Isolationism

Last updated on 24 July 2017

Isolationism is a category of foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who asserted that their nations' best interests were best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. One possible motivation for limiting international involvement is to avoid being drawn into dangerous and otherwise undesirable conflicts. There may also be a perceived benefit from avoiding international trade agreements or other mutual assistance pacts.[1]

Introduction

Isolationism has been defined as:

A policy or doctrine of trying to isolate one's country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, international agreements, and generally attempting to make one's economy entirely self-reliant; seeking to devote the entire efforts of one's country to its own advancement, both diplomatically and economically, while remaining in a state of peace by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities.[2]

Isolationism by country

Bhutan

Before 1999, Bhutan had banned television and the Internet in order to preserve its culture, environment, identity etc.[3] Eventually, Jigme Singye Wangchuck lifted the ban on television and the Internet. His son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, was elected as Druk Gyalpo of Bhutan, which helped forge the Bhutanese democracy. Subsequently, Bhutan has transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a multi-party democracy. The development of Bhutanese democracy has been marked by the active encouragement and participation of reigning Bhutanese monarchs since the 1950s, beginning with legal reforms such as the abolition of slavery, and culminating in the enactment of Bhutan's Constitution [4]

China

After Zheng He's voyages in the 15th century, the foreign policy of the Ming dynasty in China became increasingly isolationist. The Hongwu Emperor was the first to propose the policy to ban all maritime shipping in 1371.[5] The Qing dynasty that came after the Ming dynasty often continued the Ming dynasty's isolationist policies. Wokou, which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan, and Korea, and were one of the key primary concerns, although the maritime ban was not without some control.

Japan

From 1641 to 1853, the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan enforced a policy which it called kaikin. The policy prohibited foreign contact with most outside countries. However, the commonly held idea that Japan was entirely closed is misleading. In fact, Japan maintained limited-scale trade and diplomatic relations with China, Korea, the Ryukyu Islands and the Netherlands.[6]

The culture of Japan developed with limited influence from the outside world and had one of the longest stretches of peace in history. During this period, Japan developed thriving cities, castle towns, increasing commodification of agriculture and domestic trade,[7] wage labor, increasing literacy and concomitant print culture,[8] laying the groundwork for modernization even as the shogunate itself grew weak.[9]

Korea

In 1863, King Gojong took the throne of the Joseon Dynasty when he was a child. His father, Regent Heungseon Daewongun, ruled for him until Gojong reached adulthood. During the mid-1860s he was the main proponent of isolationism and the principal instrument of the persecution of both native and foreign Catholics.

Following the division of the peninsula after independence from Japan in 1945-48, Kim il-Sung inaugurated an isolationist Communist regime in the North, which has been continued by his son and grandson to the present day.

Paraguay

Just after independence was achieved, Paraguay was governed from 1814 by the dictator José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, who closed the country's borders and prohibited trade or any relation with the outside world until his death in 1840. The Spanish settlers who had arrived just before independence had to intermarry with either the old colonists or with the native Guarani, in order to create a single Paraguayan people.

Francia had a particular dislike of foreigners and any who came to Paraguay during his rule (which would have been very difficult) were not allowed to leave for the rest of their lives. An independent character, he hated European influences and the Catholic Church, turning church courtyards into artillery parks and confession boxes into border sentry posts, in an attempt to keep foreigners at bay.

Switzerland

Switzerland has been neutral in foreign relations since the Battle of Marignano in 1515. Switzerland did not participate in either of the World Wars and it joined the United Nations as late as 2002, leaving only the Vatican City as the last widely recognized non-UN member at the time of joining. Switzerland is not a member of the European Union or the European Economic Area and the general public remains opposed to full EU membership.[10]

In February 2014, Swiss voters narrowly approved a referendum to restrict immigration and reintroduce quotas on foreigners originating from the EU. However, on 22 December 2016, Switzerland and the EU concluded an agreement that a new Swiss law (in response to the referendum) may require Swiss employers to give priority to Swiss-based job seekers (Swiss nationals and foreigners registered in Swiss job agencies) but does not limit the free movement of EU workers to Switzerland.[11]

