An Earth goddess is a deification of the Earth, in the sense of fertile soil, classical element and the inhabited world, typically pictured as flat surface stretched under the firmament. Earth goddesses are also often associated with the "chthonic" deities of the underworld.
In Greek mythology, the Earth personified is Gaia, corresponding to Roman Terra, Indic Prithvi/Bhūmi, etc. traced to an "Earth Mother" complementary to the "Sky Father" in Proto-Indo-European religion.
Other Earth goddesses include: