Forage

Last updated on 9 May 2017

Forage is plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.[1] Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially as hay or silage.[2] The term forage fish refers to small schooling fish that are preyed on by larger aquatic animals.[3]

While the term forage has a broad definition, the term forage crop is used to define crops, annual or biennial, which are grown to be utilized by grazing or harvesting as a whole crop.[4]

Common forages

Bull eating fodder.jpg
Bull feeding on grass
Horse-drawn transport forage Romania.jpg
Horse-drawn transport of fodder in Romania
Naturschutzgebiet Storkower Kanal 08.jpg
Meadow of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

Grasses

Grass forages include:[5][6]

Herbaceous legumes

Herbaceous legume forages include:[7]

Trifolium repens 07 ies.jpg
White clover (Trifolium repens)

Tree legumes

Tree legume forages include:

Sheep feeding on silage in the snow, Baltasound - geograph.org.uk - 1725708.jpg
Sheep with silage

Silage

Silage may be composed by the following:[8]

Crop residue

Crop residues used as forage include:

  • Sorghum
  • Corn or soybean stover

See also

References

  1. ^ Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 595.
  2. ^ Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 583.
  3. ^ Karpouzi V, R Watson and D Pauly (2006) "Forage fish consumption by marine mammals and seabirds" Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 14 (3): 33–46.
  4. ^ Givens, D. Ian (2000). Forage evaluation in ruminant nutrition. CABI. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-85199-344-7.
  5. ^ Murphy, B. (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. pp. 19–20.
  6. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Pasture". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  7. ^ Murphy, B. (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. p. 20.
  8. ^ George, J. R. (1994). Extension Publications: Forage and Grain Crops. Dubuque,Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. p. 152.

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