United States

While some scholars, such as Robert J. Art, believe that the United States has an isolationist history, other scholars dispute this by describing the United States as following a strategy of unilateralism or non-interventionism instead.[12][13] Robert Art makes his argument in A Grand Strategy for America (2003).[12] Books that have made the argument that the United States followed unilaterism instead of isolationism include Walter A. McDougall's Promised Land, Crusader State (1997), John Lewis Gaddis's Surprise, Security, and the American Experience (2004), and Bradley F. Podliska's Acting Alone (2010).[14] Both sides claim policy prescriptions from George Washington's Farewell Address as evidence for their argument.[12][13] Bear F. Braumoeller argues that even the best case for isolationism, the United States in the interwar period, has been widely misunderstood and that Americans proved willing to fight as soon as they believed a genuine threat existed.[15]

Events during and after the Revolution related to the treaty of alliance with France, as well as difficulties arising over the neutrality policy pursued during the French revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic wars, encouraged another perspective. A desire for separateness and unilateral freedom of action merged with national pride and a sense of continental safety to foster the policy of isolation. Although the United States maintained diplomatic relations and economic contacts abroad, it sought to restrict these as narrowly as possible in order to retain its independence. The Department of State continually rejected proposals for joint cooperation, a policy made explicit in the Monroe Doctrine's emphasis on unilateral action. Not until 1863 did an American delegate attend an international conference.[16]

See also

Works cited

  1. ^ (Sullivan, Michael P., "Isolationism." World Book Deluxe 2001. CD-ROM.)
  2. ^ "Neutrality, Political," (2008). International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences; retrieved 2011-09-18
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bt.html#. Retrieved 17 May 2017. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ O'Brien, Matt (2010-08-29). "Reporter's Notebook from Bhutan: Crashing the Lost Horizon". Contra Costa Times. Retrieved 2011-09-18.
  5. ^ Vo Glahn, Richard. [1996] (1996). Pit of Money: money and monetary policy in China, xc1000-1700. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20408-5
  6. ^ Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, (1984) 1991.
  7. ^ Thomas C. Smith, The Agrarian Origins of Modern Japan, Stanford Studies in the Civilizations of Eastern Asia, Stanford, Calif., 1959,: Stanford University Press.
  8. ^ Mary Elizabeth Berry, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
  9. ^ Albert Craig, Chōshū in the Meiji Restoration, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961; Marius B. Jansen, Sakamoto Ryōma and the Meiji Restoration, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961.
  10. ^ Keiser, Andreas (2012-11-30). "Swiss still prefer bilateral accords with EU". Swissinfo. Retrieved 2014-03-29.
  11. ^ EU and Switzerland agree on free movement – euobserver, 22 Dec 2016
  12. ^ a b c Art, Robert J. (2004). A grand strategy for America. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. pp. 172–173. ISBN 9780801489570.
  13. ^ a b McDougall, Walter A. (1998). Promised land, crusader state : the American encounter with the world since 1776. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 39–40. ISBN 0395901324.
  14. ^ Podliska, Bradley F. Acting Alone: A Scientific Study of American Hegemony and Unilateral Use-of-Force Decision Making. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7391-4251-6
  15. ^ Braumoeller, Bear F. (2010) "The Myth of American Isolationism." Foreign Policy Analysis 6: 349-371.
  16. ^ "Internationalism". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 15 August 2016.

References

  • Barry, Tom. "A Global Affairs Commentary: The Terms of Power," Foreign Policy in Focus, November 6, 2002, University Press.
  • Berry, Mary Elizabeth. (2006). Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520237667; OCLC 60697079
  • Chalberg, John C. (1995). Isolationism: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. ISBN 9781565102231; OCLC 30078579
  • Craig, Albert. (1961). Chōshū in the Meiji Restoration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674128507; OCLC 413558
  • Glahn, Richard Von. (1996). Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000-1700. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520204089; OCLC 34323424
  • Graebner, Norman A. (1956). The New Isolationism; a Study in Politics and Foreign Policy Since 1950. New York: Ronald Press. OCLC 256173
  • Jansen, Marius B. (1961). Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration. Princeton: Princeton University Press. OCLC 413111
  • Nichols, Christopher McKnight (2011). "Promise and Peril: America at the Dawn of a Global Age." Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2011. OCLC 676725368
  • Nordlinger, Eric A. (1995). Isolationism Reconfigured: American Foreign Policy for a New Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691043272; OCLC 31515131
  • Smith, Thomas C. (1959). The Agrarian Origins of Modern Japan. Stanford: Stanford University Press. OCLC 263403
  • Sullivan, Michael P. "Isolationism." World Book Deluxe 2001. CD-ROM.
  • Toby, Ronald P. (1984). State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691054018; OCLC 9557347
  • Washington, George "Washington's Farewell Address 1796." Yale Law School Avalon Project, 2008. Web. 12 Sept 2013.

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