Gendarmerie General Command

This page was last edited on 13 February 2018, at 17:34.

The Gendarmerie General Command (Turkish: Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı) is a service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces (generally in rural areas), as well as assuring internal security and general border control along with carrying out other specific duties assigned to it by certain laws and regulations. The Gendarmerie is essentially a governmental armed security and law enforcement force of military nature.

It also operates the Askeri İnzibat provost service, policing the armed forces and two special forces brigades called Jandarma Özel Harekat Komutanlığı and Jandarma Özel Asayiş Komutanlığı.

As a part of the Turkish Armed Forces, the General Command of the Gendarmerie is subordinate to the Turkish General Staff in matters relating to training and education in connection with the Armed Forces, and to the Ministry of the Interior in matters relating to the performance of the safety and public order duties. The Commander of the Gendarmerie reports to the Minister of the Interior.

The Gendarmerie has its roots in the Ottoman Empire military law enforcement organization "Subaşı" (later known as the "Zaptiye"), which carried out security and safety services. A similar, earlier force was called "Şurta" during the medieval Seljuq Empire.

Gendarmerie General Command
Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı
Emblem of the Turkish Gendarmerie
Emblem of the Gendarmerie General Command
  • 1839 (Official claim)
  • June 10, 1930 (as Gendarmerie Organisation)
  • 1956 (as Gendarmerie General Command)[1]
Country  Turkey
Type Gendarmerie
Role Paramilitary law enforcement, counter insurgency, armed response to civil unrest, counter terrorism, special weapons operations.
Size 276,320 sworn members[2]
1,475 Armored and utility vehicles
59 Helicopters
Part of Ministry of the Interior (in peacetime)
Turkish Armed Forces (in wartime)
Headquarters Ankara
Colors Red & Blue         
Commander-in-Chief President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Minister of the Interior Minister Süleyman Soylu
Chief of the General Staff General Hulusi Akar
Commander General Yaşar Güler
Chief of Staff Lt. General İbrahim Yaşar
Flag of Turkish General Command of Gendarmerie


Ottoman era

After the abolition of the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire in 1826, military organizations called Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Mansûre, Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Hâssa, and, in 1834, Asâkir-i Redîfe were established to deliver security and public order services in Anatolia and in some provinces of Rumelia.

British Officers in the Ottoman Gendarmerie Graphic June 25 1904
British Officers in the Ottoman Gendarmerie, 1904

Since the term Gendarmerie was noticed only in the Assignment Decrees published in the years following the declaration of Tanzimat in 1839, it is assumed that the Gendarmerie organization was founded after that year, but the exact date of foundation has not yet been determined. Therefore, taking the June 14 of "June 14, 1869", on which Asâkir-i Zaptiye Nizâmnâmesi was adopted, June 14, 1839 was accepted as the foundation date of the Turkish Gendarmerie.[4]

After 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War, Ottoman prime minister Mehmed Said Pasha decided to bring some officers from Britain and France to establish a modern law enforcement organization. After the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Gendarmerie achieved great successes, particularly in Rumelia. In 1909, the Gendarmerie was affiliated with the Ministry of War, and its name was changed to the Gendarmerie General Command ([Umûm Jandarma Kumandanlığı] error: {{lang-xx}}: text has italic markup (help)).

Gendarmerie units both sustained their internal security duties and took part in the national defence at various fronts as a part of the Armed Forces during the World War I and the Turkish War of Independence.

Republic of Turkey

The Gendarmerie organization achieved its current legal status after Law No. 1706 entered into force on June 10, 1930. In 1939, the Gendarmerie organization was restructured, having three groups: Fixed Gendarmerie Units, Mobile Gendarmerie Units, and Gendarmerie Training Units and Schools.

Law No. 6815, which entered into force in 1956, assigned the Gendarmerie General Command duties such as protecting borders, coasts and territorial waters, and fighting smuggling, which had been previously carried out by the Gümrük Umum Kumandanlığı that was a military organization at the level of division in affiliation to the Ministry of Customs and Monopoly.

In 1957, Gendarmerie Border Units were transformed into brigades, and Gendarmerie Training Brigades were established.

In 1961, Gendarmerie Regional Commands were established.

In 1968, the first Gendarmerie Aviation Unit was established in Diyarbakır under the name of Light Helicopter Company Command.

In 1974, Gendarmerie Commando Units and Gendarmerie Aviation Units took part in the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.

Law No. 2692 which entered into force in 1982 assigned the duty of protecting the coasts and territorial waters to the Coast Guard Command.

Law No. 2803 on the Organization, Duties and Responsibilities of the Gendarmerie entered into force in 1983.

Law No. 3497 entering into force in 1988 assigned the duty of protecting the land borders and ensuring their security to the Land Forces Command, but Gendarmerie General Command still holds the responsibility for some parts of the Iranian and Syrian borders and the whole Iraqi border.

Gendarmerie Criminal Department was founded in Ankara in 1993 and Gendarmerie Regional Criminal Laboratory Superiorities were founded respectively in 1994 in Van, in 1998 in Bursa and in 2005 in Aydın. Crime Scene Examination Teams, Explosive Material Disposal Units, Fingerprints and Palm Prints Branches and Crime Scene Examination Units were also established.

Since 1984, Gendarmerie units have been the most important element of the conflict against Kurdish separatists.

