming him to be a perfect successor. Yinreng was tutored by the mandarin Wang Shan, who remained devoted to him, and spent the later years of his life trying to persuade the Kangxi Emperor to restore Yinreng as the crown prince.

Yinreng proved to be unworthy of the succession despite his father showing favoritism towards him. He was said to have beaten and killed his subordinates, and was alleged to have had sexual relations with one of his father's concubines, which was deemed incest and a capital offence. Yinreng also purchased young children from Jiangsu to satisfy his pedophiliac pleasure. In addition, Yinreng's supporters, led by Songgotu, gradually formed a "Crown Prince Party" (太子黨), that aimed to help Yinreng get the throne as soon as possible, even if it meant using unlawful methods.

The seated Kangxi Emperor

Over the years, the Kangxi Emperor kept constant watch over Yinreng and became aware of his son's many flaws, while their relationship gradually deteriorated. In 1707, the emperor decided that he could no longer tolerate Yinreng's behavior, which he partially mentioned in the imperial edict as "never obeying ancestors' virtues, never obliged to my order, only doing inhumanity and devilry, only showing maliciousness and lust",[23] and decided to strip Yinreng of his position as crown prince. The Kangxi Emperor placed his oldest surviving son, Yinzhi, in charge of overseeing Yinreng's house arrest. Yinzhi, an unfavored Shu son, knowing he had no chance of being selected, recommended the eighth prince, Yinsi, and requested his father to order Yinreng's execution. The Kangxi Emperor was enraged and stripped Yinzhi of his titles. The emperor then commanded his subjects to cease debating the succession issue, but despite this and attempts to reduce rumours and speculation as to who the new crown prince might be, the imperial court's daily activities were disrupted. Yinzhi's actions caused the Kangxi Emperor to suspect that Yinreng might have been framed, so he restored Yinreng as crown prince in 1709, with the support of the 4th and 13th princes, and on the excuse that Yinreng had previously acted under the influence of mental illness.

MingXiaoling ZLTS01 rotated
A turtle-based stele with the Kangxi Emperor's inscription, erected in 1699 at the Nanjing mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor, honouring the founder of the preceding Ming dynasty as surpassing the founders of the Tang and Song dynasties.[24]

In 1712, during the Kangxi Emperor's last inspection tour of the south, Yinreng, who was put in charge of state affairs during his father's absence, tried to vie for power again with his supporters. He allowed an attempt at forcing the Kangxi Emperor to abdicate when his father returned to Beijing. However, the emperor received news of the planned coup d'etat, and was so angry that he deposed Yinreng and placed him under house arrest again. After the incident, the emperor announced that he would not appoint any of his sons as crown prince for the remainder of his reign. He stated that he would place his Imperial Valedictory Will inside a box in the Palace of Heavenly Purity, which would only be opened after his death.

Seeing that Yinreng was completely disavowed, Yingsi and some other princes turned to support the 14th prince, Yinti, while the 13th prince supported Yinzhen. They formed the so-called "Eighth Lord Party" (八爷党) and "Fourth Lord Party" (四爷党).

Death and succession

Following the deposition of the crown prince, the Kangxi Emperor implemented groundbreaking changes in the political landscape. The 13th prince, Yinxiang, was placed under house arrest as well for cooperating with Yinreng. The eighth prince Yinsi was stripped of all his titles and only had them restored years later. The 14th prince Yinti, whom many considered to be the most likely candidate to succeed the Kangxi Emperor, was sent on a military campaign during the political conflict. Yinsi, along with the ninth and tenth princes, Yintang and Yin'e, pledged their support to Yinti.

In the evening of 20 December 1722 before his death, the Kangxi Emperor called seven of his sons to assemble at his bedside. They were the third, fourth, eight, ninth, tenth, 16th and 17th princes. After the Kangxi Emperor died, Longkodo announced that the emperor had selected the fourth prince, Yinzhen, as the new emperor. Yinzhen ascended to the throne and became known as the Yongzheng Emperor. The Kangxi Emperor was entombed at the Eastern Tombs in Zunhua, Hebei.

A legend concerning the Kangxi Emperor's will states that he chose Yinti as his heir, but Yinzhen forged the will in his own favour. It has, however, long been refuted by serious historians. Yinzhen, later the Yongzheng Emperor, has attracted many rumours, and some novel-like private books claim he did not die of illness but was assassinated by a swordswoman, Lü Siniang (吕四娘), the granddaughter of Lü Liuliang, though this is never treated seriously by scholars.[25]

Personality and achievements

Kangxi Emperor
Chinese name
Chinese 康熙帝
Literal meaning Peace and tranquility
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Kāngxī dì
Gwoyeu Romatzyh Kangshi dih
Wade–Giles K'ang1-hsi1 ti4
IPA [kʰáŋɕí tî]
Yue: Cantonese
Yale Romanization Hōng-hēi dai
Jyutping Hong1-hei1 dai3
Southern Min
Tâi-lô Khong-hi tè
Mongolian name
Mongolian ᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠠᠮᠤᠭᠤᠯᠠᠩ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
Энх амгалан хаан
SASM/GNC engke amuɣulang khaan
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡝᠯᡥᡝ
Möllendorff Elhe taifin hūwangdi

The Kangxi Emperor was the great consolidator of the Qing dynasty. The transition from the Ming dynasty to the Qing was a cataclysm whose central event was the fall of the capital Beijing to the peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng, then to the Manchus in 1644, and the installation of the five-year-old Shunzhi Emperor on their throne. By 1661, when the Shunzhi Emperor died and was succeeded by the Kangxi Emperor, the Qing conquest of China proper was almost complete. Leading Manchus were already using Chinese institutions and mastering Confucian ideology, while maintaining Manchu culture among themselves. The Kangxi Emperor completed the conquest, suppressed all significant military threats and revived the central government system inherited from the Ming with important modifications.

The Kangxi Emperor was a workaholic, rising early and retiring late, reading and responding to numerous memorials every day, conferring with his councilors and giving audiences – and this was in normal times; in wartime, he might be reading memorials from the warfront until after midnight or even, as with the Dzungar conflict, away on campaign in person.[26]

The Kangxi Emperor devised a system of communication that circumvented the scholar-bureaucrats, who had a tendency to usurp the power of the emperor. This Palace Memorial System involved the transfer of secret messages between him and trusted officials in the provinces, where the messages were contained in locked boxes that only he and the official had access to. This started as a system for receiving uncensored extreme-weather reports, which the emperor regarded as divine comments on his rule. However, it soon evolved into a general-purpose secret "news channel." Out of this emerged a Grand Council, which dealt with extraordinary, especially military, events. The council was chaired by the emperor and manned by his more elevated Han Chinese and Manchu household staff. From this council, the mandarin civil servants were excluded – they were left only with routine administration.[27]

The Kangxi Emperor managed to woo the Confucian intelligentsia into co-operating with the Qing government, despite their deep reservations about Manchu rule and loyalty to the Ming. He appealed to this very sense of Confucian values, for instance, by issuing the Sacred Edict in 1670. He encouraged Confucian learning and made sure that the civil service examinations were held every three years even during times of stress. When some scholars, out of loyalty to the Ming, refused to take the exams, he hit upon the expedient of a special exam to be taken by nomination. He personally sponsored the writing of the Ming Official History, the Kangxi Dictionary, a phrase-dictionary, a vast encyclopedia and an even vaster compilation of Chinese literature. To promote his image as a "sage ruler," he appointed Manchu and Chinese tutors with whom he studied the Confucian classics and worked intensively on Chinese calligraphy.[28]

In the one military campaign in which he actively participated, against the Dzungar Mongols, the Kangxi Emperor showed himself an effective military commander. According to Finer, the emperor's own written reflections allow one to experience "how intimate and caring was his communion with the rank-and-file, how discriminating and yet masterful his relationship with his generals".[29]

As a result of the scaling down of hostilities as peace returned to China after the Manchu conquest, and also as a result of the ensuing rapid increase of population, land cultivation and therefore tax revenues based on agriculture, the Kangxi Emperor was able first to make tax remissions, then in 1712 to freeze the land tax and corvée altogether, without embarrassing the state treasury (although the dynasty eventually suffered from this fiscal policy).[30]

Popular culture


  • Kangxi Dadi (康熙大帝; The Great Kangxi Emperor), a historical novel by Er Yuehe which romanticises the Kangxi Emperor's life.
  • The Deer and the Cauldron (鹿鼎記), a wuxia novel by Louis Cha. In the story, by coincidence, the Kangxi Emperor and the protagonist, Wei Xiaobao, become close friends in their childhood. Wei helps the emperor consolidate his rule over the Qing Empire and plays an important role in affecting how significant historical events during the Kangxi era unfold.
  • Qijian Xia Tianshan (七劍下天山; Seven Swords Descend from Mount Heaven), a wuxia novel by Liang Yusheng. In the story, the Kangxi Emperor discovers that his father, the Shunzhi Emperor, has become a monk in a monastery on Mount Wutai. He orders a close aide to kill his father in order to consolidate power, and attempts to erase evidence of the murder later.

