Fidgeting

This page was last edited on 4 December 2017, at 05:10.

Fidgeting is the act of moving about restlessly in a way that is not (socially recognized as) essential to ongoing tasks or events.[1][2] Fidgeting may involve playing with one's fingers,[3] hair, or personal objects (e.g. glasses, pens or items of clothing). Fidgeting is commonly used as a label for unexplained or subconscious activities and postural movements that people perform while seated. A common act of fidgeting is to bounce one's leg repeatedly. Rings are another common focus of fidgeting; variations include ring spinning, twirling or rolling along a table. Classrooms are sites of fidgeting, and traditionally teachers and students have viewed fidgeting as a sign of diminished attention,[4] which is summarized by the statement, “Concentration of consciousness, and concentration of movements, diffusion of ideas and diffusion of movements go together.”[5]

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A ring such as a wedding or engagement ring is a common focus of fidgeting.
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Shaking a pen while thinking is a common way of fidgeting.

Causes and Effects

Fidgeting may be a result of nervousness, frustration, agitation, boredom or a combination of these.[6] When interested in a task, a seated person will suppress his/her fidgeting,[7] a process described as Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition. Some education researchers consider fidgeting (along with noise-making) as clear signs of inattention or low lecture quality,[8] although educators point out that active engagement can take place without constantly directing attention to the instructor (i.e. engagement and attention are related but not equivalent [7]). Fidgeting is often a subconscious act and is increased during spontaneous mind wandering.[9][10] Some researchers have proposed that fidgeting is not only an indicator of diminishing attention, but is also a subconscious attempt to increase arousal in order to improve attention.[11] While inattention is strongly associated with poor learning and poor information recall, research by Dr. Karen Pine and colleagues found that children that are allowed to fidget with their hands performed better in memory and learning tests.[12]

Fidgeting is considered a nervous habit, though it does have some underlying benefits. People who fidget regularly tend to weigh less than people who do not fidget because they burn more calories than those who remain still, which is call Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT).[13] It has been reported that fidgeting burns around an extra 350 calories a day.[14]

Fidgeting may be a result of genetics,[15][16] and is also related to extroversion.[17] Fidgeting can also be a medical sign, as seen in hyperthyroidism.[18] Hyperthyroid patients may be restless, become agitated easily, display fine tremors, and have trouble concentrating.[18]

Fidget toys

There are several devices that aim to aid fidgeting, including fidget cubes, fidget spinners, and fidget pens. These "fidget toys" are typically intended to help students with autism or ADHD focus better,[19][20] and come with a variety of buttons and switches that the user can play with.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ Mehrabian, Albert; Friedman, Shan L (1986-06-01). "An analysis of fidgeting and associated individual differences". Journal of Personality. 54 (2): 406–429. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1986.tb00402.x. ISSN 1467-6494.
  2. ^ "Bad Habits and Fidgeting At School". Pediatrics.about.com. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
  3. ^ "Finger Tapping example animation".
  4. ^ Risko, Evan F.; Anderson, Nicola; Sarwal, Amara; Engelhardt, Megan; Kingstone, Alan (2012-03-01). "Everyday Attention: Variation in Mind Wandering and Memory in a Lecture". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 26 (2): 234–242. doi:10.1002/acp.1814. ISSN 1099-0720.
  5. ^ Ribot, Théodule (1890). The psychology of attention. Chicago, IL: Open Court. ISBN 9780548114025. OCLC 707693480.
  6. ^ Galton, Francis (1885-06-25). "The Measure of Fidget". Nature. 32 (817): 174–175. doi:10.1038/032174b0.
  7. ^ a b Witchel, Harry J.; Santos, Carlos P.; Ackah, James K.; Westling, Carina E. I.; Chockalingam, Nachiappan (2016). "Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition (NIMI) Differentially Suppresses Head and Thigh Movements during Screenic Engagement: Dependence on Interaction". Frontiers in Psychology. 7. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00157. ISSN 1664-1078.
  8. ^ Gligorić, N.; Uzelac, A.; Krco, S. (March 2012). "Smart Classroom: Real-time feedback on lecture quality". 2012 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops: 391–394. doi:10.1109/percomw.2012.6197517.
  9. ^ Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Seli, Paul; Smilek, Daniel. "Wandering in both mind and body: Individual differences in mind wandering and inattention predict fidgeting". Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale. 67 (1): 19–31. doi:10.1037/a0031438.
  10. ^ Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel. "Restless mind, restless body". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 40 (3): 660–668. doi:10.1037/a0035260.
  11. ^ Farley, James; Risko, Evan; Kingstone, Alan (2013). "Everyday attention and lecture retention: the effects of time, fidgeting, and mind wandering". Frontiers in Psychology. 4. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00619. ISSN 1664-1078.
  12. ^ "UK | Education | Fidgeting children 'learn more'". BBC News. 2005-04-12. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
  13. ^ Levine, James A. (2004-05-01). "Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): environment and biology". American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 286 (5): E675–E685. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00562.2003. ISSN 0193-1849. PMID 15102614.
  14. ^ Stein, Rob (2005-01-28). "Fidgeting Helps Separate the Lean From the Obese, Study Finds". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
  15. ^ Johannsen, Darcy L; Ravussin, Eric. "Spontaneous physical activity: relationship between fidgeting and body weight control". Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity. 15 (5): 409–415. doi:10.1097/med.0b013e32830b10bb.
  16. ^ Joosen, Annemiek (2005). "Genetic analysis of physical activity in twins". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 82 (6): 1253–1259.
  17. ^ Morris, Paul H.; Warne, Amy. "Personality affects 'fidgeting' in the laboratory: Implications for experimental design". Personality and Individual Differences. 118: 7–10. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.023.
  18. ^ a b Harris, Philip E.; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc G. (2014). Endocrinology in Clinical Practice (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 259. ISBN 9781841849522.
  19. ^ Hallowell, Edward (2016). "Fidgeting — It's Not Just for Kids". ADDitude Magazine.
  20. ^ Marner, Kay (2011). "What Makes a Good Fidget?". ADDitude Magazine.
  21. ^ Dormehl, Luke (8 March 2017). "Are fidget toys legitimately good for your brain, or pseudoscientific snake oil?". Digital Trends.

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