Emperor Huizong of Song

This page was last edited on 13 February 2018, at 06:07.

Emperor Huizong of Song (7 June 1082 – 4 June 1135), personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China. He was also a very well-known calligrapher. Born as the 11th son of Emperor Shenzong, he ascended the throne in 1100 upon the death of his elder brother and predecessor, Emperor Zhezong, because Emperor Zhezong's only son died prematurely. He lived in luxury, sophistication and art in the first half of his life. In 1126, when the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty invaded the Song dynasty during the Jin–Song Wars, Emperor Huizong abdicated and passed on his throne to his eldest son, Emperor Qinzong, while he assumed the honorary title of Taishang Huang (or "Retired Emperor"). The following year, the Song capital, Bianjing, was conquered by Jin forces in an event historically known as the Jingkang Incident. Emperor Huizong, along with Emperor Qinzong and the rest of their family, were taken captive by the Jurchens and brought back to the Jin capital, Huining Prefecture in 1128. The Jurchen ruler, Emperor Taizong, gave the former Emperor Huizong a title, Duke Hunde (literally "Besotted Duke"), to humiliate him. Emperor Huizong died in Wuguo after spending about nine years in captivity.

Despite his incompetence in rulership, Emperor Huizong was known for his promotion of Taoism and talents in poetry, painting, calligraphy and music. He sponsored numerous artists at his imperial court, and the catalogue of his collection listed over 6,000 known paintings.[1]

Emperor Huizong of Song
Huizong
Emperor of the Song dynasty
Reign 23 February 1100 – 18 January 1126
Coronation 23 February 1100
Predecessor Emperor Zhezong
Successor Emperor Qinzong
Born Zhao Ji
7 June 1082
Died 4 June 1135 (aged 52)
Burial 1137 (Qin Records)
Era dates
Jianzhongjingguo (建中靖國; 1101)
Chongning (崇寧; 1102–1106)
Daguan (大觀; 1107–1110)
Zhenghe (政和; 1111 – October 1118)
Chonghe (重和; November 1118 – February 1119)
Xuanhe (宣和; February 1119 – 1125)
Posthumous name
Tishen Hedao Junlie Xungong Shengwen Rende Xianci Xianxiao Huangdi
(體神合道駿烈遜功聖文仁德憲慈顯孝皇帝) (awarded in 1143)
Temple name
Huizong (徽宗)
House House of Zhao
Father Emperor Shenzong
Mother Empress Qinci
Emperor Huizong of Song
Chinese 宋徽宗
Literal meaning "Fine/beautiful Ancestor of the Song"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Sòng Huīzōng
Zhao Ji
Traditional Chinese 趙佶
Simplified Chinese 赵佶
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Zhào Jí
Duke Hunde
Chinese 昏德公
Literal meaning Besotted Duke
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Hūndé Gōng

Life

Emperor Huizong, besides his partaking in state affairs that favoured the reformist party that supported Wang Anshi's New Policies, was a cultured leader who spent much of his time admiring the arts. He was a collector of paintings, calligraphy, and antiques of previous dynasties, building huge collections of each for his amusement. He wrote poems of his own, was known as an avid painter, created his own calligraphy style, had interests in architecture and garden design, and even wrote treatises on medicine and Taoism.[2] He assembled an entourage of painters that were first pre-screened in an examination to enter as official artists of the imperial court, and made reforms to court music.[2] Like many learned men of his age, he was quite a polymath personality, and is even considered to be one of the greatest Chinese artists of all time. However, his reign would be forever scarred by the decisions made (by counsel he received) on handling foreign policy, as the end of his reign marked a period of disaster for the Song Empire.

Jurchen invasion

Emperor Huizong neglected the military, and the Song dynasty became increasingly weak and at the mercy of foreign invaders, despite his recasting of the symbolic Nine Tripod Cauldrons in 1106 in an attempt to assert his authority.[3] When the Jurchens founded the Jin dynasty and attacked the Khitan-led Liao dynasty to the north of the Song, the Song dynasty allied with the Jin dynasty and attacked the Liao from the south. This succeeded in destroying the Liao, a longtime enemy of the Song. However, an enemy of the even more formidable Jin dynasty was now on the northern border. Not content with the annexation of the Liao domain, and perceiving the weakness of the Song army, the Jurchens soon declared war on their former ally, and by the beginning of 1126 the troops of the Jin "Western Vice-Marshal" Wolibu crossed the Yellow River and came in sight of Bianjing, the capital of the Song Empire. Stricken with panic, Emperor Huizong abdicated on 18 January 1126 in favour of his son, now known as Emperor Qinzong (欽宗), and departed the capital.[4]

Momohatozu Huizong
Pigeon on a Peach Branch, by Emperor Huizong

Overcoming the walls of Bianjing was a difficult undertaking for the Jurchen cavalry, and this, together with fierce resistance from some Song officials who had not totally lost their nerve, as Emperor Huizong had, resulted in the Jurchens lifting the siege of Bianjing and returning north. The Song Empire, however, had to sign a humiliating treaty with the Jin Empire, agreeing to pay a colossal war indemnity and to give a tribute to the Jurchens every year. From 1126 until 1138, refugees from the Song Empire migrated south towards the Yangtze River valley.[5]

But even such humiliating terms could not save the Song dynasty. Within a matter of months, the troops of both Jurchen vice-marshals, Wolibu and Nianhan,[6] were back south again, and this time they were determined to overcome the walls of Bianjing. After a bitter siege, the Jurchens eventually entered Bianjing on 9 January 1127, and many days of looting, rapes, and massacre followed. Emperor Huizong, his son Emperor Qinzong, as well as the entire imperial court and harem were captured by the Jurchens in an event known historically as the Jingkang Incident, and transported north, mostly to the Jin capital of Shangjing (in present-day Harbin). One of the sons of Emperor Huizong managed to escape to southern China where, after many years of struggle, he would establish the Southern Song dynasty, of which he was the first ruler, Emperor Gaozong.

Emperors Huizong and Qinzong were demoted to the rank of commoners by the Jurchens on 20 March 1127. Then on 10 May 1127, Emperor Huizong was deported to Heilongjiang, where he spent the last eight years of his life as a captive. In a humiliating episode, in 1128 the two former Song emperors had to venerate the Jin ancestors at their shrine in Shangjing, wearing mourning dress.[7] The Jurchen ruler, Emperor Taizong, granted the two former Song emperors degrading titles to humiliate them: Emperor Huizong was called "Duke Hunde" (昏德公; literally "Besotted Duke") while Emperor Qinzong was called "Marquis Chonghun" (重昏侯; literally "Doubly Besotted Marquis").[7]

In 1137, the Jin Empire formally notified the Southern Song Empire about the death of their former Emperor Huizong.[7] Emperor Huizong, who had lived in opulence and art for the first half of his life, died a broken man in faraway northern Heilongjiang in June 1135, at the age of 52.

A few years later (1141), as the peace negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Shaoxing between the Jin and the Song empires were proceeding, the Jin Empire posthumously honored the former Emperor Huizong with the neutral-sounding title of "Prince of Tianshui Commandery" (天水郡王), after a commandery in the upper reaches of the Wei River.

Art, calligraphy, music, and culture

Chong Ning Tongbao 1
Emperor Huizong's calligraphy "Chong Ning Tongbao"

Emperor Huizong was a great painter, poet, and calligrapher. He was also a player of the guqin (as exemplified by his famous painting 聽琴圖 Listening to the Qin); he also had a Wanqin Tang (萬琴堂; "10,000 Qin Hall") in his palace.

The emperor took huge efforts to search for art masters. He established the "Hanlin Huayuan" (翰林畫院; "Hanlin imperial painting house") where top painters around China shared their best works.

The primary subjects of his paintings are birds and flowers. Among his works is Five-Colored Parakeet on Blossoming Apricot Tree. He also recopied Zhang Xuan's painting Court Ladies Preparing Newly Woven Silk, and Emperor Huizong's reproduction is the only copy of that painting that survives today.

Emperor Huizong invented the "Slender Gold" (瘦金體) style of calligraphy. The name "Slender Gold" came from the fact that the emperor's writing resembled gold filament, twisted and turned.

One of the emperor's era names, Xuanhe, is also used to describe a style of mounting paintings in scroll format. In this style, black borders are added between some of the silk planes.

In 1114, following a request from the Goryeo ruler Yejong, Emperor Huizong sent to the palace in the Goryeo capital at Gaeseong a set of musical instruments to be used for royal banquet music. Two years later, in 1116, he sent another, even larger gift of musical instruments (numbering 428 in total) to the Goryeo court, this time yayue instruments, beginning that nation's tradition of aak.[8]

Emperor Huizong was also a great tea enthusiast. He wrote the Treatise on Tea, the most detailed and masterful description of the Song sophisticated style of tea ceremony.

Meister nach Chang Hs%C3%BCan 001

Emperor Huizong of Song, Ladies making silk, (a remake of an 8th-century original by artist Zhang Xuan)

Emperor Huizong of Song, Ting Qin Tu (Chinese: , literally "Listening to the Qin"

Songhuizong

Emperor Huizong of Song (Poem and Calligraphy)

Songhuizong3

Emperor Huizong of Song, Plum and Birds

Songhuizong4

Emperor Huizong of Song, Golden Pheasant and Cotton Rose Flowers

Songhuizong6

Emperor Huizong of Song, Dragon Stone

Songhuizong5

Emperor Huizong of Song, Cranes 1112

Songhuizong9

Emperor Huizong of Song, Classic Thousand-character Grass script

Titles from birth

  • Prince of Suining Commandery (遂寧郡王)
  • Prince of Duan (端王)
  • Emperor
  • Emperor Jiaozhu Daojun (教主道君皇帝)
  • Duke Hunde (昏德公)
  • Prince of Tianshui Commandery (天水郡王)

Family

Spouses

Empresses

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes
Empress Xiangong
显恭皇后
Lady Wang
王氏
1084 1108 Wang Zao
王藻
unknown 1. Qinzong
2. Princess of Rongde
Became Empress in 1100
Empress Xiansu
显肃皇后
Lady Zheng
郑氏
1079 1131 Zheng Shen, Prince of Leping
乐平郡王郑绅
unknown 1. Princess of Jiade
2. Prince of Yan
4. Princess of Shoushu
8. Princess of Ande
11. Princess of Rongshu
13. Princess of Chengde
Empress Qinsheng's maid
Became Able Consort (贤妃) in 1100
Promoted to Noble Consort (贵妃)
Promoted to Empress in 1111
Became Empress Dowager Ningde (宁德太后) in 1126
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Died in captivity in Wuguo
Empress Mingda
明达皇后
Lady Liu
刘氏
unknown 1113 unknown unknown 6. Princess of Anshu
9. Princess of Maode
8. Prince of Yi
11. Prince of Qi
14. Princess of Xunde
18. Prince of Xin
Talented Lady (才人)
Promoted to Noble Consort (贵妃)
Posthumously honoured in 1113
Empress Mingjie
明节皇后
Lady Liu
刘氏
1088 1121 Liu Yanqing
刘彦清
unknown 25. Prince of Jian'an
29. Princess of Hefu
26. Duke of Jia
28. Duke of Ying
Empress Zhaohuai's maid
Became Talented Lady (才人)
Promoted to Pure Consort (淑妃)
Posthumously honoured in 1121
Empress Xianren
显仁皇后
Lady Wei
韦氏
1080 1159 Wei Andao, Prince
郡王韦安道
Lady Song, Madame of Yi
益国夫人宋氏
9. Gaozong Empress Xiansu's maid
Became Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌郡君)
Became Talented Lady (才人)
Promoted to Lady of Handsome Fairness (婕妤) in 1107
Promoted to Wanrong (婉容)
Promoted to Able Consort (贤妃) in 1126
Abducted during Jingkang Incident and seized by Wanyan Zongxian (完颜宗贤)
Sent to the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) in retaliation to Gaozong's ascension
Transferred to Wuguo in 1135
Returned to Southern Song in 1142

Consorts

Title Name Born Died Issue Notes
Noble Consort Yisu
懿肃贵妃
Lady Wang
王氏
unknown 1117 5. Princess of Huishu
10. Princess of Kangshu
12. Prince of Shen
20. Princess of Roufu
26. Princess of Xianfu
22. Duke of Chen
Became Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌郡君) in 1100
Noble Consort
贵妃
Lady Wang (Elder)
王氏
unknown unknown 3. Prince of Yun
7. Princess of Chongde
12. Princess of Baoshu
16. Princess of Xishu
23. Duke of Xiang
Empress Qinsheng's maid
Became Lady of Shouchang Commandery (寿昌郡君)
Became Beautiful Lady (美人) in 1101
Promoted to Wanrong (婉容) in 1103
Promoted to Virtuous Consort (德妃) in 1104
Promoted to Pure Consort (淑妃) in 1105
Promoted to Noble Consort in 1107
Lady Qiao
乔氏
1081 unknown 6. Prince of Jing
7. Prince of Ji
Empress Xiansu's maid
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Died in captivity in Wuguo
Lady Cui
崔氏
1091 1130 15. Princess of Daomu
21. Princess of Dunfu
19. Prince of Han
23. Princess of Renfu
25. Princess of Yongfu
28. Princess of Ningfu
Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌郡君)
Became Talented Lady (才人)
Promoted to Beautiful Lady (美人)
Promoted to Lady of Handsome Fairness (婕妤)
Promoted to Pure Consort (淑妃)
Promoted to Noble Consort
Stripped of her titles in 1121
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Lady Wang (Younger)
王氏
1092 1127 15. Prince of Yi
27. Princess of Shenfu
Became Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌郡君) in 1107
Became Talented Lady (才人) then Beautiful Lady (美人) in 1108
Promoted to Lady of Cultivated Countenance (修容) in 1111
Promoted to Wanrong (婉容) in 1113
Promoted to Able Consort (贤妃) in 1118
Promoted to Virtuous Consort (德妃)
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Died in captivity
Able Consort
贤妃
Lady Yang
杨氏
unknown 1115 3. Princess of Shunshu
17. Prince of He
Became Lady of Yongjia Commandery (永嘉郡君) in 1102
Became Talented Lady (才人) in 1103
Promoted to Beautiful Lady (美人) in 1108
Promoted to Lady of Cultivated Countenance (修容) in 1111
Posthumously honoured in 1115

Imperial Concubines

Title Name Born Died Issue Notes
Guiyi
贵仪
Jin Qiuyue
金秋月
unknown unknown none
Zhu Guilin
朱桂林
unknown unknown none
Decent Beauty
淑仪
Jin Nongyu
金弄玉
unknown unknown none
Wanyi
婉仪
Lin Yuezi
林月姊
unknown unknown none
Shunyi
顺仪
Cao Rou
曹柔
unknown unknown none
Shunrong
顺容
Xu Sanhua
徐散花
unknown unknown none
Zhou Jingqiu
周镜秋
unknown unknown none
Shurong
淑容
Chen Jiaozi
陈娇子
unknown unknown none
Peiyueli Chang'e
裴月里嫦娥
1109 unknown none
Wanrong
婉容
Yan Baose
阎宝瑟
1109 1133 34. Zhu Abducted and impregnated during Jingkang Incident march (father unknown)
Returned to Huizong upon arrival in Jin
Bore a son, who died young, in 1128
Bore another son, Zhao Zhu, in 1130
Ren Jinnu
任金奴
unknown unknown none
Wang Yuegong
王月宫
unknown unknown none
Lady of Bright Deportment
昭仪
Lady Xia
夏氏
unknown 1115 none Court lady
Became Lady of Anding Commandery (安定郡君) in 1101
Became Talented Lady (才人) in 1111
Zhu Suhui
朱素辉
unknown unknown none
Lady of Bright Countenance
昭容
Li Zhuyuan
李珠媛
unknown unknown none
Wangsan Baonu
王三宝奴
unknown unknown none
Lady of Bright Beauty
昭媛
Zheng Meiniang
郑媚娘
unknown unknown 35. Tan
Lady of Cultivated Deportment
修仪
Jiang Jingshen
蒋敬身
unknown unknown none
Lu Jiaonu
陆娇奴
unknown unknown none
Lady of Cultivated Countenance
修容
Huang Baoqin
黄宝琴
unknown unknown none
Mao Zhuying
毛朱英
unknown unknown none
Lady of Cultivated Beauty
修媛
Chen Dahe
陈大和
unknown unknown none
Lady of Complete Deportment
充仪
Shen Guanyin
申观音
unknown unknown none
Zuo Baoqin
左宝琴
unknown unknown none
Lady of Complete Countenance
充容
Qin Huaishan
秦怀珊
unknown unknown none
Xin Liuniang
新刘娘
unknown unknown none
Lady of Complete Beauty
充媛
Xi Qiaofang
奚巧芳
unknown unknown none
Xi Zhuzhu
席珠珠
unknown unknown none Beautiful Lady (美人)

Minor

Title Name Born Died Issue Notes
Lady of Handsome Fairness
婕妤
Lady Wang (Younger)
王氏
unknown unknown 33. Ji Pregnant when abducted and bore a son during Jingkang Incident march
Returned to Huizong upon arrival in Jin
Talented Lady
才人
Lady Qiao
乔氏
unknown unknown 17. Princess of Xiande

Issue

Sons

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes
1 Qinzong
钦宗
Huan
23 May 1100 1156 Empress Xiangong
2 Prince of Yan
兖王
Cheng
1101 1101 Empress Xiansu Died in infancy
3 Prince of Yun
郓王
Kai
1101 1 Aug 1130 Noble Consort Wang (Elder)
4 Prince of Jing
荆王
Ji
1102 1103 unknown Died in infancy
5 Prince of Su
肃王
Shu
1103 1130 unknown
6 Prince of Jing
景王
Qi
1104 1138 Noble Consort Qiao
7 Prince of Ji
济王
Xu
1106 unknown
8 Prince of Yi
益王
Yu
1107 1137 Empress Mingda
9 Gaozong
高宗
Gou
12 Jun 1107 9 Nov 1187 Empress Xianren
10 Prince of Bin
邠王
Cai
1107 1116 unknown Died young
11 Prince of Qi
祁王
Mo
1107 1138 Empress Mingda
12 Prince of Shen
莘王
Zhi
1108 1148 Noble Consort Yisu
13 Prince of Yi
仪王
Pu
1109 1123 unknown
14 Prince of Xu
徐王
Di
1109 unknown unknown
15 Prince of Yi
沂王
E
1110 1132 Noble Consort Wang (Younger)
16 Prince of Yun
郓王
Gong
1110 1112 unknown Died young
17 Prince of He
和王
Shi
1111 1128 Able Consort Yang
18 Prince of Xin
信王
Zhen
1111 16 Jul 1139 Empress Mingda
19 Prince of Han
汉王
Chun
椿
1112 1113 Noble Consort Cui Died in infancy
20 Prince of Ankang
安康郡王
Wo
1112 unknown unknown
21 Prince of Guangping
广平郡王
Jian
1112 unknown unknown
22 Duke of Chen
陈国公
Ji
1114 1114 Noble Consort Yisu Died in infancy
23 Duke of Xiang
相国公
Chan
1112 1137 Noble Consort Wang (Elder)
24 Duke of Ying
瀛国公
Yue
1115 1131 unknown
25 Prince of Jian'an
建安郡王
Yang
1115 1127 Empress Mingjie
26 Duke of Jia
嘉国公
Yi
1118 1130
27 Duke of Wen
温国公
Dong
1119 unknown unknown
28 Duke of Ying
英国公
Si
1120 unknown Empress Mingjie
29 Duke of Yi
仪国公
Tong
1121 1148 unknown
30 Duke of Chang
昌国公
Bing
1122 1132 unknown
31 Duke of Run
润国公
Cong
1123 unknown unknown
32 Duke of Han
韩国公
Xiang
1125 unknown unknown
33 Ji
1127 unknown Lady Wang of Handsome Fairness (Younger) Born during Jingkang Incident march
34 Zhu
1130 unknown Wanrong Yan Born in Jin
35 Tan
1131 unknown Lady Zheng of Bright Beauty Born in Jin
36 unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin
37 unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin
38 unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin

Daughters

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes
1 Princess of Jiade
嘉德帝姬
Yupan
玉盘
1100 1141 Empress Xiansu Ceng Yin (曾夤)
Wanyan Zongpan (完颜宗磐)
Xizong of Jin
Became Princess of Deqing (德庆公主) in 1101
Title changed to Princess of Jiafu (嘉福帝姬)
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Posthumously honoured as Madame (夫人)
2 Princess of Rongde
荣德帝姬
Jinnu
金奴
1103 unknown Empress Xiangong Cao Cheng (曹晟)
Wanyan Chang (完颜昌)
Xizong of Jin
Princess of Yongqing (永庆公主)
Title changed to Princess of Rongfu (荣福帝姬)
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
3 Princess of Shunshu
顺淑帝姬
unknown c.1103 c.1105 Able Consort Yang none none Princess of Shunqing (顺庆公主)
Died young
Posthumously honoured as Princess of Yi (益国帝姬)
4 Princess of Shoushu
寿淑帝姬
unknown c.1104 c.1106 Empress Xiansu none none Princess of Shouqing (寿庆公主)
Died young
Posthumously honoured as Princess of Yu (豫国帝姬)
5 Princess of Huishu
惠淑帝姬
unknown c.1105 c.1105 Noble Consort Yisu none none Died in infancy
6 Princess of Anshu
安淑帝姬
unknown c.1105 c.1109 Empress Mingda none none Princess of Anqing (安庆公主)
Title changed to Princess of Longfu (隆福公主)
Died young
Posthumously honoured as Princess of Shu (蜀国帝姬)
7 Princess of Chongde
崇德帝姬
unknown c.1105 1121 Noble Consort Wang (Elder) Cao Shi (曹湜) Princess of Heqing (和庆公主)
Title changed to Princess of Chongfu (崇福帝姬)
8 Princess of Ande
安德帝姬
Jinluo
金罗
1106 1127 Empress Xiansu Bang Guang (邦光)
Wanyan Dumu (完颜阇母)
Princess of Shuqing (淑庆公主)
Title changed to Princess of Anfu (安福帝姬)
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Tortured to death in Wanyan Dumu's camp
9 Princess of Maode
茂德帝姬
Fujin
福金
1106 1128 Empress Mingda Cai Tiao (蔡鞗)
Wanyan Zongwang (完颜宗望)
Wanyan Xiyin
Princess of Yanqing (延庆公主)
Title changed to Princess of Kangfu (康福帝姬)
The most beautiful of Huizong's daughters, she was specifically requested for by the Jin forces and became the first to enter the Jin camp
Tortured to death in Wanyan Xiyin's camp
10 Princess of Kangshu
康淑帝姬
unknown c.1106 c.1108 Noble Consort Yisu none none Died young
11 Princess of Rongshu
荣淑帝姬
unknown c.1107 c.1110 Empress Xiansu none none Died young
12 Princess of Baoshu
保淑帝姬
unknown c.1107 c.1107 Noble Consort Wang (Elder) none none Died in infancy
13 Princess of Chengde
成德帝姬
Hu'er
瑚儿
1110 unknown Empress Xiansu Xiang Zifang (向子房) Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Entered the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin
14 Princess of Xunde
洵德帝姬
Fujin
富金
1110 unknown Empress Mingda Tian Pi (田丕)
Wanyan Sheyema (完颜设也马)
Pregnant when abducted during Jingkang Incident
"Miscarried" after falling when horse riding
15 Princess of Daomu
悼穆帝姬
Jinxian
金仙
c.1110 c.1117 Noble Consort Cui none none Princess of Huifu (徽福帝姬)
Died young
16 Princess of Xishu
熙福帝姬
unknown c.1110 c.1112 Noble Consort Wang (Elder) none none Princess of Xifu (熙福公主)
Died young
17 Princess of Xiande
显德帝姬
Qiaoyun
巧云
1111 unknown Talented Lady Qiao Liu Wenyan (刘文彦) Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Entered the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin
18 Princess of Shunde
顺德帝姬
Yingluo
缨络
1111 1137 unknown Xiang Ziyi (向子扆)
Wanyan Zonghan
Andahe, Prince of Xigu
(习古国王按打曷)
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Died in Andahe's camp in Wuguo
19 Princess of Yifu
仪福帝姬
Yuanzhu
圆珠
1111 unknown unknown Wanyan Zongbi Abducted during Jingkang Incident
20 Princess of Roufu
柔福帝姬
Duofu, Huanhuan
多富, 嬛嬛
1111 1142 Noble Consort Yisu Wanyan Zongwang (完颜宗望)
Taizong of Jin
Wanyan Zongxian (完颜宗贤)
Xu Hai (徐还)
Pregnant when abducted during Jingkang Incident
"Miscarried" after falling when horse riding
Entered the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin
Fled to Southern Song in 1130
Killed by Gaozong after Empress Xianren accused her of being an imposter
21 Princess of Dunfu
敦福帝姬
Sanjin
三金
c.1111 c.1112 Noble Consort Cui none none Princess of Shoufu (寿福帝姬)
Died in infancy
22 Princess of Baofu
保福帝姬
Xianlang
仙郎
1112 1127 Lady Han, Lady of Cultivated Countenance
修容韩氏
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Tortured to death in Liujiasi, Sichuan
23 Princess of Renfu
仁福帝姬
Xiangyun
香云
1112 1127 Noble Consort Cui Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Tortured to death in Liujiasi, Sichuan
24 Princess of Huifu
惠福帝姬
Zhuzhu
珠珠
1112 unknown Lady Wang, Wanrong
婉容王氏
Wanyan Xiebao (完颜斜保) Abducted during Jingkang Incident
25 Princess of Yongfu
永福帝姬
Fubao
佛保
1112 unknown Noble Consort Cui Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Entered the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin
26 Princess of Xianfu
贤福帝姬
Jin'er
金儿
1112 1127 Noble Consort Yisu Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Tortured to death in Liujiasi, Sichuan
27 Princess of Shenfu
申福帝姬
unknown c.1113 c.1114 Noble Consort Wang (Younger) none none Died in infancy
28 Princess of Ningfu
宁福帝姬
Chuanzhu
串珠
1114 unknown Noble Consort Cui Wanyan Zongjuan (完颜宗隽)
Xizong of Jin
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
29 Princess of Hefu
和福帝姬
Jinzhu
金珠
1116 unknown Empress Mingjie Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin
30 Princess of Lingfu
令福帝姬
Jinyin
金印
1118 unknown unknown Xizong of Jin Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin
31 Princess of Huafu
华福帝姬
Saiyue
赛月
1119 unknown unknown Xizong of Jin Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin
32 Princess of Qingfu
庆福帝姬
Jingu
金姑
1121 unknown unknown Xizong of Jin Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin
33 Princess of Chunfu
纯福帝姬
Jinling
金铃
1124 unknown unknown Wanyan Sheyema (完颜设也马)
Wang Chengdi (王成棣)
Abducted during Jingkang Incident
Resided in the "Laundry Courtyard" (actually a brothel) upon arrival in Jin
34 Princess of Gongfu
恭福帝姬
Xiaojin
小金
c.1126 c.1129 unknown none none Died young
35 Princess of Quanfu
全福帝姬
unknown unknown unknown unknown Li Dunfu (李敦复) Born in Jin
36 unknown unknown unknown unknown none none Born in Jin
Died young
37 unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin
38 unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin
39 unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin
40 unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin
41 unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin
42 unknown unknown unknown unknown Born in Jin

Ancestry

Ancestors of Emperor Huizong of Song
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Yuanfen, Prince Gongjing of Shang
商恭靖王赵元份
969–1005
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3rd son: Zhao Yunrang, Prince Anyi of Pu
濮安懿王赵允让
995–1059
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wife: Lady Li
李氏
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13th son: Zhao Shu, Yingzong
英宗赵曙
1032–1067
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ren Gu
任固
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Concubine: Lady Ren, Lady of Xianyou County
仙游县君任氏
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Zhang, Lady of Xianyuan County
仙源县君张氏
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1st son: Zhao Xu, Shenzong
神宗赵顼
1048–1085
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gao Jixun
高继勋
959–1036
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gao Zunfu, Prince of Chu
楚王高遵甫
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wife: Lady Gao, Empress Xuanren
宣仁皇后高氏
1032–1093
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cao Qi, Prince Anxi of Wu
吴安僖王曹玘
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Cao, Madame of Chu
楚国夫人曹氏
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Feng
冯氏
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11th son: Zhao Ji, Huizong
徽宗赵佶
1082–1135
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chen Shougui
陈守贵
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Concubine: Lady Chen, Empress Qinci
钦慈皇后陈氏
1058–1089
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

See also

  1. Chinese emperors family tree (middle)
  2. List of emperors of the Song dynasty
  3. Architecture of the Song dynasty
  4. Culture of the Song dynasty
  5. Economy of the Song dynasty
  6. History of the Song dynasty
  7. Society of the Song dynasty
  8. Technology of the Song dynasty

References

  1. ^ Ebrey, Cambridge, 149.
  2. ^ a b Ebrey, 165.
  3. ^ Book of Song – Scroll 66
  4. ^ Frederick W. Mote (2003). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.
  5. ^ Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4.
  6. ^ Tao (1976). Pages 20–21.
  7. ^ a b c Franke (1994), p. 233-234.
  8. ^ [1]
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. (2013). Emperor Huizong (Harvard University Press; 2013) 661 pages; scholarly biography online review
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. (1999). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66991-X (paperback).
  • Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton and Mifflin.
  • Jing-shen Tao (1976) The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95514-7.
  • Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett. Alien Regimes and Border States, 907–1368 (Cambridge History of China, vol. 6). Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-24331-9. Partial text on Google Books.
  • Huiping Pang (2009), "Strange Weather: Art, Politics, and Climate Change at the Court of Northern Song Emperor Huizong," Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, Volume 39, 2009, pp. 1–41. ISSN 1059-3152.
Please see: References section in the guqin article for a full list of references used in all qin related articles.
Emperor Huizong of Song
Born: November 2 1082 Died: June 4 1135
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Zhezong
Emperor of the Song Dynasty
1100–1126
Succeeded by
Emperor Qinzong
Honorary titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang
Retired Emperor of China
1126–1135
Vacant
Title next held by
Emperor Gaozong of Song

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