Since its declaration of independence from Serbia (enacted on 17 February 2008), international recognition of Kosovo has been mixed, and the international community continues to be divided on the issue.
As of 17 February 2018, the Republic of Kosovo has received 117 diplomatic recognitions as an independent state, of which two have been withdrawn. Notably, 113 out of 193 (58.5%) United Nations (UN) member states, 23 out of 28 (82%) European Union (EU) member states, 25 out of 29 (86%) NATO member states, and 36 out of 57 (63%) Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states have recognised Kosovo. The Government of Serbia does not recognise it as a sovereign state, but has begun to normalise relations with the Government of Kosovo in accordance with the Brussels Agreement.
A number of states expressed concern over the unilateral character of Kosovo's declaration, or explicitly announced that they would not recognise an independent Kosovo. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) remains divided on this issue: of its five members with veto power, three (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) have recognised the declaration of independence, while the People's Republic of China has expressed concern, urging the continuation of the previous negotiation framework. The Russian Federation has rejected the declaration and considers it illegal. On 15 May 2008, Russia, China, and India released a joint statement calling for new negotiations between Belgrade and Pristina.
Although EU member states individually decide whether to recognise Kosovo, by consensus the EU has commissioned the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX) to ensure peace and continued external oversight. Due to the dispute in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), the reconfiguration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and partial handover to the EULEX mission met with difficulties. In spite of Russian and Serbian protests, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon proceeded with the reconfiguration plan. On 15 July 2008, he stated: "In the light of the fact that the Security Council is unable to provide guidance, I have instructed my Special Representative to move forward with the reconfiguration of UNMIK ... in order to adapt UNMIK to a changed reality." According to the Secretary-General, the "United Nations has maintained a position of strict neutrality on the question of Kosovo's status". On 26 November 2008, the UNSC gave the green light to the deployment of the EULEX mission in Kosovo. The EU mission is to assume police, justice, and customs duties from the UN, while operating under the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (UNSCR 1244) that first placed Kosovo under UN administration in 1999.
As of late July 2008, UNMIK no longer provides the citizens of Kosovo with travel documents, while their ability to travel using the new Kosovan passport does not coincide with diplomatic recognition: for example Greece, Romania, and Slovakia accept Kosovo-issued documents for identity purposes, despite not officially recognising its independence. The three neighbouring states that recognise Kosovo—Albania, Montenegro, and Macedonia—all accept the Kosovan passport, which Serbia refuses.
|Formal recognition of Kosovo by UN member states over time|
A United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution adopted on 8 October 2008 backed the request of Serbia to seek an International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence. On 22 July 2010, the ICJ ruled that the declaration of independence of Kosovo "did not violate any applicable rule of international law", because its authors, who were "representatives of the people of Kosovo", were not bound by the Constitutional Framework (promulgated by UNMIK) or by UNSCR 1244 that is addressed only to United Nations Member States and organs of the United Nations.
Due to Serbian claims that Kosovo is part of its sovereign territory, its initial reactions included recalling ambassadors from countries that recognised Kosovo for several months, indicting Kosovar leaders on charges of high treason, and litigating the case at the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Serbia also expelled ambassadors from countries that recognised Kosovo after the UNGA vote adopting Serbia's initiative to seek an ICJ advisory opinion.
In December 2012, as a result of European Union mediated negotiations on Kosovo's status, Serbian Prime Minister Ivica Dačić agreed to appoint a liaison officer to Kosovo. In March 2013, Dačić said that while his government would never recognise Kosovo's independence, "lies were told that Kosovo is ours" and that Serbia needed to define its "real borders".
In April 2013, Kosovo and Serbia reached an agreement to normalise relations, and thereby allow both nations to eventually join the European Union. Under the terms of the agreement, "Belgrade acknowledged that the government in Pristina exercises administrative authority over the territory of Kosovo – and that it is prepared to deal with Pristina as a legitimate governing authority."
On 17 June 2013 Kosovo and Serbia exchanged liaison officers.
|#||Country||Date of recognition||Reference|
|1||Afghanistan||18 February 2008|||
|2||Costa Rica||18 February 2008|||
|3||Albania||18 February 2008|||
|4||France||18 February 2008|||
|5||Senegal||18 February 2008|||
|6||Turkey||18 February 2008|||
|7||United Kingdom||18 February 2008|||
|8||United States||18 February 2008|||
|9||Australia||19 February 2008|||
|10||Latvia||20 February 2008|||
|11||Germany||20 February 2008|||
|12||Estonia||21 February 2008|||
|13||Italy||21 February 2008|||
|14||Denmark||21 February 2008|||
|15||Luxembourg||21 February 2008|||
|16||Peru||22 February 2008|||
|17||Belgium||24 February 2008|||
|18||Poland||26 February 2008|||
|19||Switzerland||27 February 2008|||
|20||Austria||28 February 2008|||
|21||Ireland||29 February 2008|||
|22||Sweden||4 March 2008|||
|23||Netherlands||4 March 2008|||
|24||Iceland||5 March 2008|||
|25||Slovenia||5 March 2008|||
|26||Finland||7 March 2008|||
|27||Japan||18 March 2008|||
|28||Canada||18 March 2008|||
|29||Monaco||19 March 2008|||
|30||Hungary||19 March 2008|||
|31||Croatia||19 March 2008|||
|32||Bulgaria||20 March 2008|||
|33||Liechtenstein||25 March 2008|||
|34||South Korea||28 March 2008|||
|35||Norway||28 March 2008|||
|36||Marshall Islands||17 April 2008|||
|37||Burkina Faso||23 April 2008|||
|38||Nauru||23 April 2008|||
|39||Lithuania||6 May 2008|||
|40||San Marino||12 May 2008|||
|41||Czech Republic||21 May 2008|||
|42||Liberia||30 May 2008|||
|43||Sierra Leone||11 June 2008|||
|44||Colombia||4 August 2008|||
|45||Belize||7 August 2008|||
|46||Malta||22 August 2008|||
|47||Samoa||15 September 2008|||
|48||Portugal||7 October 2008|||
|49||Montenegro||9 October 2008|||
|50||Macedonia||9 October 2008|||
|51||United Arab Emirates||14 October 2008|||
|52||Malaysia||30 October 2008|||
|53||Micronesia||5 December 2008|||
|54||Panama||16 January 2009|||
|55||Maldives||19 February 2009|||
|56||Palau||6 March 2009|||
|57||Gambia||7 April 2009|||
|58||Saudi Arabia||20 April 2009|||
|59||Comoros||14 May 2009|||
|60||Bahrain||19 May 2009|||
|61||Jordan||7 July 2009|||
|62||Dominican Republic||10 July 2009|||
|63||New Zealand||9 November 2009|||
|64||Malawi||14 December 2009|||
|65||Mauritania||12 January 2010|||
|66||Swaziland||12 April 2010|||
|67||Vanuatu||28 April 2010|||
|68||Djibouti||8 May 2010|||
|69||Somalia||19 May 2010|||
|70||Honduras||3 September 2010|||
|71||Kiribati||21 October 2010|||
|72||Tuvalu||18 November 2010|||
|73||Qatar||7 January 2011|||
|74||Guinea-Bissau||10 January 2011[Notes 1]|||
|75||Oman||4 February 2011|||
|76||Andorra||8 June 2011|||
|77||Central African Republic||22 July 2011|||
|78||Guinea||12 August 2011|||
|79||Niger||15 August 2011|||
|80||Benin||18 August 2011|||
|81||Saint Lucia||19 August 2011|||
|82||Gabon||15 September 2011|||
|83||Ivory Coast||16 September 2011|||
|84||Kuwait||11 October 2011|||
|85||Ghana||23 January 2012|||
|86||Haiti||10 February 2012|||
|87||Brunei||25 April 2012|||
|88||Chad||1 June 2012|||
|89||Timor-Leste||20 September 2012|||
|90||Papua New Guinea||3 October 2012|||
|91||Fiji||19 November 2012|||
|92||Saint Kitts and Nevis||28 November 2012|||
|93||Dominica||11 December 2012|||
|94||Pakistan||24 December 2012|||
|95||Guyana||16 March 2013|||
|96||Tanzania||29 May 2013|||
|97||Yemen||11 June 2013|||
|98||Egypt||26 June 2013|||
|99||El Salvador||29 June 2013|||
|100||Thailand||24 September 2013|||
|101||Grenada||25 September 2013|||
|102||Libya||25 September 2013|||
|103||Tonga||15 January 2014|||
|104||Lesotho||11 February 2014|||
|105||Togo||11 July 2014|||
|106||Solomon Islands||13 August 2014|||
|107||Antigua and Barbuda||20 May 2015|||
|108||Singapore||1 December 2016|||
|109||Bangladesh||27 February 2017|||
|110||Madagascar||24 November 2017|||
|111||Barbados||15 February 2018|||
|State or Entity||Period of recognition||Reference|
|Suriname||8 July 2016 – 27 October 2017|||
|Burundi||16 October 2012 – 15 February 2018|||
|State or Entity||Date of recognition||Reference|
|Republic of China (Taiwan)||19 February 2008|||
|Sovereign Military Order of Malta||1 June 2009|||
|Cook Islands||18 May 2015|||
|Niue||23 June 2015|||
Diplomatic recognition is an explicit, official, unilateral act in the foreign policy of states in regards to another party. Not having issued such a statement does not necessarily mean the state has objections to the existence, independence, sovereignty or government of the other party. Some states, by custom or policy, do not extend formal recognitions, on the grounds that a vote for membership in the UN or another organisation whose membership is limited to states is itself an act of recognition.
|Algeria||In March 2008, Mourad Medelci, Algerian Foreign Minister, stated that while Algeria sympathised with all Muslim countries, it believed that international laws had to be adhered to. A year later, Medelci reaffirmed the Algerian position of Kosovo being an integral part of Serbia.
In May 2009, the Ambassador of Algeria to Serbia, Abdelkader Mesdoua stated that Algeria would reconsider the issue of Kosovo if Serbia changed its own position.
|Angola||On 23 June 2008, Angolan president José Eduardo dos Santos sent a message to his Serbian counterpart, Boris Tadić, regarding Kosovo's declaration of independence. It reiterated the solidarity of dos Santos and Angola to Serbia in regard to the preservation of its sovereignty and integrity.|
|Argentina||In February 2008, Argentine Foreign Minister, Jorge Taiana said "if we were to recognize Kosovo, which has declared its independence unilaterally, without an agreement with Serbia, we would set a dangerous precedent that would seriously threaten our chances of a political settlement in the case of the Falkland Islands". He said that president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner would not give any official statement on the issue, reiterating that there would be no recognition of Kosovo. Argentina will not recognise also because it "supports the principle of territorial integrity". Additionally, he stressed that the 1999 UNSCR 1244 called for the mutual agreement of all parties to solve the dispute.
In a 2 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Argentine delegation said that Kosovo's declaration of independence "breaches an obligation to respect the territorial integrity of Serbia, the obligation of peaceful settlement of disputes and principle of non-intervention. The resolution has no legal basis in the principle of self-determination," and that it "did not, and could not, abolish Serbia's sovereignty over Kosovo".
|Armenia||On 12 March 2008, Armenian president Serzh Sargsyan stated that Armenia's possible recognition of Kosovo's independence would not strain Armenia–Russia relations, but also noted that "Kosovo recognition issue needs serious discussion ... Armenia has always been an adherent to the right of nations to self-determination and in this aspect we welcome Kosovo's independence." On 3 September 2008 Sargsyan stated: "Today one is wondering from time to time why Armenia is not recognizing the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The answer is simple: for the same reason that it did not recognize Kosovo's independence. Having the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Armenia can not recognize another entity in the same situation as long as it has not recognized the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". A nation's right to self-determination "takes times", requiring the understanding of "all interested parties". Accordingly, Armenia is trying to "convince" Azerbaijan to accept the loss of Karabakh, stated the president. In November 2008, whilst commenting on Russia's recognition of Georgia's breakaway regions, Sargsyan said "In case with Kosovo the right of nations to self-determination was applied. However, Russia's similar step was given a hostile reception".
At a meeting in May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Armenia to the UN, Armen Martirosyan reportedly promised that the request for recognition would be forwarded to his government. On a July 2009 state visit to Armenia, Serbian president Boris Tadić discussed the issues of Kosovo and Nagorno-Karabakh with Sargsyan. The two leaders agreed that regional conflicts must be resolved without the use of force and only by peaceful means in keeping with international law. Tadić also met with Armenian prime minister Tigran Sargsyan where the same issues were discussed. The Kosovo and Nagorno-Karabakh issues can only be solved through negotiations and "any imposed solutions are absolutely unacceptable and we fully agree on that," Tadić said afterwards.
On 4 April 2011 Sargsyan said that Armenia would not recognise the independence of Kosovo against Serbia's interests.
|Azerbaijan||In February 2008, a spokesman of the Foreign Ministry of Azerbaijan, Khazar Ibrahim, said "We view this illegal act as being in contradiction with international law. Proceeding from this, Azerbaijan's position is clear: it does not recognise [Kosovo's] independence". Azerbaijan has also withdrawn peacekeepers from Kosovo. Zahid Oruj, a member of the parliamentary committee on defence and security, explained it by saying "Owing to the change of situation in Kosovo, the Azeri peacekeeping battalion performing its mission within the Turkish contingent will be withdrawn. Azerbaijan acts in compliance with the country's political stance". At the summit of the OIC on 10 March 2008, Azerbaijan opposed adoption of the document, proposed by Turkey, that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence. On 19 June 2008, during the meeting of OIC, Azerbaijan was among countries that opposed the recognition of Kosovo as an independent country.
In a 3 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Azerbaijani delegation said that entities that declare secession while violating the internal laws of the state can not be considered to be states, and that a fait accompli may not be accepted – power is not the right, and the force is not the law.
At a meeting with Serbian president Boris Tadić in Baku in May 2010, President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev said that Serbia and Azerbaijan mutually help each other in the international arena and that his country provides strong support for the territorial integrity of Serbia. He stated that the unilaterally proclaimed independence of Kosovo is an illegal move and called on all UN member states to respect international law.
|Bahamas||At a meeting on 18 June 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of the Bahamas to the UN, Paulette Bethel reportedly said that she would forward the request for recognition to her government.
In April 2010, Bahamian Foreign Minister Brent Symonette said, "We have considered and continue to consider the situation on the ground on both sides and maintain a status of awaiting the outcome of negotiations between Kosovo and its neighbouring countries before committing support to either of the two countries".
On 26 September 2012, the Bahamian Foreign Minister, Frederick A. Mitchell, said that his state has sympathy for the independence of Kosovo, and that the Bahamas will support the state of Kosovo.
|Belarus||In February 2008, Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko wrote in a letter to Serbian President Boris Tadić that "Belarus expresses its solidarity with the Serbians' intention to defend their sovereignty and territorial integrity". The National Assembly of Belarus had issued a statement condemning the declaration of independence and encouraged all nations to call the move "illegal" under international law.
The Foreign Ministry of Belarus published a statement saying "that the settlement of the Kosovo and Metochia [sic] status should progress under international law, based on UN Security Council resolution 1244 (of 1999) which is a fundamental document for the Kosovo settlement certifying the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Serbia, and based on the key provisions of the UN Charter and Helsinki Final Act, with the essential role of the UN Security Council bearing a predominant responsibility for safeguarding international peace and security".
In a 3 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Belarusian delegation said that secession by international law was allowed only in former colonies, or in cases where the minority population was oppressed for a long period of time and was denied the participation in government, however the situation in Kosovo has not met these criteria traditionally interpreted as the right for "external" self-determination. The internal law of Serbia as well as UNSC resolutions are satisfactory for the "internal" self-determination of the Albanian population.
In May 2012 the Belarusian ambassador to Serbia, Uladzimir Chushaw, said that Belarus will never recognise the independence of Kosovo. He was quoted as saying, "The Kosovo wounds are hurting us very much."
|Bhutan||At a meeting on 28 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Bhutan to the UN, Lhatu Wangchuk, reportedly said that he had conveyed Kosovo's request for recognition to his government on 3 February, and he is awaiting the decision of his government.
On 19 September 2012, Wangchuk said that his country is deliberating the issue of Kosovo.
|Bolivia||In February 2008, Bolivian president Evo Morales refused to recognise Kosovo's independence and compared Kosovo separatists to the leaders of four eastern Bolivian states who have demanded greater autonomy from the federal government.
In a 4 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Bolivian delegation said that Kosovo is an integral part of Serbia and that the Republic of Kosovo does not exist. A unilateral declaration of independence cannot change the international regime established by the UNSC resolution, or decide the outcome of negotiations.
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnia and Herzegovina's reaction to Kosovo's independence has been mixed. Bosniak and Croat members of the Presidency want to recognise it, but Serb members refuse.|
|Botswana||In a September 2010 meeting between the Foreign Ministers of Kosovo and Botswana, Skënder Hyseni and Phandu Skelemani, Mr. Skelemani said that the ICJ had given "a clear decision", and said that he would soon formally present a position for recognition to his government. In October 2010, Skelemani said that Botswana has not yet made a decision on recognition of Kosovo pending the ruling of the EU, and that Kosovo had promised support in the establishment of a medical school in return for its recognition.
In March 2011, Skelemani said that Botswana still has to advise itself properly in order to come up with an informed decision on the issue. He said that the matter of Kosovo has been before the ICJ and therefore it requires a close look as it involves law. In September 2013, Botswana Foreign Minister Phandu TC Skelemani, promised the recognition of Kosovo stating that it was now only a matter of procedure before it happens.
In September 2014, Skelemani said that his country values as positive the developments in Kosovo, which pave the way to the possibility for reviewing of recognition by his country.
|Brazil||Brazil has not recognised the independence of Kosovo, stating that it believes that agreement should be reached under the auspices of the UN and the legal framework of UNSCR 1244.|
|Cambodia||On 6 October 2008, the Europe Department Director at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Cambodia, Kao Samreth, stressed that Cambodia does not wish to encourage secession in any country and therefore does not support the independence of Kosovo. Kao drew parallels to independence claims for South Ossetia and stated that Cambodia would not encourage tension within a country by supporting independence claims.
In February 2009, Secretary of State at Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Cambodia, Ouch Borith, reiterated an earlier Cambodian Ministry of Foreign Affairs statement that Kosovo is a sensitive issue which they are studying carefully. Borith questioned, "if Kosovo is recognized, what about South Ossetia?" On 2 April 2009, the Director of the Department of International Organizations at Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Cambodia, Tuy Ri, stated that Cambodia had no plans to file a brief (either supportive of Serbia or Kosovo) in the ICJ case.
|Cameroon||In January 2011, the General Secretary of Cameroon's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ferdinand Ngoh Ngoh, reportedly said that his government cannot deny that Kosovo's independence is irreversible, but that it would have to be careful on how to proceed in order not to create a situation that would damage Cameroon's interests and position in the world.
In November 2011, in a meeting with First Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo, Behgjet Pacolli, Cameroon's prime minister, Philémon Yang, reportedly said that the recognition of Kosovo was underway.
In a 15 November 2012 meeting with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, the Minister Delegate of Cameroon's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Adoum Gargoum, said that his country has no political or legal reasons not to recognise Kosovo's independence, expressing the sympathy of his people for the people of Kosovo.
|Cape Verde||At a meeting in May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Cape Verde to the UN, Antonio Pedro Monteiro Lima, reportedly said that the decision on recognition of Kosovo is only "a matter of time" and that "Cape Verde knows very well the price of freedom".
In December 2010, Cape Verde's National Director of Political Affairs and Cooperation, José Luis Rocha, said that his country will wait until there is consensus at the UNSC before considering its position.
In February 2013, the Prime Minister of Cape Verde, José Maria Neves promised that his country would soon recognise the state of Kosovo.
|Chile||In a 27 February 2008 press release, the Foreign Ministry of Chile called on the parties concerned to achieve, by peaceable means, through dialogue and adherence to the international law, a solution that respects the principles and purposes of the UN Charter. Chile will continue to analyse the discussions that have taken and are taking place, both in the UNSC, and in the Council of Ministers of the EU.|
|China||China is strongly supportive of the principles of State sovereignty and territorial integrity. It supports Serbia's position on Kosovo.|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||On 10 February 2009, the Head of the International Organizations Directorate at the Congolese Foreign Ministry, Alice Kimpembe Bamba, said that her government had no plans to recognise Kosovo at the moment, adding that her government was closely following developments on Kosovo at the UN. In November 2009, it was reported that the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Joseph Kabila had said that his country will not recognise the independence of Kosovo for as long as he lives.
