Robert Jonathan Demme (/ˈdɛmi/ DEM-ee; February 22, 1944 – April 26, 2017) was an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He rose to prominence in the 1980s with his comedy films Melvin and Howard (1980), Swing Shift (1984), Something Wild (1986), and Married to the Mob (1988), as well as the critically acclaimed concert film Stop Making Sense (1984), in collaboration with the band Talking Heads. He became best known for directing The Silence of the Lambs (1991), for which he won the Academy Award for Best Director. He later directed the acclaimed films Philadelphia (1993) and Rachel Getting Married (2008).
Demme was born on February 22, 1944 in Baldwin, New York, the son of Dorothy Louise (née Rogers) and Robert Eugene Demme, a public relations executive. He graduated from Southwest Miami High School and the University of Florida.
Demme broke into feature film working for exploitation film producer Roger Corman early in his career, co-writing and producing Angels Hard as They Come (1971), a motorcycle movie very loosely based on Rashomon, and The Hot Box (1972). He then moved on to directing three films for Corman's studio New World Pictures: Caged Heat (1974), Crazy Mama (1975), and Fighting Mad (1976). After Fighting Mad, Demme directed the comedy film Handle with Care (originally titled Citizens Band, 1977) for Paramount Pictures. The film was well received by critics, but received little promotion, and performed poorly at the box office.
Demme's next film, Melvin and Howard (1980), did not get a wide release, but received a groundswell of critical acclaim, and led to the signing of Demme to direct the Goldie Hawn and Kurt Russell star vehicle Swing Shift (1984). Intended as a prestige picture for Warner Bros. as well as a major commercial vehicle for Demme, it instead became a troubled production due to the conflicting visions of Demme and star Hawn. Demme ended up renouncing the finished product, and when the film was released in May 1984, it was generally panned by critics and neglected by moviegoers. After Swing Shift, Demme stepped back from Hollywood to make the Talking Heads concert film Stop Making Sense (also 1984) which won the National Society of Film Critics Award for best documentary; the eclectic screwball action-romantic comedy Something Wild (1986); a film-version of the stage production Swimming to Cambodia (1987), by monologist Spalding Gray; and the New York Mafia-by-way-of Downtown comedy Married to the Mob.a[›]
Demme won the Academy Award for The Silence of the Lambs (1991)—one of only three films to win all the major categories (Best Picture, Best Director, Best Screenplay, Best Actor, and Best Actress). Inspired by his friend Juan Suárez Botas's illness with AIDS and fueled by his own moral convictions, Demme then used his influence to make Philadelphia (1993), one of the first major films to address the AIDS crisis and which garnered star Tom Hanks his first Best Actor Oscar. He also co-directed (with his nephew Ted) the music video for Bruce Springsteen's Best Song Oscar-winning "Streets of Philadelphia" from the film's soundtrack.
Subsequently, his films included an adaptation of Toni Morrison's Beloved (1998), and remakes of two films from the 1960s: The Truth About Charlie (2002), based on Charade, that starred Mark Wahlberg in the Cary Grant role; and The Manchurian Candidate (2004), with Denzel Washington and Meryl Streep. Demme's documentary film Man from Plains (2007), a documentary about former U.S. President Jimmy Carter's promotional tour publicizing his book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, had its premiere at the Venice Film Festival and Toronto International Film Festival.
His art-house hit Rachel Getting Married (2008) was compared by many critics to Demme's films of the late 1970s and 1980s. It was included in many 2008 "best of" lists, and received numerous awards and nominations, including an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress by lead Anne Hathaway. In 2010, Demme made his first foray into theater, directing Family Week, a play by Beth Henley. The play was produced by MCC Theater and co-starred Rosemarie DeWitt and Kathleen Chalfant.
At one time, Demme was signed on to direct, produce, and write an adaptation of Stephen King's sci-fi novel 11/22/63, but later left due to disagreements with King on what should be included in the script.
