Jumu'ah (Arabic: صلاة الجمعة, ṣalāt al-jumu‘ah, "Friday prayer"), is a congregational prayer (ṣalāt) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon instead of the Zuhr prayer. Muslims pray ordinarily five times each day according to the sun's sky path regardless of time zones.
ṣalāt al-jum‘ah, in some areas transliterated as salaat-ul-Jumu'ah (the Friday prayer), is a religious obligation which takes the place of the daily afternoon prayer (Zuhr prayer, Arabic: ṣalāt aẓ-ẓuhr) on Friday. It is one of the most exalted Islamic rituals and one of its confirmed obligatory acts.
The name al-Jumu'ah is derived from the verb ijta'ama which means the gathering together of people. "
|Arab world||Arabic||صلاة الجمعة (Ṣalāh al-Jumu'ah)|
|Iran, Afghanistan||Persian||نماز جمعه (Namaz Jumah)|
|North India, East India, Pakistan||Urdu||جمعہ نماز (Jumma namaaz)|
|Bangladesh, West Bengal, North-east India||Bengali||জুম'আ, জুম্মা (Jum'aa, jumma)|
|Balkans||Albanian language||Namazi i Xhumasë|
|Spain, Latin America||Spanish||Yumu'ah|
|Somalia, Djibouti||Somali||Salaadda Jimce|
|Southeast Asia||Bahasa Indonesia, Bahasa Melayu||Salat jumat, Solat jumaat|
|Iraqi Kurdistan||Sorani||نوێژی ھەینی|
|Central Anatolia||Kurmanji||Nimiya Îniyê, نمیا ئینیێ|
There is consensus among all the Muslims regarding the Friday prayer (salat al-jumu’ah) being wajib in accordance with the aboved quoted Qur'anic verse,as well as the many traditions narrated both by Shi’i and Sunni sources. According to the majority of Sunni schools and some Shiite jurists, Friday prayer is a religious obligation, but their differences were based on to whether its obligation is conditional to the presence of the ruler or his deputy in it or if it is wajib unconditionally. The Hanafis and the Imamis state: The presence of the ruler or his deputy is necessary; the Friday prayer is not obligatory if neither of them is present. The Imamis require the ruler to be just (‘adil); otherwise his presence is equal to his absence. To the Hanafis, his presence is sufficient even if he is not just. The Shafi’is, Malikis and Hanbalis attach no significance to the presence of the ruler. "
It is mentioned in the Quran:
O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly, yawm al-jumu'ah), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew!
And when the Prayer is finished, then may ye disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allah: and celebrate the Praises of Allah often (and without stint): that ye may prosper.
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "On every Friday the angels take their stand at every gate of the mosques to write the names of the people chronologically (i.e. according to the time of their arrival for the Friday prayer) and when the Imam sits (on the pulpit) they fold up their scrolls and get ready to listen to the sermon."
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj an-Naysaburi relates that the Islamic prophet Muhammad used to read Surah 87 (Al-Ala) and Surah 88, (Al-Ghashiya), in Eid Prayers and also in Friday prayers. If one of the festivals fell on a Friday, Muhammad would have made sure to read these two Surahs in the prayers.
Muhammad is quoted as saying “The best day the sun rises over is Friday; on it Allah created Adam. On it, he was made to enter paradise, on it he was expelled from it, and the Last Hour will take place on no other day than Friday.”[ Ahmad and At-At-Tirmithi].
Aws ibn Aws, narrated that Muhammad said: “Whoever performs Ghusl on Friday and causes (his wife) to do ghusl, then goes early to the mosque and attends from the beginning of the Khutbah and draws near to the Imam and listens to him attentively, Allah will give him the full reward of fasting all the days of a year and observing night-vigil on each of its nights for every step that he took towards the mosque.”[Ibn Khuzaymah, Ahmad].
The Jumu'ah prayer is half the Zuhr (dhuhr) prayer, for convenience, preceded by a khutbah (a sermon as a technical replacement of the two reduced rakaʿāt of the ordinary Zuhr (dhuhr) prayer), and followed by a congregational prayer, led by the imām. In most cases the khaṭīb also serves as the imam. Attendance is strictly incumbent upon all adult males who are legal residents of the locality. The muezzin (muʾadhdhin) makes the call to prayer, called the adhan, usually 15–20 minutes prior to the start of Jum'ah. When the khaṭīb takes his place on the minbar, a second adhan is made. The khaṭīb is supposed to deliver two sermons, stopping and sitting briefly between them. In practice, the first sermon is longer and contains most of the content. The second sermon is very brief and concludes with a dua, after which the muezzin calls the iqāmah. This signals the start of the main two rak'at prayer of Jumu'ah.
In Shia Islam, Salat al-Jumuah is Wajib Takhyiri, which means that we have an option to offer Jumuah prayers, if its necessary conditions are fulfilled, or to offer Zuhr prayers. Hence, if Salat al-Jumuah is offered then it is not necessary to offer Zuhr prayer. It is also recommended by Shiite Scholars to attend Jumu'ah as it will become Wajib after the appearance of Imam al-Mahdi and Jesus Christ (Isa).  Shiite(Imamite) attach high significance to the presence of a just ruler or his representative or Faqih and In the absence of a just Ruler or his representative and a just faqih, there exists an option between performing either the Friday or the zuhr prayer, although preference lies with the performance of Friday prayer. "
According to the history of Islam and the report from Abdullah bn 'Abbas narrated from the Prophet saying that: the permission to perform the Friday prayer was given by Allah before hijrah, but the people were unable to congregate and perform it. The Prophet wrote a note to Mus'ab b. Umair, who represent the Prophet in Madinah to pray two raka'at in congregation on Friday(that is, Jumu'ah). Then, after the migration of the Prophet to Medina,the Jumu'ah was been held by himself.
For Shiites, historically, their clergy discouraged Shiites from attending Friday prayers. According to them, communal Friday prayers with a sermon were wrong and had lapsed (along with several other religious practices) until the return of their 12th Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. However, among others, Shiite modernist Muhammad ibn Muhammad Mahdi al-Khalisi (1890-1963) demanded that Shiites should more carefully observe Friday prayers in a step to bridge the gap with Sunnis. Later, the practice of communal Friday prayers was developed, and became standard there-afterwards, by Ruhollah Khomeini in Iran and later by Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr in Iraq. They justified the practice under the newly promoted Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists doctrine. When al-Sadr installed Friday prayer imams in Shia-majority areas—a practice not traditional in Iraqi Shiism and considered "revolutionary, if not heretical"—it put him at odds with the Shia religious establishment in Najaf. Under both Khomeini and al-Sadr, political sermons would be heard.
The communal prayers have higher compliance of worshipers, as compared to the non-communal ritual prayers. In Turkey for example, the ritual prayers are performed regularly by 44% of the whole adult population, whereas Friday prayers were regularly attended by 56% (25% responded that they sometimes attended and 19% that they didn't). According to surveys conducted by Iran's Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, less than 1.4% of Iranians attend Friday prayers.
An accurate Jumu'ah was said to fulfill certain conditions, including the follows :
There are many hadiths(traditions) reported on the significance of Jumu'ah. among whom are quoted below:
Yet according to surveys by Iran's own Ministry of Culture and Guidance, fewer than 1.4 percent of the population actually bothers to attend Friday prayers.