On 6 April 2012, the Congolese National Assembly Speaker, Evariste Boshab Mabudj-ma-Bilenge, said that "Serbia's position on Kosovo and Metohija is the Democratic Republic of Congo's position".
In September 2013 the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the DR Congo, Raymond Tshibanda, stated that he would suggest to the Congolese President that they recognise Kosovo.
|Cuba||On 29 February 2008, writing in his personal "Reflections of Fidel" column, which is published in the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Cuba, Granma Internacional (and since translated into English and archived on the Trabajadores website), Fidel Castro, the ex-President and First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, attacked Javier Solana, accusing him of being the ideological father of Kosovo's "independence", and by doing so, putting at risk the ethnic cohesion and the very state integrity of Spain or the UK, both of which experience separatist movements of their own. He referred to Kosovo independence in quotes as "independence".
In December 2009, Ambassador of Cuba to Serbia, Mercedes Martínez Valdés, said that Cuba supports the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Serbia regarding the issue of Kosovo and advocates for the respect of international law.
In a September 2010 meeting between the Foreign Ministers of Albania and Cuba, Edmond Haxhinasto and Bruno Rodriguez Parrilla, Mr. Rodriguez said that Cuba was reconsidering recognition of Kosovo in light of the decision made by the ICJ. In February 2015, it was reported that Cuba continued to support Serbia over Kosovo.
|Cyprus||On 11 February 2008, the Cypriot Foreign Minister Erato Kozakou-Marcoullis, stated that "Cyprus will never recognize a unilateral declaration of independence outside the U.N. framework, and in particular by side-stepping the role of the Security Council". The President of Cyprus Dimitris Christofias, confirmed in March 2008 that Cyprus would not recognise Kosovo as an independent country, out of respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Serbia. Christofias reiterated his opposition to recognition in an interview with a Russian newspaper, saying, "The one thing that Kosovo and Cyprus have in common, as far as the situation in these regions is concerned, is that in both cases, the basic principles of international law and legality, as well as UN decisions, are constantly being violated". The Cypriot president underlined that the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of both Serbia and Cyprus were being violated in the most brutal manner.
On 23 February 2009, in a meeting with Serbian president Boris Tadić, Christofias said that "Cyprus has not recognized the unilaterally declared independence of Kosovo and we will not recognize it in the future. We are on your side, not only because your case is similar to ours, but because it is a matter of principles". On 16 June 2009, Minister of Defence of Cyprus Costas Papacostas said that Cyprus will never recognise the independence of Kosovo. In October 2009 this stance was reiterated by Christofias who said Cyprus would not recognise Kosovo, even if all other EU members did so.
On 28 June 2012, the Cypriot Foreign Ministry stated that while they have not recognised the independence of Kosovo, they were fully committed to further advancing the European perspective of the region. They pledged that during their EU Council Presidency, Cyprus will exercise its duties in a neutral and credible manner, taking into consideration the positions of all EU member states, but that any actions undertaken during the Presidency should not in any way be interpreted as suggesting any change in their position in relation to non-recognition and to the status of Kosovo under international law.
|Ecuador||In response to a request from the University of Oxford regarding the analysis of developments related to the independence of Kosovo, in August 2008 the Ecuadorian Foreign Ministry stated that there should be "unrestricted compliance with the rules and principles of the United Nations Charter and International Law".
At a meeting in January 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Ecuador's Ambassador to Austria, Maria Elena Moreira, said that the government of her country has carefully followed developments in Kosovo, and taking into account the recognition of Kosovo by European and Latin American countries, Ecuador will seriously consider the request for recognition of Kosovo as an independent and sovereign country. At a meeting on 25 March 2009 with Hyseni, the Ambassador of Ecuador to the UN, Diego Morejón-Pazmino, said that Ecuador has been carefully following developments in Kosovo, and he stressed the importance of building democratic institutions and a society with rights guaranteed to all communities. Mr. Morejón-Pazmino also said that Ecuador would carefully examine developments before making a decision on whether to recognise Kosovo.
|Equatorial Guinea||In a 1 September 2010 press conference, Equatorial Guinea's Permanent Representative to the UN, Anatolio Ndong Mba, said that his country's foreign policy favours Kosovo's independence.
In September 2011, the President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, is reported to have responded positively to a request for recognition by Kosovo. On 21 November 2011, in a meeting with First Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo, Behgjet Pacolli, President Obiang reportedly promised to immediately begin formalising the recognition of Kosovo.
In January 2012, Pacolli's advisor Jetlir Zyberaj stated that Kosovo had received confirmation of recognition from Equatorial Guinea but was awaiting receipt of the note verbale.
|Eritrea||On 4 September 2008, the Director of the Euro-Americas Division at the Eritrean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tsehaye Fassil, said that his Government had not decided whether it would recognise Kosovo's independence.
In September 2011, the President of Eritrea, Isaias Afewerki, is reported to have responded positively to a request for recognition of Kosovo.
In April 2014, the Eritrean Foreign Minister, Osman Saleh Mohammed, said Eritrea supports the right to self-determination and that his country would work to improve its relations with Kosovo.
|Ethiopia||At a meeting in January 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Ethiopia's Ambassador to Austria, Kongit Sinegiorgis, stated that the Ethiopian Government remains committed to considering Kosovo and its recognition, and will bring a decision at the right time.
According to Serbia, Hyseni and other members of his delegation were denied entry into Ethiopia in January 2010. They allegedly wanted to attend an African Union summit in order to lobby African nations to recognise Kosovo. Their visas were denied after pressure by the Serbian government, the Serbian Foreign Minister, Vuk Jeremić, said. Jeremić, who attended the summit, thanked his Ethiopian counterpart for denying the visas and supporting Serbia's cause. However, Kosovo's Foreign Ministry denies that they submitted any requests for visas.
On 5 August 2012 it was reported that the Ethiopian government had formally recognised Kosovo, with Kosovo's Foreign Ministry awaiting the arrival of the note verbale. In December 2014, amid a diplomatic dispute with Serbia, Ethiopia threatened to recognise Kosovo.
|Georgia||The Foreign Minister of Georgia, David Bakradze, said on 18 February 2008 that Tbilisi would not recognise Kosovo's independence, adding: "I think everyone in Georgia, regardless of political orientation, is unanimous on this". On 29 March 2008 the prime minister, Lado Gurgenidze, gave a recorded interview in Estonia, in which he clearly said in English that as Georgia's friends have recognised Kosovo, it is only natural that eventually Georgia will do likewise. The printed publication of the interview elicited demands by the opposition to impeach him, and the government spokesman stated that the prime minister was misinterpreted, after which the Estonian paper Postimees, which conducted and printed the interview, released the audio to the world. On 9 May 2008 President of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili, said "We are saying loud and clear that we have never planned to recognize Kosovo. Nor do we plan to do so in the future. The way out of the situation that has been chosen is not the best one. The Serbs should have been given more time for negotiations. The solution for Kosovo was a hasty one".|
|Greece||Greece does not recognise the independence of Kosovo, but has supported its membership in several international organisations.|
|Guatemala||In March 2008, the Guatemalan Foreign Minister, Haroldo Rodas, had said that he had objected to the recognition of Kosovo in deference to Russian concerns. However, the government was still considering recognising Kosovo.
At a meeting on 26 March 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the Ambassador of Guatemala to the UN, Gert Rosenthal, said that his country's government is carefully studying the developments in Kosovo, and the ongoing preparations to present a case to the ICJ. He also said that Guatemala is working with others in Latin America to reach a decision.
In April 2014, Guatemalan President Otto Pérez Molina said that his country would consider recognising Kosovo.
|India||India has consistently refused to recognise the independence of Kosovo.|
|Indonesia||Indonesia's reaction to Kosovo's independence has been mixed.|
|Iran||On 13 March 2008, Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said that Iran, after considering the region's issues and conditions, had not recognised the independence of Kosovo. In early March 2008, Gholamreza Ansari, Ambassador of Iran to Russia, said that "this question has very important aspects. Frankly speaking, the United Nations divided one of its members into two parts, though Article 1244 confirms the territorial integrity of Serbia. This is a very strange event. We think that some countries try to weaken international organizations. Presently, Iran is studying the question of Kosovo's future. Iran ... expresses its concern over the weakening of international organizations".
In April 2012 during a visit in Belgrade Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister Ramin Mehmanparast said that Iran will adhere to its decision not to recognise independence of Kosovo. Tehran on this issue is very clear and Iran is thereby giving its support to stability and safety in the region, Mehmanparast said. Mehmanparast added that Iran supported the Belgrade-Pristina dialogue as it believes that the international law can channel the burning issues in the best manner possible. In a 5 August 2012 interview, the Ambassador of Iran to Albania, Ali Amouei, said that he believes the sustainable way out of the Kosovo issue is talks with Serbia, and that Iran will not hesitate to officially recognise Kosovo once it has concluded that it would serve to establish peace and stability in the Balkans and the realisation of the legitimate rights of Muslims in Kosovo.
In February 2013, Amouei said that if the OIC concludes unanimously that recognising Kosovo helps peace and stability in the region, Iran will not avoid the recognition. He said that Iran's good relations with Serbia and Russia do not affect their position on Kosovo.
|Iraq||At a meeting on 28 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Iraq to the UN, Hamid Al Bayati, reportedly said that Kosovo deserves to be recognised by other states and that Iraq's decision to recognise will come at a suitable time. At a meeting in September 2009 with Hyseni, Iraqi Foreign Minister, Hoshyar Zebari, said that Kosovo's request for recognition was being studied closely. He said that he would forward the request to his Government, and that "we understand the right of peoples to self-determination".
On 18 February 2010, following a meeting with Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić said that Serbia strongly supports Iraq's territorial integrity just as Iraq supports Serbia. In May 2010, Ali al-Baldawi, a representative of the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, reportedly said that relations would be established with Kosovo once his party, which won the latest elections, forms a new government. On 6 August 2010, following a meeting with prime minister al-Maliki, the Serbian Defence Minister Dragan Šutanovac said that Iraq did not recognise the independence of Kosovo and added that Iraq had supported the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia.
In March 2011, Kosovo's prime minister Hashim Thaçi met with the Iraqi vice-president Tariq al-Hashimi, who promised that Iraq would consider the recognition of Kosovo in the immediate future to open the way for the promotion of good relations between the two countries. In October 2011 Iraq's ambassador to Belgrade, Falah Abdulsada, said that Iraq supports international law and international mechanisms, and has not changed its position of non-recognition of Kosovo.