Film and television

  • The Deer and the Cauldron (1984), a Hong Kong television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Andy Lau as the Kangxi Emperor.
  • The Ching Emperor (天子屠龍) (1995), a Hong Kong TVB series, starring Julian Cheung as the Kangxi Emperor.
  • The Deer and the Cauldron (1998), a Hong Kong television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Steven Ma as the Kangxi Emperor.
  • Kangxi Dynasty (2001), a Chinese television series adapted from Er Yuehe's novel The Great Kangxi Emperor, starring Chen Daoming as the Kangxi Emperor.
  • Secret History of Kangxi (康熙秘史) (2006), the fourth instalment in a four-part Chinese television series about the early history of the Qing dynasty, starring Xia Yu as the Kangxi Emperor.
  • Records of Kangxi's Travel Incognito (1998–2007), a five-season Chinese television series about the Kangxi Emperor's inspection tours to southern China. During some of his tours, the emperor disguised himself as a commoner to conceal his identity so that he can blend into society and understand commoners' daily lives better. Zhang Guoli starred as the Kangxi Emperor.
  • The Deer and the Cauldron (2008), a Chinese television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Wallace Chung as the Kangxi Emperor.
  • The Life and Times of a Sentinel (2011), a Hong Kong television series about Fuquan attempting to overthrow the Kangxi Emperor, starring Power Chan as the Kangxi Emperor.
  • Palace (2011), a Chinese television series set in the Kangxi era of the Qing dynasty. A woman from the 21st century accidentally travels back in time to the 18th century. Kent Tong portrayed the Kangxi Emperor.
  • Scarlet Heart (2011), a Chinese television series set in the Kangxi era of the Qing dynasty. A woman from the 21st century accidentally travels back in time to the 18th century. Damian Lau portrayed the Kangxi Emperor.
  • The Deer and the Cauldron (2014), a Chinese television series adapted from The Deer and the Cauldron, starring Wei Qianxiang as the Kangxi Emperor.
  • Gilded Chopsticks (2014), a Hong Kong television series about a chef who befriends Yinzhen (the future Yongzheng Emperor) and aids him in the power struggle for the succession. Elliot Ngok portrayed the Kangxi Emperor.
  • Chronicle of Life (2016), a Chinese television series about a romance between the Kangxi Emperor and his childhood love. Hawick Lau portrayed the Emperor.

Video games

  • Age of Empires III: The Asian Dynasties: The Kangxi Emperor is featured as the Chinese leader in this real-time strategy game.



The Kangxi Emperor had an estimated 64 spouses in total. Note that not all of them are listed in the table below.


Title Name Born Died Parents Issue Notes
Empress Xiaocheng Ren
Lady Hešeri
3 Feb 1654 6 Jun 1674 Gabula, interior minister
(1670) Chenghu
(1674) 2. Prince Mi of Li of the First Rank
1665: Empress
Died in childbirth
1674: Empress Renxiao (仁孝)
1723: Empress Xiaocheng Ren
Empress Xiaozhao Ren
Lady Niohuru
1653 18 Mar 1678 Ebilun, first class Duke (grandson of Taizu)
Lady Šušu–Gioro
none 1665: Consort
1677: Empress
1678: Empress Xiaozhao
1723: Empress Xiaozhao Ren
Empress Xiaoyi Ren
Lady Tunggiya
c.1665 24 Aug 1689 Tong Guowei, first class Duke
Lady Hešeri
(1683) 8. daughter
Adopted: Shizong
1677: Noble Consort
1681: Imperial Noble Consort
1689: Empress; Empress Xiaoyi
1723: Empress Xiaoyi Ren
Empress Xiaogong Ren
Lady Uya
1660 1723 Weiwu, first class Duke
Lady Saiheri
(1678) 4. Shizong
(1680) 6. Yinzuo
(1682) 7. daughter
(1683) 9. Princess Wenxian of the First Rank
(1686) 12. daughter
(1688) 14. Prince Qin of Xun of the Second Rank
1679: Imperial Concubine De (德)
1681: Consort De
1722: Empress Dowager Renshou (仁寿)
1723: Empress Xiaogong Ren

Imperial Noble Consorts

Title Name Born Died Parents Issue Notes
Imperial Noble Consort Quehui
Lady Tunggiya
1668 1743 Tong Guowei, first class Duke
Adopted: Gaozong 1700: Noble Consort
1724: Imperial Noble Consort
1736: Imperial Noble Consort Shouqi (寿祺)
1743: Imperial Noble Consort Quehui
Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin
Lady Janggiya
c.1668 1699 Shuose, calvary colonel
(1686) 13. Prince Xian of Yi of the First Rank
(1688) 13. Princess Wenke of the Second Rank
(1691) 15. Princess Dunke of the Second Rank
Ordinary consort
1699: Consort Min
1724: Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin
Imperial Noble Consort Dunyi
Lady Gūwalgiya
1683 1768 Yuman, xieling
(1701) 18. daughter
Adopted: Gaozong
1700: Imperial Concubine He (和)
1718: Consort He
1724: Noble Consort
1743: Imperial Noble Consort Wenhui (温惠)
1768: Imperial Noble Consort Dunyi