In 2017, around 310 civilians, including 90 children and women, have been killed by the Turkish gendarmerie at the Syrian-Turkish border since the beginning of the Syrian civil war.[5]


The Turkish Gendarmerie comprises the following commands:[6]

  • Personnel
  • Intelligence
  • Operations
  • Logistics

The General Command is composed of:[7][8]

Topkap%C4%B1 saray%C4%B1nda n%C3%B6bet%C3%A7i Jandarma Eri

Gendarmerie officer with an MP5 at Topkapı Palace in Istanbul.

Turkish Jandarma 01

Gendarmerie's Ford Transit Connect.

Turkish Jandarma 02

Gendarmerie's Ford Transit and a trooper.

Renault Megane Jandarma squad car

Traffic gendarmerie's Renault Megane.




Submachine guns

Assault and battle rifles

Machine guns

Sniper rifles

Rocket and grenade launchers



Model Image Origin Type Variant Number Details
Armored personnel carriers
Sisu Nasu Tracked transport vehicle Sisu NA 110  Finland Tracked All-Terrain Vehicle NA-140 BT 47
Kirpi 2012 Eurosatory BMC trucks  Turkey MRAP Kirpi 4x4 200 Based on the Israeli Hatehof Navigator.[12]
Cobra Paradbaku98  Turkey MRAP Cobra I 200 Its suspension / wheel base is based on the American HMMWV which led some to mistakenly claim that Turkey actually uses the HMMWV as one of its utility vehicles.[13]
Cadillac Gage Commando Cadillac Gage V-150 do Exército português  United States Armored Personnel Carrier V-150S 124 Lacking a dedicated vehicle for its reconnaissance battalions, Turkey ordered 124 LAV-150 vehicles in 1992 from the Cadillac Corporation.[14]
Otokar ZPT Mosul, Iraq  Turkey Armored Car 250 After the cancellation of Akrep, Otokar started to produce cheaper alternative for the law enforcement agencies and the army. ZPT is based on Shorland S-55.
BTR-60 BTR-60PB NVA  Russia Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-60PB 323[6] Bought from ex-GDR stockpile after German unification. All modernized.
Condor Malaysian Condor  Germany Armored Personnel Carrier Condor 1 25[6]
Dragoon Tanqueta militar  United States Armored Personnel Carrier Dragoon 300 60
UH-60 Black Hawk Sikorsky S-70A-24A Black Hawk, Mexico - Air Force AN2158152  United States/ Turkey Utility helicopter S-70A 27 Avionics upgraded by Aselsan.T-70 variant in use. 30 more on order
UH-1 Huey Agusta-Bell AB-205 MM80547 Esercito  United States/ Turkey Utility helicopter AB-205 13 Avionics upgraded by Aselsan.
Mil Mi-17 PLA Mil Mi-17-1 at Chelyabinsk Shagol Air Base  Russia/ Turkey Utility helicopter Mi-17 IVA 18 Avionics upgraded by Aselsan.


NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Turkey Turkey
Turkey-army-OF-10.svg Turkey-army-OF-9.svg Turkey-army-OF-9a.svg Turkey-army-OF-8.svg Turkey-army-OF-7.svg Turkey-army-OF-6.svg Turkey-army-OF-5.svg Turkey-army-OF-4.svg Turkey-army-OF-3.svg Turkey-army-OF-2.svg Turkey-army-OF-1.svg Turkey-army-OF-1b.svg Turkey-army-OF-0.svg No insignia
Mareşal[15] Genelkurmay
Orgeneral Korgeneral Tümgeneral Tuğgeneral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Harbiyeli
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Turkey Turkey
Army-TUR-OR-09 Army-TUR-OR-08 Army-TUR-OR-07a Army-TUR-OR-07b Army-TUR-OR-06a Army-TUR-OR-06b TR-Army-OR5a Army-TUR-OR-05 TR-Army-OR4a Army-TUR-OR-04 No insignia
Astsubay Kıdemli
Astsubay Kıdemli
Astsubay Kıdemli
Çavuş Uzman
Onbaşı Er
  • OF3, OF2, & OR2 translate to "Head of 1000", "Head of 100", and "Head of 10" respectively.

See also


  1. ^ "Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  2. ^ "TSK Mevcut Personel Sayısını Açıkladı". Aktif Haber. 2 January 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  3. ^ "Türk Silahlı Kuvvetlerinin Barışı Destekleme Harekâtlarına Katkıları". Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b c Pike, John. "Jandarma". Retrieved 2015-12-01.
  7. ^ "Organizational Structure". General Command of Gendarmerie. Retrieved 2008-11-22.
  8. ^ John Pike. "Turkey - Gendarmerie General Command Jandarma Genel Komutanlýðý". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Jandarma Komutanligi". Turkish Gendarmerie. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
  10. ^ "'Hayata Dönüş' ilk kez gün ışığına çıktı". 7 July 2009. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  11. ^ [1] Archived September 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^
  13. ^ "Otokar Cobra is a true all-terrain fighting machine". Fox News. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  14. ^ "LAV-150". The actual source is by Army Guide _ but its been black listed for an unknown reason. Retrieved 29 January 2016. External link in |work= (help)
  15. ^ Title; Honorary or posthumous rank; war time rank; ceremonial rank
  16. ^ Chief of the Army General Staff.

External links

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.