He returned to the concert documentary format with Justin Timberlake + the Tennessee Kids (2016), which he described as a "performance film, but also a portrait of an artist at a certain moment in the arc of his career", and his last project was a history of rock & roll for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame compiled from footage from Hall of Fame induction ceremonies set to debut in summer 2017.
Demme directed music videos for artists such as Suburban Lawns, New Order, KRS-One's H.E.A.L. project and Bruce Springsteen. He also produced a compilation of Haitian music called Konbit: Burning Rhythms of Haiti that was released in 1989. (Lou Reed selected Konbit... as one of his 'picks of 1989').
Demme was on the board of directors at Jacob Burns Film Center in Pleasantville, New York. In addition to his role on the board, he curated and hosted a monthly series called "Rarely Seen Cinema".
Throughout 1986–2004, Demme was known for his dramatic close-ups in films. This style of close-ups involves the character looking directly into the camera during crucial moments, particularly in the "Quid pro quo" scene in Silence of the Lambs. According to Demme, this was done to put the viewer into the character's shoes. Beginning with Rachel Getting Married (2008), Demme adopted a documentary style of filmmaking.
Writer/director Paul Thomas Anderson has paid homage to Demme in his films and has cited him as a major influence in his work. In an interview, Anderson jokingly stated that the three filmmakers who inspired him the most are "Jonathan Demme, Jonathan Demme and Jonathan Demme." Other directors such as Alexander Payne and Wes Anderson have been known to copy his close-ups in their own work.
Demme was involved in various political projects. In 1981, he directed a series of commercials for the liberal advocacy group People for the American Way. The spots, titled "Eggs", "Music", and "Sports", were produced by Norman Lear and featured Muhammad Ali, Carol Burnett, and Goldie Hawn celebrating Freedom of Expression. In 1985, he directed a video for Artists United Against Apartheid. The short, featured various international musicians including Afrika Bambaataa, Rubén Blades, Jimmy Cliff, Herbie Hancock, Little Steven, Run–D.M.C., and Bruce Springsteen, calling for a boycott of the South African luxury resort Sun City during Apartheid. His documentary Haiti Dreams of Democracy (1988) captured Haiti's era of democratic rebuilding after dictatorship, while his documentary The Agronomist (2008) profiled Haitian journalist and human rights activist Jean Dominique. Demme spent six years on the documentary I'm Carolyn Parker (2011), which highlighted rebuilding efforts in New Orleans Lower Ninth Ward after Hurricane Katrina.
Demme had three children by two marriages: Ramona, Brooklyn, and Jos. He was the uncle of film director Ted Demme, who died in 2002. Demme's cousin was the Rev. Robert Wilkinson Castle Jr., an Episcopal priest who appeared in some of Demme's films.
Demme was a member of the steering committee of the Friends of the Apollo Theater, Oberlin, Ohio, along with Danny DeVito and Rhea Perlman. In 2013, he returned to Oberlin as part of an alumni reunion during the class of 2013 graduation ceremony and received the award for Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts.
Demme was an avid collector and devotee of Haitian art; in particular of Hector Hyppolite; so much so that he called it "an addiction". In 2014, he held an auction in Philadelphia selling thousands from his collection, much of which was donated to a cultural center in Port-au-Prince.
|Angels Hard as They Come||1971||Yes||Yes|
|The Hot Box||1972||Yes||Yes||Second unit director|
|Black Mama White Mama||1973||Story|
|Handle with Care||1977||Yes||A.K.A. Citizen's Band|
|Last Embrace||1979||Yes||Actor||Role: Man on Train|
|Melvin and Howard||1980||Yes|
|Swimming to Cambodia||1987||Yes|
|Married to the Mob||1988||Yes|
|The Silence of the Lambs||1991||Yes|
|The Truth About Charlie||2002||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|The Manchurian Candidate||2004||Yes||Yes|
|Rachel Getting Married||2008||Yes||Yes|
|A Master Builder||2013||Yes|
|Ricki and the Flash||2015||Yes||Final directorial movie|
|Stop Making Sense||1984||Yes||Yes|
|Haiti: Dreams of Democracy||1987||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|The Complex Sessions||1994||Yes|
|Neil Young: Heart of Gold||2006||Yes|
|Man from Plains||2007||Yes||Yes|
|Right to Return: New Home Movies From the Lower 9th Ward||Yes|
|Neil Young Trunk Show||2009||Yes|
|I'm Carolyn Parker||2011||Yes||Yes||Cinematographer|
|Neil Young Journeys||2012||Yes||Yes|
|Enzo Avitabile Music Life||Yes||Yes|
|What's Motivating Hayes||2015||Yes||Short|
|Justin Timberlake + The Tennessee Kids||2016||Yes|
|Columbo||1978||Yes||Episode: "Murder Under Glass"|
|Saturday Night Live||1980–86||Yes||Yes||3 episodes|
|American Playhouse||1982||Yes||Episode: "Who Am I This Time?"|
|Trying Times||1987||Yes||Episode: "A Family Tree"|
|Subway Stories||1997||Yes||Segment: "Subway Car from Hell"|
|A Gifted Man||Yes||Yes||Episode: "Pilot"|
|The Killing||2013–14||Yes||2 episodes|
|Shots Fired||2017||Yes||Episode: "Hour Six: The Fire This Time"|
|Fly Me||1972||Second unit director|
|The Incredible Melting Man||1977||Actor||Role: Matt Winters|
|"The Perfect Kiss"||1985||Yes||Music video for New Order|
|Into the Night||Actor||Role: Federal Agent|
|"Away"||1988||Yes||Music video for The Feelies|
|Women & Men 2||1991||Yes|
|Amos & Andrew||1993||Executive producer||Uncredited|
|Household Saints||Executive producer|
|One Foot on a Banana Peel, the Other
Foot in the Grave:
Secrets from the Dolly Madison Room 1994
|"Murder Incorporated"||1995||Yes||Music video for Bruce Springsteen|
|Devil in a Blue Dress||Executive producer|
|That Thing You Do!||1996||Yes||Actor||Role: Producer of That Thing You Do!
Director of Weekend At Party Pier
|Oz||2000||Actor||Role: Commercial Director|
|The Opportunists||Executive producer|
|Maangamizi: The Ancient One||2001||Executive producer|
|Beah: A Black Woman Speaks||2003||Yes|
|Crude Independence||2009||Executive producer|
|Gimme the Loot||2012||Yes|
|The Center||2015||Executive producer|
|Deep Time||Executive producer|
Philadelphia was fueled by three of the director's staunchest convictions: that helping out people who are having a hard time is less a duty than a pleasure; that bigotry is more the result of ignorance than evil; and that for all the country's political outrages, goodness is deep in the American grain.
Although his best two movies to date, Citizens Band (AKA Handle With Care, 1977) and Melvin and Howard (1980), were hailed for bringing the heartiness and sensitivity of a homegrown Jean Renoir into latter-day American film comedy, they failed to score at the box office.
Paramount figured it might just have a sleeper hit in the small movie, but it took a wait-and-see attitude, spending little on advertising and promotion, and hoping the movie would hook onto the C.B. craze and catch.
We had a great time doing it and we were invited to the New York Film Festival, despite the fact that the film tanked horrendously—and famously—at the box office.
Warm rather than cold, forgiving rather than damning, Rachel is a throwback to the fluky, generous vibe that sustained the director's films in the late 1970s and 1980s – Handle With Care (1977), Melvin and Howard (1980), Stop Making Sense (1984), Something Wild (1986) and Married to the Mob (1988).
With Rachel Getting Married, Demme, 64, has returned to the playful, deeply humanist storytelling of such early work as 1980's Melvin and Howard and 1986's Something Wild, both of which are widely acknowledged as having influenced a younger generation of filmmakers.
Back in the '70s and '80s he was the best – or at any rate the most promising – young American director. ... Demme's new film, Rachel Getting Married, is arguably an attempt on the part of the director to wend his way back to his roots.