Noble Consorts

Title Name Born Died Parents Issue Notes
Noble Consort Wenxi
Lady Niohuru
c.1665 1694 Ebilun, first class Duke (grandson of Taizu)
(1683) 10. Duke of the Second Rank
(1685) 11. daughter
1681: Noble Consort
1694: Noble Consort Wenxi


Title Name Born Died Parents Issue Notes
Consort Hui
Lady Borjigit
unknown 1670 Ayuxi, third class taiji of Khorchin
none 1670: Consort Hui
Consort Rong
Lady Magiya
c.1649 1727 Gaishan, yuanwailang
(1667) Chengrui
(1672) Saiyinchahun
(1673) 3. Princess Rongxian of the First Rank
(1674) Changhua
(1675) Changsheng
(1677) 3. Prince Yin of Cheng of the Second Rank
Ordinary consort
1677: Imperial Concubine Rong
1681: Consort Rong
Consort Hui
Lady Nara
c.1652 1732 Suo'erhe, langzhong
(1670) Chengqing
(1672) 1. Prince of the Fourth Rank
Adopted: Prince Lian of the First Rank
Ordinary consort
1677: Imperial Concubine Hui
1681: Consort Hui
Consort Yi
Lady Gorolo
c.1662 1733 Sanguanbao, zuoling
(1680) 5. Prince Wen of Heng of the First Rank
(1683) 9. Prince of the Fourth Rank
(1685) 11. Yinzi
Adopted: Princess Kejing of the First Rank and Princess Wenke of the Second Rank
1677: Imperial Concubine Yi
1681: Consort Yi
Consort Ping
Lady Hešeri
c.1673 1696 Gabula, interior minister
(1691) Yinji 1696: Consort Ping
Consort Liang
Lady Giorca, Wei
觉尔察氏, 卫氏
c.1663 29 Dec 1711 Abunai, interior military officer
(1681) 8. Prince Lian of the First Rank Sinjeku bondservant
1700: Imperial Concubine Liang; Consort Liang
Consort Cheng
Lady Daigiya
c.1662 1740 Zhuoqi, treasurer
(1680) 7. Prince Du of Chun of the First Rank 1718: Consort Cheng
Consort Xuan
Lady Borjigit
unknown 12 Sep 1736 Heta, Prince of the First Rank of Khorchin
none 1718: Consort Xuan
Consort Ding
Lady Wanlioha
1661 24 May 1757 Tuo'erbi, langzhong
(1686) 12. Prince Yi of Lü of the First Rank Sinjeku bondservant
1718: Imperial Concubine Ding
1724: Consort Ding
Consort Shunyi Mi
Lady Wang
c.1675 1744 Wang Guozheng, prefect of Suzhou
Lady Huang
(1693) 15. Prince Ke of Yu of the Second Rank
(1695) 16. Prince Ke of Zhuang of the First Rank
(1701) 18. Yinxie
1718: Imperial Concubine Mi
1724: Consort Mi
1736: Consort Shunyi Mi
Consort Chunyu Qin
Lady Chen
c.1679 1753 Chen Ximin, second class imperial guard
(1697) 17. Prince Yi of Guo of the First Rank Bondservant
1718: Imperial Concubine Qin
1724: Consort Qin
1736: Consort Chunyu Qin

Imperial Concubines

Title Name Born Died Parents Issue Notes
Imperial Concubine An
Lady Li
unknown unknown Gang'atai, zongbing
none Entered Shengzu's harem in 1671
1677: Imperial Concubine An
Imperial Concubine Jing
Lady Wanggiya
unknown unknown Huashan, military officer
none 1677: Imperial Concubine Jing
Imperial Concubine Duan
Lady Dong
c.1653 1720 Dong Daqi, yuanwailang
(1671) 2. daughter Ordinary consort
1677: Imperial Concubine Duan
Imperial Concubine Xi
Lady Hešeri
unknown 1702 Laishan
none 1677: Imperial Concubine Xi
Imperial Concubine Tong
Lady Nara
c.1667 1744 Changsubao, jiansheng
(1685) 10. Princess Chunque of the First Rank Ordinary consort
Noble Lady
1724: Imperial Concubine Tong
Imperial Concubine Xiang
Lady Gao
c.1684 1746 Gao Tingxiu
(1702) 19. Yinji
(1703) 19. daughter
(1706) 20. Prince Jianjing of the Third Rank
Ordinary consort
1722: Noble Lady
1736: Imperial Concubine Xiang
Imperial Concubine Xi
Lady Chen
1690 1737 Chen Yuqing
(1711) 21. Prince Jing of Shen of the Second Rank Ordinary consort
1722: Noble Lady
1736: Imperial Concubine Xi
Imperial Concubine Jin
Lady Sehetu
c.1694 1739 Dorji, yuanwailang
(1712) 22. Prince Gongqin of the Third Rank Ordinary consort
1722: Noble Lady
1736: Imperial Concubine Jin
Imperial Concubine Jing
Lady Shi
c.1696 1758 Shi Huaiyu
(1714) 23. Prince Cheng of the Third Rank Ordinary consort
1722: Noble Lady
1736: Imperial Concubine Jing
Imperial Concubine Mu
Lady Chen
c.1698 1727 Chen Qishan
(1716) 24. Prince Ke of Xian of the First Rank Ordinary consort
1722: Noble Lady
1736: Imperial Concubine Mu


Title Name Born Died Parents Issue Notes
Noble Lady Bu
Lady Zhaogiya
c.1656 1717 Saikesaihe, military officer
(1674) 5. Princess Duanjing of the Second Rank
Noble Lady Go
Lady Gorolo
unknown unknown Sanguanbao, zuoling
(1679) 6. Princess Kejing of the First Rank
(1683) Yinju
Noble Lady
Lady Nara
c.1657 unknown Zhaoge, cavalry colonel
(1675) Wanfu
(1679) Yinzan
Lady Yuan
c.1672 unknown unknown (1690) 14. Princess Quejing of the Second Rank
Noble Lady
Lady Chen
c.1700 unknown Chen Xiu
(1718) Yinyuan
Ordinary Consort
Lady Zhang
c.1650 unknown unknown (1668) 1. daughter
(1674) 4. daughter
Lady Wang
c.1677 unknown unknown (1695) 16. daughter
Lady Liu
c.1681 unknown unknown (1699) 17. daughter
Lady Niohuru
c.1690 unknown Jinbao, yuanwailang
(1708) 20. daughter


Having the longest reign in Chinese history, the Kangxi Emperor also had the most children of all Qing emperors. He had officially 24 sons and 8 daughters. The actual number is 35 sons and 20 daughters, as some of his children died from illness.


# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes
8 Aug 1667 10 Jul 1670 Consort Rong Died young
4 Jan 1670 3 Mar 1672 Empress Xiaocheng Ren Died young
21 Mar 1670 26 May 1671 Consort Hui Died in infancy
24 Jan 1672 6 Mar 1674 Consort Rong Died young
1 Prince of the Fourth Rank
Baoqing, Yinzhi, Yunzhi
保清, 胤禔, 允禔
12 Mar 1672 7 Jan 1735 Consort Hui 1698–1708: Prince Zhi of the Second Rank (直)
1735: Prince of the Fourth Rank
11 May 1674 12 May 1674 Consort Rong Died in infancy
2 Prince Mi of Li of the First Rank
Baocheng, Yinreng, Yunreng
保成, 胤礽, 允礽
6 Jun 1674 27 Jan 1725 Empress Xiaocheng Ren 1675–1708: Crown Prince
1709–1712: Crown Prince
1725: Prince Mi of Li of the First Rank
Originator of the Prince of Li peerage
12 Aug 1675 27 Apr 1677 Consort Rong Died in infancy
4 Dec 1675 11 Mar 1679 Noble Lady Nara Died young
3 Prince Yin of Cheng of the Second Rank
Yinzhi, Yunzhi
胤祉, 允祉
23 Mar 1677 10 Jul 1732 Consort Rong 1698: Prince Cheng of the Second Rank
1699: Prince of the Third Rank
1709: Prince Cheng of the First Rank
1728 : Prince Cheng of the Second Rank; Prince Cheng of the First Rank
1732: Prince Yin of Cheng of the Second Rank
4 Shizong
13 Dec 1678 8 Oct 1735 Empress Xiaogong Ren 1698: Prince of the Third Rank
1709: Prince Yong of the First Rank (雍)
1722: Emperor
1735: Shizong
10 Apr 1679 30 Apr 1680 Noble Lady Nara Died in infancy
5 Prince Wen of Heng of the First Rank
Yinqi, Yunqi
胤祺, 允祺
5 Jan 1680 10 Jul 1732 Consort Yi 1698: Prince of the Third Rank; Prince Heng of the First Rank
1732: Prince Wen of Heng of the First Rank
6 Yinzuo
5 Mar 1680 15 Jun 1685 Empress Xiaogong Ren Died young
7 Prince Du of Chun of the First Rank
Yinyou, Yunyou
胤佑, 允佑
19 Aug 1680 18 May 1730 Consort Cheng 1698: Prince of the Third Rank
1723: Prince Chun of the First Rank
1730: Prince Du of Chun of the First Rank
8 Prince Lian of the First Rank
Yinsi, Akina, Yunsi
胤禩, 阿其那, 允禩
29 Mar 1681 5 Oct 1726 Consort Liang 1698: Prince of the Third Rank
1723–1726: Prince Lian of the First Rank
9 Prince of the Fourth Rank
Yintang, Seshe, Yuntang
胤禟, 塞思黑, 允禟
17 Oct 1683 22 Sep 1726 Consort Yi 1709–1725: Prince of the Fourth Rank
10 Duke of the Second Rank
Yin'e, Yun'e
胤䄉, 允䄉
28 Nov 1683 18 Oct 1741 Noble Consort Wenxi 1709–1724: Prince Dun of the Second Rank (敦)
1737: Duke of the Second Rank
13 Sep 1683 17 Jul 1684 Noble Lady Go Died in infancy
11 Yinzi
8 Jun 1685 22 Aug 1696 Consort Yi Died young
12 Prince Yi of Lü of the First Rank
Yintao, Yuntao
胤祹, 允祹
18 Jan 1686 1 Sep 1763 Consort Ding 1709: Prince of the Fourth Rank
1722: Prince Lü of the Second Rank
1724: Prince of the Fourth Rank
1730: Prince Lü of the Second Rank< br>1735: Prince Lü of the First Rank
1763: Prince Yi of Lü of the First Rank
13 Prince Xian of Yi of the First Rank
Yunxiang, Yinxiang
允祥, 胤祥
16 Nov 1686 18 Jun 1730 Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin 1709–1712: Prince of the Fourth Rank
1722: Prince Yi of the First Rank
1730: Prince Xian of Yi of the First Rank
Originator of the "iron-cap" Prince of Yi peerage
14 Prince Qin of Xun of the Second Rank
Yinzhen, Yinti, Yunti
胤祯, 胤禵, 允禵
10 Feb 1688 16 Feb 1755 Empress Xiaogong Ren 1709: Prince of the Fourth Rank
1723: Prince Xun of the Second Rank
1725–1726: Duke of the First Rank; Prince Xun of the Second Rank
1737: Duke of the First Rank
1747: Prince of the Third Rank
1748: Prince Xun of the Second Rank
1755: Prince Qin of Xun of the Second Rank
23 Feb 1691 30 Mar 1691 Consort Ping Died in infancy
15 Prince Ke of Yu of the Second Rank
Yinwu, Yunwu
胤禑, 允禑
24 Dec 1693 8 Mar 1731 Consort Shunyi Mi 1726: Prince of the Third Rank
1730: Prince Yu of the Second Rank
1731: Prince Ke of Yu of the Second Rank
16 Prince Ke of Zhuang of the First Rank
Yinlu, Yunlu
胤禄, 允禄
28 Jul 1695 20 Mar 1767 Inherited Boguoduo's peerage as Prince Zhuang of the First Rank in 1723
1767: Prince Ke of Zhuang of the First Rank
17 Prince Yi of Guo of the First Rank
Yinli, Yunli
胤礼, 允礼
24 Mar 1697 21 Mar 1738 Consort Chunyu Qin 1723: Prince Guo of the Second Rank
1728: Prince Guo of the First Rank
1738: Prince Yi of Guo of the First Rank
18 Yinxie
15 May 1701 17 Oct 1708 Consort Shunyi Mi Died young from mumps at the Chengde Mountain Resort
19 Yinji
25 Oct 1702 28 Mar 1704 Imperial Concubine Xiang Died in infancy
20 Prince Jianjing of the Third Rank
Yinyi, Yunyi
胤祎, 允祎
1 Sep 1706 30 Jun 1755 1726: Prince of the Third Rank
1755: Prince Jianjing of the Third Rank
21 Prince Jing of Shen of the Second Rank
Yinxi, Yunxi
胤禧, 允禧
27 Feb 1711 26 Jun 1758 Imperial Concubine Xi 1730: Prince of the Fourth Rank; Prince of the Third Rank
1735: Prince Shen of the Second Rank
1758: Prince Jing of Shen of the Second Rank
22 Prince Gongqin of the Third Rank
Yinhu, Yunhu<b​​r>胤祜, 允祜 10 Jan 1712 12 Feb 1744 Imperial Concubine Jin 1730: Prince of the Third Rank
1744: Prince Gongqin of the Third Rank
23 Prince Cheng of the Third Rank
Yinqi, Yunqi
胤祁, 允祁
14 Jan 1714 31 Aug 1785 Imperial Concubine Jing 1730: Prince of the Third Rank
1785: Prince Cheng of the Third Rank
24 Prince Ke of Xian of the First Rank
Yinmi, Yunmi
胤秘, 允秘
5 Jul 1716 3 Dec 1773 Imperial Concubine Mu 1733: Prince Xian of the First Rank
1773: Prince Ke of Xian of the First Rank
2 Mar 1718 3 Mar 1718 Noble Lady Chen Died in infancy


  1. The order by which the princes were referred to and recorded on official documents were dictated by the number they were assigned by the order of birth. This order was unofficial until 1677, when the Kangxi Emperor decreed that all of his male descendants must adhere to a "generation code" as their middle character (see Chinese name). As a result of the new system, the former order was abolished, with Yinzhi, Prince Zhi becoming the First Prince, thus the current numerical order.
  2. All of the Kangxi Emperor's sons changed their names upon the Yongzheng Emperor's accession in 1722 by modifying the first character from "胤" (yin) to "允" (yun) to avoid the nominal taboo of the emperor. Yinxiang was posthumously allowed to change his name back to Yinxiang. The Yongzheng Emperor forced his two brothers to rename themselves, but his successor restored their names. There have been many studies on their meanings.[31][32]


# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes
1 unknown 23 Dec 1668 1671 Ordinary Consort Zhang none none Died young
2 unknown 17 Apr 1671 8 Jan 1674 Imperial Concubine Duan none none Died young
3 Princess Rongxian of the First Rank
unknown 20 Jun 1673 29 May 1728 Consort Rong 1691: Urgun of Baarin
1691: Princess Rongxian of the Second Rank
1709: Princess Rongxian of the First Rank
4 unknown 16 Mar 1674 1678 Ordinary Consort Zhang none none Died young
5 Princess Duanjing of the Second Rank
unknown 9 Jun 1674 1710 Noble Lady Bu 1692: Garzang of Kharchin
1692: Princess Duanjing of the Second Rank
6 Princess Kejing of the First Rank
unknown 4 Jul 1679 1735 Noble Lady Go 1697: Dunduobudorji, Prince of the Second Rank of Khalkha
1697: Princess of the Second Rank
1724: Princess Kejing of the First Rank
7 unknown 5 Jul 1682 1682 Empress Xiaogong Ren none none Died in infancy
8 unknown 13 Jul 1683 1683 Empress Xiaoyi Ren none none Died in infancy
9 Princess Wenxian of the First Rank
unknown 10 Nov 1683 1702 Empress Xiaogong Ren 1700: Tunggiya Shun'anyan
1700: Princess Wenxian of the Second Rank
1723: Princess Wenxian of the First Rank
10 Princess Chunque of the First Rank
unknown 20 Mar 1685 1710 Imperial Concubine Tong 1706: Borjigit Celeng, taiji
1706: Princess Chunque of the Second Rank
1732: Princess Chunque of the First Rank
11 unknown 24 Oct 1685 1686 Noble Consort Wenxi none none Died in infancy
12 unknown 14 Jun 1686 1697 Empress Xiaogong Ren none none Died young
13 Princess Wenke of the Second Rank
unknown 1 Jan 1688 1709 Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin 1706: Cangjin, Prince of the Second Rank of Onnigud
2 daughters
Died in childbirth
14 Princess Quejing of the Second Rank
unknown 16 Jan 1690 1736 Noble Lady Yuan 1706: Sun Chengyun
1706: Princess Quejing of the Second Rank
15 Princess Dunke of the Second Rank
unknown 3 Feb 1691 1710 Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin 1709: Dorji, taiji of Khorchin
16 unknown 27 Nov 1695 1707 Ordinary Consort Wang none none Died young
17 unknown 12 Jan 1699 1700 Ordinary Consort Liu none none Died in infancy
18 unknown 17 Nov 1701 1701 Imperial Noble Consort Dunyi none none Died in infancy
19 unknown 30 Mar 1703 1705 Imperial Concubine Xiang none none Died young
20 unknown 20 Nov 1708 1709 Ordinary Consort Niohuru none none Died in infancy


Ancestors of Kangxi Emperor
4th son: Aisin–Gioro Taksi, Xianzu
1st son: Aisin–Gioro Nurhaci, Taizu
Wife: Hitara Emeci, Empress Xuan
d. 1569
8th son: Aisin–Gioro Hong–Taiji, Taizong
Yangginu, Lord of Yehe
d. 1584
Wife: Yehe–Nara Monggo–Jerjer, Empress Xiaoci Gao
9th son: Aisin–Gioro Fulin, Shizu
Manggusi, Prince Fu of the First Rank of Khorchin
Jaisang, Prince Zhong of the First Rank of Khorchin
Wife: Borjigit Bumbutai, Empress Xiaozhuang Wen
Boli, Consort Xian
3rd son: Aisin–Gioro Xuanye, Shengzu
Tong Yangzhen, First Class Duke
d. 1621
Tong Tulai, First Class Duke
Concubine: Lady Tunggiya, Empress Xiaokang Zhang
Lady Gioro

See also


  1. ^ He can be viewed as the fourth emperor of the dynasty, depending on whether the dynasty's founder, Nurhaci, who used the title of Khan but was posthumously given imperial title, is to be treated as an emperor or not.
  2. ^ "Emperor Kangxi - The Emperor Who Reigned for the Longest Period in Chinese History". Cultural China. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  3. ^ Magill, editor, Larissa Juliet Taylor ; editor, first edition, Frank N. (2006). Great lives from history. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press. ISBN 978-1-58765-222-6.
  4. ^ Rowe (2009), p. 63.
  5. ^ Note that Xuanye was born in May 1654, and was therefore less than seven years old at the time. Both Spence 2002 and Oxnam 1975 (p. 1) nonetheless claim that he was "seven years old." Dennerline 2002 (p. 119) and Rawski 1998 (p. 99) indicate that he was "not yet seven years old." Following East Asian age reckoning, Chinese documents concerning the succession say that Xuanye was eight sui (Oxnam 1975, p. 62).
  6. ^ Giles 1912, p. 40.
  7. ^ a b Bennet Peterson. Notable Women of China. p. 328.
  8. ^ Manthorpe 2008, p. 108.
  9. ^ Bergman, Karl (2009), "Tainan Grand Matsu Temple", Tainan City Guide, Tainan: Word Press.
  10. ^ "Tainan Grand Matsu Temple", Chinatownology, 2015.
  11. ^ SarDesai, D. R. (1988). Vietnam, Trials and Tribulations of a Nation, p. 38
  12. ^ Gorelova 2002, p. 36.
  13. ^ Cordier & Pelliot 1922, p. 33.
  14. ^ 不詳 (21 August 2015). 新清史. 朔雪寒. pp. –. GGKEY:ZFQWEX019E4.
  15. ^ H.S. Brunnert; V.V. Hagelstrom (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493–494. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9.
  16. ^ a b c Mantienne, p. 180
  17. '^ Les Missions Etrangeres, p. 83
  18. ^ Manteigne, p. 178
  19. ^ "In the Light and Shadow of an Emperor: Tomás Pereira, S.J. (1645–1708), the Kangxi Emperor and the Jesuit Mission in China", An International Symposium in Commemoration of the 3rd Centenary of the death of Tomás Pereira, S.J., Lisbon, Portugal and Macau, China, 2008, archived from the original on 2009-08-22
  20. ^ Neill, S. (1964). A History of Christian Missions, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, pp. 189-l90
  21. ^ Aldridge, Alfred Owen, Masayuki Akiyama, Yiu-Nam Leung. Crosscurrents in the Literatures of Asia and the West, p. 54 [1]
  22. ^ Li, Dan J., trans. (1969). China in Transition, 1517–1911, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, p. 22
  23. ^ original words:不法祖德,不遵朕训,惟肆恶虐众,暴戾淫乱
  24. ^ 明孝陵两大“碑石之谜”被破解 Archived 18 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (Solving the two great riddles of the Ming Xiaoling's stone tablets). People's Daily, 13 June 2003. Quote regarding the Kangxi Emperor's stele text and its meaning: "清朝皇帝躬祀明朝皇帝 ... 禦書“治隆唐宋”(意思是讚揚朱元璋的功績超過了唐太宗李世民、宋高祖趙匡胤)"
  25. ^ 吕四娘刺雍正 只是个传说 Archived 21 February 2014 at Archive.is
  26. ^ Finer (1997), pp. 1134–5
  27. ^ Spence, The Search for Modern China (2013), pp. 67-68
  28. ^ Spence, The Search for Modern China (2013), pp. 56-58
  29. ^ Finer (1997), p. 1142
  30. ^ Finer (1997), pp. 1156–7
  31. ^ 章曉文、陳捷先 (2001). 雍正寫真. 遠流出版公司
  32. ^ 史松 (2009). 雍正研究/满族清代历史文化研究文库. 辽宁民族出版社

Bibliography and further reading

Kangxi Emperor
Born: 4 May 1654 Died: 20 December 1722
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Shunzhi Emperor
Emperor of China
Succeeded by
The Yongzheng Emperor

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