In September 2012, Iraqi president, Jalal Talabani, said that he appreciated the interest of the Republic of Kosovo in creating friendship with his country, and he invited Kosovo's deputy prime minister, Behgjet Pacolli, to make an official visit to Iraq in order to discuss in more depth further steps to create inter-state relations. In November 2012, Zebari expressed his country's support for an independent Kosovo, and appreciated the progress achieved in Kosovo after the declaration of independence. He also said that Iraqi authorities follow the developments in Kosovo with great care.
|Israel||"We haven't decided when we're going to decide, and instead will monitor events and consider the issue," an unnamed Israeli Foreign Ministry official was quoted by the Jerusalem Post in February 2008. Israel will not recognise Kosovo's independence at this time, in part because of the possibility of Palestinians using recognition of Kosovo to justify their own unilateral declaration of independence. According to The Jewish Chronicle, Foreign Ministry officials and politicians are privately voicing a general sympathy towards the Kosovar cause, however Israel still won't recognise Kosovo. Knesset representative Ruhama Avraham said that "at present the government of Israel has made decision not to join the group of countries which recognised the independence of Kosovo". She also said that Israel considers the situation "very disturbing".
On 28 April 2009, Arthur Koll, the Israeli ambassador to Serbia, said it had been more than a year since Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, and that Israel had no intention of recognising that independence and that "Israel is asked from time to time how solid this decision is, but the fact is that Israel's position has not changed throughout this time. The Serbian people and government should appreciate Israel's position, which also demonstrates the friendship between the two states". On 16 September 2009, Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman said that Israel is "monitoring the situation between Serbia and Kosovo" and that Israel hopes for "a really comprehensive and peaceful solution" which would be established through negotiations between Belgrade and Pristina. Lieberman said that his country would be able to withstand the pressure made on it to recognise Kosovo because Israel has "been under pressure since 1948 on many issues and we know how to deal with any pressure". "Israeli officials have confirmed that Israel will remain firm in its stand [on Kosovo]," Serbian Interior Minister Ivica Dačić said during a visit to Israel in late October 2009.
In June 2011, Lieberman said that Kosovo's independence is a "sensitive issue" and that Israel may recognise Kosovo after other countries like Greece and Spain accept it.
On 3 August 2012, during the opening of Israeli Embassy in Tirana, Lieberman, when asked about Kosovo, said that his country is in a delicate situation. In August 2012, Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister, Danny Ayalon, stated that Israel was considering recognising Kosovo, with a decision expected as soon as the following year. In December 2012, the Israeli Ambassador to Albania, David Cohen, said that Israel has not recognised Kosovo yet, but it is working on this issue and that although it does not have known trade relations with Kosovo, it does give visa facilitation for Kosovars.
|Jamaica||The Jamaican Government in 2009 refused a request from the United States to recognise Kosovo. On 23 July 2009 the Under Secretary for Multilateral Affairs at the Jamaican Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, Ambassador Vilma McNish, indicated that she expected no change in the Government of Jamaica's decision not to extend formal diplomatic recognition to Kosovo.
Following April 2010 meetings with Jamaican officials, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić stated that Serbia can count on Jamaica's continued support in the preservation of its sovereignty and territorial integrity.
|Kazakhstan||In February 2008, a Kazakh foreign ministry spokesperson said that Kazakhstan opposes Kosovo's unilateral proclamation of independence. Kazakhstan insists the Kosovo issue should be solved peacefully in accordance with UN principles on national sovereignty and territorial integrity, the spokesperson said. In October 2008, Kazakh Foreign Minister Marat Tazhin said that "the principle of territorial integrity is key in international law" and that for this reason Kazakhstan did not recognise Kosovo or Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In December 2008, Kazakh prime minister Karim Masimov stated that "We have an official position. Kazakhstan did not recognise Kosovo and does not recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia. We consider that borders are defined and Kazakhstan will not recognise any new states".|
|Kenya||At a meeting on 30 July 2008 between Kenyan and Serbian Foreign Ministers, Moses Wetangula and Vuk Jeremić, Wetangula spoke of Kenya's principled position regarding Kosovo and the territorial integrity of Serbia.
At a meeting on 27 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Kenya to the UN, Zachary Muburi-Muita, said that "Kosovo deserves a place in the family of nations" and that he will pass the request for recognition to his government. He also said that a right for self-determination is an undeniable right.
Following a September 2010 meeting with Kenyan politicians, Albanian prime minister Sali Berisha said that Kenya had promised to decide positively regarding recognition of Kosovo.
In October 2012, Prime Minister of Kenya, Raila Odinga, stated that Kenya was seriously considering recognising Kosovo, and that a decision would be announced shortly.
|North Korea||In March 2017, North Korean Ambassador Ri Pyong Du visited Belgrade and affirmed North Korean support for Serbia's territorial integrity.|
|Kyrgyzstan||In February 2008, a statement issued by Kyrgyz Foreign Ministry states that Kyrgyzstan will not recognise Kosovo's independence and considers it a dangerous precedent for separatist organisations in the world.|
|Laos||On 27 February 2008, the Lao Foreign Ministry issued a statement saying that "The Lao PDR urged all sides to respect the resolution of the UN Security Council No 1244, dated 10 June 1999, recognizing Kosovo as a Serbian province".|
|Lebanon||At a meeting on 28 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Lebanon to the UN, Nawaf Salam, reportedly said that Lebanon will continue to support Kosovo and that the government of Lebanon is seeking the moment for recognition. In a November 2009 meeting between an Albanian delegation led by Deputy Foreign Minister, Edith Harxhi, and Lebanese officials including prime minister Saad Hariri, the Lebanese side reportedly said that Lebanon would soon recognise Kosovo. However, the Lebanese ambassador in Belgrade, Cehad Mualem, was later reported as saying that there was no possibility of Lebanon recognising Kosovo in the near future. He said that Lebanon would wait for the decision of the ICJ.
In a February 2012 meeting with the speaker of Albanian Parliament, Jozefina Topalli, the Lebanese prime minister, Najib Mikati, said that the issue of Kosovo's recognition is being considered very seriously.
In December 2013, Lebanese Foreign Minister Adnan Mansour promised to consider Kosovo's request for recognition.
|Mali||Mali's president Amadou Toumani Touré was reported in the press in March 2008 as having expressed the Malian stance on Kosovo as follows: "International norms must be respected, because their abuse and the violation of territorial integrity could threaten a series of countries with a similar problem".
In a 21 May 2010 meeting with Serbian prime minister, Mirko Cvetković, Mali's Foreign Minister, Moctar Ouane, said that Serbia can count on Mali's support in its efforts to preserve its sovereignty and territorial integrity.
In August 2011 meeting with Kosovo's First deputy prime minister Behgjet Pacolli, Touré is reported to have said that recognition of Kosovo will be seriously considered by Mali.
Following the August 2012 publication of a note verbale recognising Kosovo's independence, purportedly signed by acting President of Mali, Dioncounda Traoré, state run media in Mali issued a statement in which the Presidency of Mali denied recognising Kosovo and claimed that the document was a fabrication. Pacolli claimed that the Malian Army, who had recently seized control of the state in a coup d'état due to dissatisfaction over the governments handling of their own separatist uprising in Azawad, had intervened to reverse the recognition granted by the civilian president. On Pacolli's return to Mali to seek clarification on the issue, state leaders promised to reconfirm their recognition.
|Mauritius||On 8 May 2008, Mauritian Secretary General for Foreign Affairs, Anand Neewoor, stated that the Government of Mauritius would not recognise Kosovo any time soon because of their concerns that it would have implications for their "fight to regain the Chagos Islands". Neewoor said of a few African countries that had recognised Kosovo, that they were "only countries without concerns of split away regions". On 28 August 2008, Patrice Cure, head of the Multilateral Division at the Mauritian Foreign Ministry, indicated no willingness by his government to reconsider its stance on Kosovo, continuing to hold the line connecting Kosovo to Chagos issues.
In June 2009, the Mauritian prime minister, Navin Ramgoolam, had called the US Embassy in Port Louis to say that he had decided that Mauritius would recognise Kosovo, despite opposition from his foreign ministry.
|Mexico||On 19 February 2008, the Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs issued a statement saying that Mexico is closely paying attention to the situation as it develops in order to adopt, at an opportune moment, a position on the declaration of independence. The same statement called on all parties to agree peacefully, through dialogue, on the final status of Kosovo and to reach an agreement on the rights of minorities and the maintenance of peace and security in the Balkans. Mexican government officials have since then repeatedly underlined that Mexico does not intend to recognise Kosovo.|
|Moldova||Kosovo's declaration creates "deep concerns in the Republic of Moldova," the Moldovan government said in a February 2008 statement. Moldova will not recognise Kosovo's independence. In December 2013, Moldovan Defence Minister Vitalie Marinuta stated on a visit to Serbia that Moldova will not recognise Kosovo.|
|Mongolia||On 8 May 2009, Kosovo's president Fatmir Sejdiu met Nyamaa Enkhbold, the Mongolian Deputy Parliament Speaker, to request recognition of Kosovo by Mongolia. Mr. Enkhbold reportedly promised to deal with the request once he had returned home.
In a 17 July 2012 meeting with Kosovo's deputy prime minister, Edita Tahiri, both the Mongolian president and the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj and Gombojav Zandanshatar, said that Mongolia would consider recognising the independence of Kosovo. Elbegdorj promised that Mongolia would seriously consider recognising the independence of Kosovo in the very near future, and has a very high appreciation for the movement of the people of Kosovo for freedom and independence. Zandanshatar promised that his country would deliberate the issue of recognising Kosovo's independence.
|Morocco||At a meeting in January 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Morocco's Ambassador to Austria, Omar Zniber, said that Morocco is carefully watching developments in Kosovo. He said, "People and institutions of my country understand and support the will of Kosovo people. We have been and remain close to Kosovo; I can tell you that my country is having wide consult[ation]s with other countries on the issue of Kosovo recognition. We will make a decision for Kosovo at [the] right time". In May 2009, the Moroccan Director of Bilateral Affairs responsible for Europe, Abdellah Zagour, said that for the moment, Morocco does not intend to recognise Kosovo. He described his government's position as moderate, explaining that Morocco is waiting for a majority of the fifty-seven Organisation of Islamic Conference member states to recognise Kosovo before it would seriously review such a step. "We are not against an independent Kosovo," he stated, continuing that Morocco must consider Kosovo recognition through the lens of its concerns in Western Sahara. During a September 2009 visit to Rabat, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić said that Moroccan leaders had confirmed that Rabat had consolidated its position on not recognising Kosovo. Morocco's Foreign Minister Taieb Fassi Fihri stated that entities could not become states by unilateral declarations of independence, but only through UN processes or mutual consent.
In June 2011, Moroccan government representatives explained that they had difficulty in recognising Kosovo due to the political context of Western Sahara.
On 6 July 2012, Morocco's Foreign Minister, Saad-Eddine El Othmani pledged that the highest state institutions would review a request for recognition by Kosovo, and a decision on recognition would be made within an appropriate period. In an 8 October 2012 meeting between the Prime Ministers of Albania and Morocco, Sali Berisha and Abdelilah Benkirane, Mr. Benkirane promised to consider a request from the Albanian authorities to recognise Kosovo as it is a very important subject for the region.
|Mozambique||In February 2008, Mozambican Deputy Foreign Minister Henrique Banze said in reference to Kosovo's declaration of independence, "We shall wait for the appropriate moment. It's a very sensitive matter and like all matters of this kind, it demands a lot of thought. Our government will work so that it may make the most appropriate decision in this case". In November 2008 Mozambique's ambassador to the UN, Filipe Chidumo, stated that his government is monitoring developments, and that it "understands Kosovo's people's will for freedom and independence".
At a meeting on 18 June 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Ambassador Chidumo reportedly said that the issue of Kosovo continues to remain on Mozambique's agenda and that he would resubmit the request for recognition to his government.
In September 2012, Mozambique's Minister for Foreign Affairs and Co-Operation, Oldemiro Julio Marques Baloi, said that his government would reconsider recognising Kosovo.
|Myanmar||In January 2014, it was reported that Myanmar's Ministry of Foreign Affairs had sent a note to officials in Kosovo informing them of that they had recognised Kosovo's independence. However, Pacolli and Hoxhaj quickly denied that they had received any such note.|
|Namibia||In September 2010, following talks with Namibian officials, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić stated that Namibia has no intentions of recognising Kosovo. The Foreign Minister of Namibia Utoni Nujoma said that the most important thing is to continue to search for a peaceful solution to the problem of Kosovo and that the opportunities should be sought for reconciliation between nations in the Balkans.|
|Nepal||A leaked 2009 cable from the US Embassy in Kathmandu states that during a meeting with US Assistant Secretary Richard Boucher, the Foreign Secretary of Nepal, Gyan Chandra Acharya, said that the Government of Nepal had yet to decide if it would recognise the independence of Kosovo. Acharya acknowledged that Nepal understood the US interest in Kosovo's recognition but could not make a decision at the time because of regional sensitivities.|
|Nicaragua||In February 2008, the Chancellor of Nicaragua, Samuel Santos, said that the government of his country maintains a position of "observation" to the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo. "Nicaragua is watching the issue of Kosovo's independence, we have friends who are in agreement with this independence and other friends who disagree, there are some who are saying that [independence] is a threat to peace in that tender area. We just look at [this case and] we have no opinion on this issue."|
|Nigeria||In July 2009, Umaru Yar'Adua, President of Nigeria, said that Nigeria will not recognise Kosovo as an independent nation. He said the decision not to recognise Kosovo was informed by Nigeria's historical experience of the civil war of 1967 to 1970, fought to maintain its territorial integrity and sovereignty saying that "Since the end of the civil war, Nigeria has continued to embark on nation-building policies and strategies to forge a heterogeneous, yet inclusive nation".
In November 2009, Ojo Maduekwe, Foreign Minister of Nigeria (and former advocate of Biafran independence), emphasised that Nigeria will never recognise the independence of Kosovo.
In August 2011, Kosovo's First Deputy Prime Minister Behgjet Pacolli said that he had received from senior Nigerian state leaders support and guarantee that Kosovo recognition would be seriously dealt with in a short period of time.
Reports of Nigeria recognising Kosovo appeared in 2011. In a 22 September 2011 statement, a spokesman for the Nigerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Damian Agwu, said that the Nigerian Federal Government had decided to "open a trade office in Pristina". However, the following day the Ministry reversed course and said no trade office would be opened.
It was reported in September 2012 that Olugbenga Ashiru, Nigerian Foreign Minister, had denied that the recognition took place. Behgjet Pacolli, the First Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo, reiterated that the recognition occurred and claimed that Ashiru never spoke with the Gazeta Express.
In January 2013, former Foreign Minister of Kosovo Skënder Hyseni said that the recognitions by Nigeria and Uganda were "contested, not only by the respective states, but also by the US State Department". Current Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, stated that he is certain that the number of recognitions is valid. The lack of recognition was confirmed by the Nigerian Foreign Minister in March 2014.
|Paraguay||In February 2008, the Ministry of Foreign Relations of Paraguay published a statement saying that Paraguay took note of the independence declaration and was analysing the situation.
In April 2010, it was reported that the Paraguayan president had told Kosovan pilot James Berisha, who was on an awareness-raising journey around Central and South America, that Paraguay had already recognised Kosovo's independence but had not made this known so as not to jeopardise their relationship with Russia.
|Philippines||In February 2008, Foreign Affairs Secretary Alberto Romulo said in a statement: "Considering the existing sensibilities in the region, continued dialogue should be encouraged among all the parties concerned to ensure regional stability". He also said the Philippines is not willing to recognise Kosovo as an independent nation. On 19 February 2008, Romulo stated that recognition could complicate peace talks with Muslim separatists in Mindanao. He said that "while the Philippines does not oppose the idea of independence for Kosovo, it would prefer a settlement ... taking into account the internationally accepted principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity".
In a November 2012 meeting with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, Foreign Affairs Undersecretary, Rafael E. Seguis, pledged support for Kosovo, saying that his country has full understanding for the independence of Kosovo and that he would consider the request for recognition.
On 18 February 2008, a joint session of the Parliament of Romania voted not to recognise Kosovo's independence by 357 to 27, with support from all parties except the UDMR. Also the President and the Prime Minister opposed recognition.
In February 2009, Romanian Foreign Minister Cristian Diaconescu said that "Romania does not change its position and will not recognize Kosovo's independence, which contradicts to the norms and principles of the international law" and that the EP resolution on Kosovo is not binding. In September 2009, President Traian Băsescu announced that Romania will partner Serbia in its action at the ICJ and said that "Territorial partitions are unacceptable, regardless of what explanations [are] put forward to support them."
On 24 September 2010, Romanian prime minister Emil Boc said in an address to the UNGA that while Romania respected the ICJ's opinion on the legality of Kosovo's independence, it did not examine the key issue which was the legality of the creation of a new state. Romania will continue not to recognise Kosovo's independence.
In March 2012 a majority of Romanian MEPs, including Elena Băsescu (the president's daughter), voted in favour of a resolution calling on the EU countries which had not recognised Kosovo to do so. In April 2012, Diaconescu said "As far as we are concerned, we clearly stated our approach, which has not changed: Romania will not recognize this province because it does not meet all requirements of the international laws to function as a state. But, certainly, the situation must be analyzed especially through the perspective of the relation Belgrade will establish with this province".
In April 2013, following a resolution by the European Parliament which urged all EU members states which had not recognised Kosovo to do so, Romania's Prime Minister Victor Ponta stated that his country must follow the EU's lead. In May 2015, Prime Minister Victor Ponta stated that "In 2008 Romania decided not to recognize Kosovo. However, things have changed since then. Governments have changed and some new decision on the recognition of Kosovo could be made ... because many things have changed in Kosovo since 2008."
|Russia||Originally, Russia strongly opposed Kosovo's independence. But in 2014, when it recognised the Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea, Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs cited Kosovo's declaration and the ICJ decision as evidence that unilateral declarations of independence are not inconsistent with international law (the Kosovo independence precedent).|
|Rwanda||On 11 February 2009, the Director of International Organisations at Rwanda's Foreign Ministry, Ben Rutsinga, said that the African Union had no unified position on Kosovo independence and that Rwanda would not reach an "individual determination" in advance of such a unified position. On 18 September 2009, the Rwandan Foreign Minister, Rosemary Museminali, said that some countries would be likely to criticise a Rwandan recognition of Kosovo, accusing Rwanda of taking that stance in order to lay the basis for a similar breakaway by parts of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. She added that the Government of Kosovo had requested a meeting with her but she had not responded.|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||In February 2008, when asked about Kosovo, the Prime Minister of St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Ralph Gonsalves, said that "if the people of a country want independence, then I think they should have it".
At a meeting in August 2011 with U.S. Representative, Eliot Engel, both St. Vincent & the Grenadines' Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, Ralph Gonsalves and Louis Straker, took on board the case for recognition of Kosovo and promised to review the issue.
|São Tomé and Príncipe||In March 2012, São Tomé and Príncipe's Council of Ministers under then Prime Minister Patrice Trovoada adopted a resolution recognising Kosovo's independence. In January 2013, President Manuel Pinto da Costa issued a communication stating that the recognition was invalid as he had not been consulted on the decision, as required by the country's Constitution. New Prime Minister Gabriel Costa said that the process of recognition was an anomalous situation. Kosovo Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, insisted that the recognition remains valid. First Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo Behgjet Pacolli said that he received a note verbale recognising Kosovo from Trovoada and that it was a closed issue.|
|Seychelles||In September 2012, the Seychelles' Foreign Minister, Jean-Paul Adam, said that his country is not against Kosovo's independence, and that formal recognition will occur very soon.
In September 2014, Adam said that Seychelles will consider the recognition of Kosovo with utmost seriousness.
|Slovakia||Slovakia has not recognised Kosovo, but has given indications that its stance could change in the future, especially if independence will be agreed with Serbia.|
|South Africa||South Africa's reaction to the independence of Kosovo has been mixed.|
|South Sudan||In July 2011, Kosovo's First deputy prime minister, Behgjet Pacolli, was invited to attend South Sudan's independence ceremony.
In September 2012, South Sudan's vice-president, Riek Machar Teny, invited Kosovo's prime minister, Hashim Thaçi, to South Sudan to discuss building bilateral relations between the two countries. During an October 2012 meeting with Pacolli, South Sudan's president Salva Kiir Mayardit stated his country's desire to maintain friendly relations with Kosovo. He reiterated the position that South Sudan supports the right of the citizens of Kosovo to build and consolidate their state. In September 2013 the Foreign Minister of South Sudan, Barnaba Marial Benjamin, confirmed that the recognition of Kosovo is a matter of time.
In April 2014, Benjamin said that positive news in regards to improving relations with Kosovo should be expected. In September 2014, Benjamin said that South Sudan is considering with seriousness the recognition of the independence and will follow all the procedures in order to do so.
|Spain||Spain is the only major country in Western Europe that has not recognised Kosovo, originally because of objections to the legality of its unilateral declaration of independence under international law, and also due to concerns about possible implications regarding its own issues with domestic independence movements. Although it has given indications that its stance may change, increasing political tensions make it unlikely that Spain will soften its current position.|
|Sri Lanka||In February 2008, the Foreign Ministry of Sri Lanka called Kosovo's declaration of independence a violation of the UN Charter and emphasised its concern that the act "could set an unmanageable precedent in the conduct of international relations, the established global order of sovereign States and could thus pose a grave threat to international peace and security".
In a June 2009 meeting with Serbian president Boris Tadić, Sri Lankan president Mahinda Rajapaksa re-affirmed his country's solidarity with Serbia and stated that Sri Lanka remained firmly opposed to Kosovo's independence as it threatened the international order. Rajapaksa said that there could be no right for countries to be formed by secession, which was in violation of the UN Charter and the principles of national sovereignty.
In a September 2011 meeting with Kosovo's First deputy prime minister Behgjet Pacolli, Rajapaksa promised that Sri Lanka will continue to cooperate and expressed his willingness to continue contacts which would lead to the construction of interstate relations in the future. In February 2013, the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, D. M. Jayaratne, stated that the recognition of Kosovo by Sri Lanka will be reviewed.
|Sudan||At the summit of the OIC on 10 March 2008, Sudan opposed adoption of the document, proposed by Turkey, that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence. On 28 August 2008, Sudan's envoy to the UN Abdelmahmood Abdelhaleem stated that his government remains opposed to the independence of Kosovo and that they will support Serbia's request that the UNGA ask for an advisory opinion from the ICJ.
In a September 2010 meeting between the Foreign Ministers of Kosovo and Sudan, Skënder Hyseni and Ali Karti, Mr. Karti said that Sudan has closely followed the decision of the ICJ, and will, sooner or later, support Kosovo.
|Syria||On 13 May 2009, Syria's ambassador to Serbia, Majed Shadoud, reported that Syrian president Bashar al-Assad told Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić that his country continues to oppose the recognition of the independence of Kosovo. Shadoud quoted al-Assad as saying "Syria urges a political solution for the situation in the Balkans and the Middle East and is opposed to any kind of divisions in both regions, regardless of whether religious, ethnic or nationalist reasons are in question".
In April 2012 a Syrian opposition delegation (Syrian National Council) led by Ammar Abdulhamid visited Pristina and promised to recognise Kosovo immediately if they triumph in Syria.
|Tajikistan||In February 2008, the Chairman of the International Affairs Committee of the Tajik Assembly of Representatives, Asomudin Saidov, stated that Tajikistan will not recognise Kosovo's independence as it considers it to be the violation of legal norms and a danger for Europe.
In February 2009, Jamaluddin Ubaidulloev, Second Secretary of the Department of European and North American Affairs at the Foreign Ministry of Tajikistan, said that the Foreign Ministry could not offer an official position on the recognition of Kosovo because it had received no decision on the matter from the government. However in past conversations, the Head of the European and North American Affairs at the Ministry, Khusrav Nosiri, had commented that Tajikistan wished to avoid the question of Kosovo recognition because of perceived parallels with the question of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
|Trinidad and Tobago||On 20 February 2008, Trinidad and Tobago's Foreign Minister Paula Gopee-Scoon took a positive stance and promised the US Ambassador that she would pursue the matter of Kosovo's recognition.
At a meeting on 25 March 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the Ambassador of Trinidad and Tobago to the UN, Maria Annette Valere, said that her country knows how important the process of international recognition is for Kosovo, and that the government of Trinidad and Tobago would address the request for recognition in the near future.
|Tunisia||At a meeting on 28 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Tunisia to the UN, Jalel Snoussi, reportedly said that he would inform the Tunisian authorities of Kosovo's request for recognition. In November 2009, the Ambassador of Tunisia to Serbia, Houria Ferchichi, said that Tunisia supports Serbia's commitment to a peaceful and compromised solution of the Kosovo issue through the UN, and the efforts of Serbian diplomacy in that direction.
In a September 2010 meeting between the Foreign Ministers of Kosovo and Tunisia, Skënder Hyseni and Kamel Morjane, Mr. Morjane said that Tunisia will take the opinion of the ICJ very seriously, and will review Kosovo's request for recognition in government.
In an August 2011 meeting with Kosovo's First deputy prime minister, Behgjet Pacolli, the leader of the Ennahda Movement, Rashid al-Ghannushi, "guaranteed Tunisia would recognize Kosovo if his party won the elections". On 29 October 2011, following a meeting with representatives of Ennahda Movement, Pacolli reported that Tunisia was expected to recognise Kosovo following the forthcoming elections.
At a meeting in October 2012 with Albanian Foreign Minister and Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, Edmond Panariti, the Tunisian Foreign Minister, Rafik Abdessalem, said that his government is seriously considering the issue of the recognition of Kosovo.
In January 2013, Abdessalem stressed that the decision to recognise Kosovo was in the final stages and that it was only a matter of time before this occurs, while prime minister Hamadi Jebali stated that there were no obstacles to recognition. However, in late February the Tunisian ambassador to Serbia, Majid Hamlaoui, said that Tunisia would not recognise Kosovo, despite outside pressure for recognition.
|Turkmenistan||In a September 2010 meeting with Albanian prime minister Sali Berisha, Turkmen president Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow said that his country would consider the recognition of Kosovo at the right time.|
|Uganda||In February 2008, a senior Ugandan official said that the Ugandan government is carefully studying Kosovo's declaration of independence before it makes a decision to recognise it as a state or not. At a meeting on 26 March 2009 between the Kosovan Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, and Ruhakana Rugunda, the Ambassador of Uganda to the UN, Mr. Rugunda expressed the need for intensification of contacts between the two countries for the purposes of information and co-operation. He also said that Uganda would in time take the optimal decision for Kosovo.
In August 2011, Ugandan Foreign Minister Sam Kutesa wrote to Kosovo's Deputy Prime Minister Behgjet Pacolli promising to review the request for recognition in line with the ICJ decision. In February 2012 Kosovo's MFA announced that Uganda had recognised their independence, citing a note verbale dated 5 December 2011 from Uganda's President Yoweri Museveni which expressed congratulations "on the advancement towards your country's independence" and that "we are behind other nations that have recognized the Republic of Kosovo". Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić responded that Ugandan State Foreign Minister Henry Oryem Okello had informed him that the recognition never took place. In January 2013, former Foreign Minister of Kosovo Skënder Hyseni said that the recognitions by Nigeria and Uganda were "contested, not only by the respective states, but also by the US State Department". Current Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, stated that he is certain that the number of recognitions is valid.
In an article posted in June 2014, Kosovo's MFA listed Uganda as a state that had not recognised Kosovo.
|Ukraine||Ukraine refuses to recognise the independence of Kosovo and supports the territorial integrity of Serbia.|
|Uruguay||According to Ultimas Noticias, in March 2008 "Uruguay has not recognised Kosovo's declaration of independence, because doing so would not be in accordance with its required three pillars of recognition: the principle of territorial integrity of states, achieving a solution through dialogue and consensus, and recognition by international organisations."
On 27 September 2010, Uruguayan Deputy Foreign Minister Roberto Conde, stated that Uruguay would never recognise the independence of Kosovo.
|Uzbekistan||In February 2008, the Uzbek government believes that questions of independence should be decided in the UN assembly. As for Kosovo, Uzbekistan has yet to come up with a final position.|
|Venezuela||In February 2008, Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez announced that Venezuela does not recognise Kosovo's independence on the grounds that it has been achieved through U.S. pressure and criticised a recent political movement calling out for a more autonomous Zulia State. On 24 March 2008, Chavez accused Washington of trying to "weaken Russia" by supporting independence for Kosovo. He called Kosovo's prime minister Hashim Thaçi, a "terrorist" put in power by the U.S. and noted that the former rebel leader's nom de guerre was "The Snake".|
|Vietnam||In February 2008, the Vietnamese UN Ambassador Le Luong Minh "reaffirmed Vietnam policy that the fact that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence is not a correct implementation of the U.N. Security Council Resolution 1244 and that will only complicate the situation in Kosovo and the Balkan region".
In a 23 February 2011 meeting with Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić, Vietnamese deputy prime minister, Pham Gia Khiem, reaffirmed Vietnam's position of supporting "Kosovo-related issues under the United Nations Security Council's decree to gain comprehensive measures in terms of respecting national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and assuring the benefits of involved nations". In a 24 November 2011 meeting with Albanian deputy prime minister and Foreign Minister, Edmond Haxhinasto, Vietnam's Foreign Minister, Pham Binh Minh, said that Vietnam is following the developments in Kosovo, and that Serbia and Kosovo should continue the dialogue to find common ground that will be acceptable to both parties.
|Zambia||In March 2008, Zambian Foreign Minister, Kabinga Pande, said that Zambia has not decided its position on the declaration of Kosovo's independence. Pande said the government needs more time to analyse the matter.
On 12 February 2009, the Zambian Foreign Ministry Permanent Secretary, Tens Kapoma, and Zambia's Permanent Representative to the UN, Lazarous Kapambwe, did not rule out the possibility of Kosovo recognition, they indicated by their response that Zambia would be unlikely to do so in the immediate future. Zambian Government Representatives expressed reservations about the legal precedence that Kosovo recognition would establish. In particular, they conveyed some concern about the domestic legal ramifications vis-a-vis the Lozi tribe, an ethnic group in western Zambia within which remains some support for greater autonomy or full independence. Kapambwe implied that the US recognition of Kosovo is inconsistent with its refusal to recognise South Ossetian and Abkhazian secession from Georgia. Kapambwe suggested that Zambia could be persuaded to recognise Kosovo if Kosovo or the international community could establish that Kosovo meets four conditions for national sovereignty, according to the criteria for statehood laid down in the Montevideo Convention.
In a September 2010 meeting with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Mr. Pande said that Zambia is carefully studying the opinion of the ICJ and that the request for recognition will be processed soon. In a subsequent meeting with the Albanian Foreign Minister, Edmond Haxhinasto, Mr. Pande said that Kosovo's independence is an irreversible reality and that the decision of the ICJ's opinion eased the decision on recognition of Kosovo for many African countries.
On 27 February 2011, regarding a request to recognise Kosovo, Pande stated that "We will evaluate that request. It will have to undergo scrutiny like we always do".
In September 2012, Zambian Foreign Minister, Given Lubinda, said that his country has no reason not to recognise Kosovo.
Zambia's Minister of Home Affairs, Edgar Lungu, stated in December 2013 that his government will thoroughly discuss and clear all the grey areas before any decision can be made over Kosovo, and that recognition of Kosovo was Zambia's priority.
|Zimbabwe||In April 2011, Claudius Nhema, Deputy Director of Protocol in the Foreign Ministry of Zimbabwe, reportedly told Kosovan pilot James Berisha that Zimbabwe would be considering Kosovo's recognition, but that they should wait for a recommendation from the Zimbabwean UN representative who should bring it to the Foreign Ministry after which it would be taken to Parliament for ratification.
In February 2013, the then Prime Minister of Zimbabwe, Morgan Tsvangirai, said that he would consider recognising Kosovo.
|Abkhazia||In February 2008 Abkhazian de facto president Sergei Bagapsh, regards "the promotion of Kosovo by the U.S.A. and some European states towards the declaration of independence as a visible demonstration of the policy of double standards". "Why does not the world community put any attention to the violent actions against ethnic minorities living in Kosovo..., the lack of interethnic reconciliation...", Sergey Bagapsh noted. "We are solidly convinced of the fact that [now] we have got an even wider moral base for the recognition of our independence." On 5 September 2008, the Abkhazian Foreign Minister Sergei Shamba said he was ready to recognise Kosovo's independence, "if Kosovo agrees to recognize our own (Abkhazia) independence, we will certainly recognize them as well".|
|Artsakh||In February 2008, Georgiy Petrosyan, Foreign Minister of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh, said that he does not regard the conflict between his motherland and Azerbaijan, and the conflict between Kosovo and Serbia as completely similar. He noted that "approaches and solutions, which have recommended themselves while regulating one problem, can be used when looking for a solution to another one". Petrosyan stated that "the recognition of independent Kosovo will become an additional factor strengthening the status of [the] Stepanakert government" that he represents. On 12 March 2008 following Kosovo's declaration of independence, the National Assembly of Nagorno-Karabakh adopted a statement calling on the world's parliaments to be consistent in their recognition of states established on the basis of the right for self-determination and not to use double standards. The statement commended the stance of the international community respecting the human and civil rights of the majority of Kosovo's population.
In December 2011, it was reported that Vasily Atajanyan, the acting foreign minister of Nagorno-Karabakh, had said that Nagorno-Karabakh would recognise Kosovo if recognition were reciprocated. In response, Enver Hoxhaj, Foreign Minister of Kosovo, said that Kosovo can only have formal relations with members of the UN.
|Holy See||The reaction of the Holy See has been unclear. Since Kosovo's declaration there has been information suggesting de facto recognition, and information suggesting that this was not the case.|
|Northern Cyprus||In February 2008, the President of Northern Cyprus Mehmet Ali Talat welcomed Kosovo's independence, but a presidential spokesman said that the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was not planning to recognise Kosovo.|
|Palestine||In February 2008, two senior Palestinian officials representing the Mahmoud Abbas West Bank-controlling government, who also are part of the team negotiating with Israel, disagreed on what the Kosovo events implied for Palestine. Yasser Abed Rabbo said, "If things are not going in the direction of continuous and serious negotiations, then we should take the step and announce our independence unilaterally. Kosovo is not better than us. We deserve independence even before Kosovo, and we ask for the backing of the United States and the European Union for our independence". Saeb Erekat responded that the Palestine Liberation Organization had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration," said Erekat, "We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence".
During a July 2009 state visit to Serbia, President of the Palestinian National Authority, Mahmoud Abbas, when discussing both the situations in the Middle East and Kosovo said, "We are looking for a way to resolve these problems in a peaceful way, by upholding international law. We cannot impose solutions nor can we accept imposed solutions. That is why we must negotiate".
In June 2011, Khraishi Ibrahim, Palestine's representative to the UN in Geneva, stated that Palestine supports Kosovo's integration into the European and international communities, and supports its independence. In September 2011, during the meeting of Foreign Ministers of the Non-Aligned Movement summit in Belgrade, the Palestinian Ambassador to the UN Riyad Mansour said that Palestine was a "typical foreign occupation which cannot be compared to the issue of Kosovo" as confirmed by international law and the UN.
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||The Polisario Front, which governs the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, has stated that the speedy recognition of Kosovo's independence by many countries shows the double standards of the international community, considering that the Western Sahara issue remains unsolved after three decades.|
|Somaliland||In 2010, the President of Somaliland, Ahmed Mahamoud Silanyo, said, "We are heartened by Kosovo and what's happened to Southern Sudan that means it opens the door for us. The principle that countries should remain as they were at the time of independence has changed so why should it not work for us as well".|
|South Ossetia||In February 2008, the South Ossetian de facto president, Eduard Kokoity, stated that it is not fair to compare this breakaway region with Kosovo because South Ossetians have far more right to a state of their own than Kosovo Albanians. He said that "Kosovo Albanians got independence after NATO's aggression on Serbia. Americans and NATO member countries took away Serbia's province. I feel sincerely for the Serb people," and that "Serbs had a well-organized state that provided for a normal life for Albanians. For this reason, what Americans have done to the Serbs is injustice".|
|Transnistria||Transnistria has no policy towards Kosovo, but the Transnistrian Foreign Ministry has said that "The declaration and recognition of Kosovo are of fundamental importance, since thereby a new conflict settlement model has been established, based on the priority of people's right to self-determination. Pridnestrovie [Transnistria] holds that this model should be applicable to all conflicts which have similar political, legal, and economic bases".|
Intergovernmental organisations do not themselves diplomatically recognise any state; their member states do so individually. However, depending on the intergovernmental organisation's rules of internal governance and the positions of their member states, they may express positive or negative opinions as to declarations of independence, or choose to offer or withhold membership to a partially recognised state.
|Arab League||In May 2009, the Secretary General of the Arab League, Amr Moussa, welcomed a request by Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, to establish regular communications. At a meeting on 18 June 2009 with Hyseni, the representative of the Arab League to the UN, Yahya A. Mahmassani, said that the Kosovo issue is being discussed at the Arab League, and that there would be gradual movement towards recognition as most Arab states are supportive of Kosovo.
|Caribbean Community (CARICOM)||In August 2010, Albanian Parliament Speaker Jozefina Topalli received a letter from the chairman of the Grenadian Parliament, George J. McGuire, stating that CARICOM members would soon make a joint decision on the recognition of Kosovo.
On 19 August 2011, it was reported that the CARICOM members had made a joint decision to recognise Kosovo, but that each state would announce official recognition separately.
|Council of Europe (CoE)||Kosovo plans to apply for membership in the CoE since it considers that it fulfills the statutory requirements to do so. If Kosovo receives positive votes from 2/3 of the member countries, it will be admitted to the CoE. Kosovo has already been recognised by 2/3 of the CoE members, thus it should be able to join the organisation.
In May 2012, the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of the CoE, Edmond Haxhinasto, pledged to work for a stronger role for Kosovo during the Albanian chairmanship of the Council. Haxhinasto added that Kosovo would in the near future be a part of the family of states of the Council of Europe. However, the Secretary-General of the CoE, Thorbjørn Jagland, commented that membership of Kosovo depends on the willingness of members.
The Council of Europe Development Bank's Board of Directors voted in favour of Kosovo's membership on 14 June 2013 during their meeting in Malta.
In June 2014, Kosovo became a member state of the Venice Commission, an advisory body of the Council of Europe.
|European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)||A resolution, agreeing to the membership of Kosovo in the EBRD, was approved by its Board of Governors on 16 November 2012, providing that, by 17 December 2012, it has completed the necessary internal procedures. On 8 February 2013, Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, and the President of EBRD, Suma Chakrabarti, signed an agreement on economic cooperation and activities.|
|European Union (EU)||The EU, like other IGOs, does not possess the legal capacity to diplomatically recognise any state; member states do so individually. The majority of member states have recognised Kosovo. To articulate a common EU policy of either support or opposition to Kosovo's independence would require unanimity on the subject from all 28 member states, which does not presently exist. On 18 February 2008, the EU officially stated that it would "take note" of the resolution of the Kosovo assembly. The EU is sending a EULEX mission to Kosovo, which includes a special representative and 2,000 police and judicial personnel.
Although the European Parliament is not formally vested with the authority to shape the EU's foreign policy, it was seen to be expressing its acceptance of Kosovan independence when it hosted the Kosovan Assembly in an interparliamentary meeting on 30 May 2008. This was also the first time Kosovo's flag was officially hoisted at an EU institution. On 5 February 2009, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that encouraged all EU member states to recognise Kosovo. The resolution also welcomed the successful deployment of EULEX across Kosovo, and rejected the possibility of Kosovo's partition. It was passed with 424 voted in favour, and 133 against. Some Romanian and Communist representatives called for a new international conference on Kosovo's status or to allow the northern part of the country to join Serbia.
On 8 July 2010, the European Parliament adopted a resolution welcoming "the recognition by all Member States of the independence of Kosovo", and stating that EU Member States should "step up their common approach towards Kosovo". The resolution rejected the possibility of a partition of Kosovo.
On 29 March 2012, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that urged the five EU member states that had not recognised Kosovo's independence to do so.
|International Monetary Fund (IMF)||On 15 July 2008, the IMF issued a statement saying "It has been determined that Kosovo has seceded from Serbia as a new independent state and that Serbia is the continuing state," thus acknowledging the separation of Kosovo from Serbia. After their membership was approved in a secret ballot by 108 states, Kosovo signed the IMF's Articles of Agreement on 29 June 2009 to become a full member of the fund.|
|Interpol||At a meeting on 19 February 2017 with Kosovo's President, Hashim Thaçi, Secretary General of Interpol, Jürgen Stock, said that Interpol is open for Kosovo membership.|
|International Organization for Migration (IOM)||At a meeting on 30 March 2012 with Kosovo's Deputy Foreign Minister, Petrit Selimi, Deputy Director of the IOM, Laura Thomson, expressed readiness to continue advanced discussions with the representatives of Kosovo to further advance the prospects for membership.|
|North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)||NATO maintains that its ongoing Kosovo Force mission and mandate remain unchanged and that "NATO reaffirms that KFOR shall remain in Kosovo on the basis of UNSCR 1244, as agreed by Foreign Ministers in December 2007, unless the UN Security Council decides otherwise".
|Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)||In February 2008, Secretary General of the OIC Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu said "Kosovo has finally declared its independence after a long and determined struggle by its people. As we rejoice this happy result, we declare our solidarity with and support to our brothers and sisters there. The Islamic Umma wishes them success in their new battle awaiting them which is the building of a strong and prosperous a state capable of satisfying of its people". The OIC did not call on its individual member states to extend recognition, as some member states, including Azerbaijan, Egypt, Indonesia and Sudan, were firmly against any issuance of such a statement.
On 25 May 2009, at the OIC's 36th session of the Council of Foreign Ministers in Damascus, the 57 member states adopted a resolution that noted Kosovo's declaration of independence, upheld the role of the UN in Kosovo, reaffirmed the strong interest of the OIC regarding Muslims in the Balkans, welcomed the co-operation of Kosovo with the OIC Economic and Financial institutions, and called on the international community to continue contributing to the fostering of Kosovo's economy. It has been reported that an earlier draft of the resolution (tabled by Saudi Arabia) had called for recognition of Kosovo by Islamic countries, but this was rejected by some member states, including Syria, Egypt and Azerbaijan. The OIC mechanism is similar to the one adopted by the EU which leaves it up to member states to decide.
In June 2011, the OIC adopted a resolution calling on member states to consider recognising Kosovo but once again it left the recognition issue to individual member states.
In November 2012, the OIC adopted a resolution calling on member states to consider recognising Kosovo based on their free and sovereign rights as well as on their national practice. İhsanoğlu expressed support for strengthening the international subjectivity of the Republic of Kosovo.
In February 2013, the OIC renewed the previous resolution and urged all of its member states to recognise Kosovo.
|Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)||On 19 February 2008, Chairman Ilkka Kanerva and OSCE Minorities Commissioner Knut Vollebæk called for Kosovo's government to vigorously implement agreed-upon frameworks regarding minorities. Serbia has vowed to oppose OSCE membership for Kosovo and is calling for the organisation to condemn the declaration of independence.
|United Nations (UN)||Russia called an emergency session of the United Nations Security Council on 17 February 2008, but the council members, given differences in stated position between permanent members, failed to reach a consensus. Russia requested another meeting on 18 February. In March 2008 the UNMIK mission in Kosovo told the Serbian government to cease its interference in North Kosovo after local Serbs burned down a customs office set up by the Republic of Kosovo. In order for Kosovo to attain a UN seat, it would require the agreement of the five permanent members of the Security Council, of which only three currently recognise Kosovo: UK, France, and the US.
On 17 January 2012, the President of Kosovo, Atifete Jahjaga, had a meeting with the President of the United Nations General Assembly, Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser, who stated that he will continue to support Kosovo in all initiatives and processes through which it is running. On 11 July 2012, the elected President of the United Nations General Assembly, Serb Vuk Jeremić, said that Kosovo's move to join the UN during his upcoming presidency of the UN General Assembly would be "an act of pointless provocation". "As long as Serbia presides over the UN, and that's for the next year, this could only happen over my dead body," Jeremić said. However, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said that Jeremić should have stated this as an official of Serbia, not as the President of the UN General Assembly.
Member states (113 / 193)
|World Bank||On 29 June 2009, the Republic of Kosovo became a full member of the World Bank.|
|World Customs Organization||On 3 March 2017, the Republic of Kosovo became a full member of the World Customs Organization.|
|Balochistan||In August 2010, Baloch separatist leader Jumma Khan Marri welcomed the independence of Kosovo and the ruling by the ICJ that the declaration of independence by Kosovo was not in violation of international law. He also said that he hoped that the west would do the same thing and force Pakistan to give self-determination to the Baloch people. In October 2010, former Minister of Fisheries and opposition member of the Balochistan Assembly Kachkol Ali hailed the decision of the International Court of Justice on Kosovo's declaration of Independence as "a glorious judgment for the national liberation movements". He said that it was a beacon of hope for enslaved nations.|
|Basque Government||The regional Basque government, unlike the central Spanish government in Madrid, responded very positively to Kosovo's declaration of independence. A regional government spokeswoman said that "It's a lesson to be followed when it comes to peaceful and democratic solutions of the identity and allegiance problems ... It shows that respect of the citizens' will is the key to solving difficult political problems".|
|Catalonia||In July 2010, following the ICJ decision, the Catalan nationalist parties expressed that there are clear parallels between their case and Kosovo's. Joan Puigcercós, the President of the Republican Left of Catalonia, stated that the ICJ decision shows that Catalonia's independence could be legal and recognised at an international level. The Democratic Convergence of Catalonia party asked the Spanish Government to recognise Kosovo's independence and the right of self-determination of the people. On 23 July 2010, José Montilla, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, said that Catalonia and Kosovo have little in common.
In March 2012 during a fierce debate with Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy, Convergence and Union general secretary Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida asked for the immediate recognition of Kosovo by Spain, and stated that the reasons for non-recognition "are not international but internal".
|Central Tibetan Administration (government in exile)||In June 2008, an article was published on the website of the Central Tibetan Administration saying that if Kosovo has a right to independence then Tibet has every right to become an independent nation and Tibetans are fully entitled to the right of self-determination.
In April 2010, the 14th Dalai Lama, then joint executive authority within the government in exile, sent a telegram of congratulations to Kosovo's prime minister, Hashim Thaçi, saying that he is satisfied with the independence of Kosovo and that he prays that Kosovo's democratic state will be a model for others to follow.
|Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (government in exile)||Usman Ferzauli, the Foreign Minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, said that his country "welcome the declaration of state independence by Kosovo and do not question the right of the people of Kosovo to distance themselves from the state that terrorized it".
The Prime Minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Akhmed Zakayev, stated in an April 2010 interview that to him and his nation, Kosovo represented a hope, and also made reference to a letter he had apparently sent to Kosovo's prime minister Hashim Thaçi congratulating the latter.
|East Turkestan (government in exile)||On 18 February 2008, Ansar Yusuf Turani, the representative of the government-in-exile, released a press statement saying "On behalf of the people of East Turkistan, the East Turkistan Government in Exile hereby recognizes Kosovo as an independent and sovereign state and wishes peace and prosperity for the people of Kosovo".|
|Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front||On 11 March 2008, the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front staged a demonstration in Brussels in front of the European Commission building. It was headed by one of its leaders, Barrister Abdul Majeed Tramboo, and its agenda cited Kosovo's independence, demanding equal treatment and commensurate application of the same solution by the EU in the Kashmir dispute involving India, Pakistan and China. Protesters included EU Parliament members, students and various NGO constituents and representatives.|
|Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (Crimea)||Mustafa Cemilev, the Chairman of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People declared that he supported the right of self-determination for every nation, including Kosovo. He also added that the Crimean Tatars will not start a secession process from Ukraine if their rights are respected. Cemilev stated that he believes the motive for the Kosovars to declare independence was the anti-Albanian situation in Kosovo.|
|European Broadcasting Union (EBU)||Radio Television of Kosovo (RTK) is not an active member of the EBU and therefore they cannot participate in the Eurovision Song Contest and sister projects. However, there is a cooperation agreement between RTK and the EBU and they were allowed to participate in the Eurovision Young Dancers 2011 competition.
On 30 March 2012 during a meeting in Geneva with Kosovo's Deputy Foreign Minister Petrit Selimi, Ingrid Delterne, Executive Director of the EBU expressed readiness for Kosovo's membership in the ITU.
|International Olympic Committee (IOC)||The Olympic Committee of Kosovo became a full member of the International Olympic Committee on 9 December 2014. The Olympic Committee of Kosovo has been in existence since 1992. Kosovo was a provisional member of the IOC from 22 October 2014 through 9 December 2014.|
|Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)||Kosovo played their first official match against Haiti in 2014. In April, 2016, Kosovo were voted into UEFA, and on the 13th of May, 2016, at the 66th FIFA congress in Mexico City, Kosovo (along with Gibraltar) were voted into the organisation. Only 23 associations voted against Kosovo's membership. They took part in their first World Cup qualifier in their 1–1 draw with Finland.|
|Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)||UNPO issued a statement on 18 February 2008: "for regions in similar conditions, Kosova's independence represents new hope for the future of their own potential statehood".
In the days that followed, several African UNPO members expressed their own individual secession-minded reactions to Kosovo's independence.
|Norwegian Nobel Committee||After former President of Finland Martti Ahtisaari received the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize "for his important efforts ... to resolve international conflicts", including his work in Kosovo as a UN special envoy, the Norwegian Nobel Committee Secretary, who is also the Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad, said that the committee believed "there is no alternative to an independent Kosovo".|
|International Organization for Standardization (ISO)||Kosovo is not a member of the governing structures for the ISO.
Independently of its ISO membership status, ISO will also potentially issue a standardised country code for Kosovo. According to rules of procedure followed by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency based in Geneva, a new ISO 3166-1 code for Kosovo will only be issued once it appears in the UN Terminology Bulletin Country Names or in the UN Statistics Division's list of Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use. To appear in the terminology bulletin, it must either (a) be admitted into the UN, (b) join a UN Specialised Agency or (c) become a state party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice. Criterion (b) was met when Kosovo joined the International Monetary Fund and World Bank; a terminology bulletin has yet to be circulated.
|Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)||ICANN, through its Country Code Names Supporting Organization, is responsible for adding new country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) for use in Internet addressing. Rules of procedure dictate Kosovo must first receive an ISO 3166-1 code (discussed above) before the ccTLD can be introduced; speculation has centred on ".ks" as the likeliest candidate.|
|International Road and Transport Union (IRU)||Kosovo officially became the 181st member of the IRU in May 2009.|
|International Bar Association (IBA)||Kosovo officially became a member of the IBA on 28 May 2009.|
In June, Egypt, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Guyana and El Salvador had recognized its independence, joining more than 100 Member States that had done the same.
Signed Joint Communiqués with Kuwait, Kosovo, Lithuania, Palestine, New Zealand, establishing diplomatic relations.