The CRH2 Hexie Hao (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào; literally: "Harmony Express") is one of the high-speed train models in China. Originally, the CRH2 was based on the E2-1000 Series Shinkansen design from Japan with the license purchased from a consortium formed of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, and Hitachi, and represents the second Shinkansen train model to be exported.
In 2004, the Ministry of Railway in China purchased an initial 60 sets of the train from Kawasaki Heavy Industries with a maximum speed of 250 km/h (155 mph). However, the newer versions of the CRH2 are not related to the E2-1000 Series despite having the same exterior shell.
|China Railways CRH2 EMU|
CRH2 at Nanjing Railway Station
|Manufacturer||Kawasaki Heavy Industries,
CRRC Qingdao Sifang
|Number built||CRH2A: 60+40 trainsets (800 cars)
CRH2B: 20 trainsets (320 cars)
CRH2C (stage 1): 30 trainsets (240 cars)
CRH2C (stage 2): 20 trainsets (160 cars)
CRH2E: 20 trainsets (320 cars)
|Formation||CRH2A: 8 cars per trainset (4M4T)
CRH2B/E: 16 cars per trainset (8M8T)
CRH2C: 8 cars per trainset (6M2T)
CRH2E: 630/880(CRH2E-2463, 2464 and 2465)
- CR Beijing
- CR Shanghai
- CR Jinan
- CR Xi'an
- CR Wuhan
- CR Nanchang
- CR Zhengzhou
- CR Taiyuan
- CR Chengdu
- CR Guangzhou
- CR Nanning
- CR Shenyang
|Line(s) served||Jinghu Railway, Jingguang Railway, Hukun Railway, Hening PFL|
|Train length||CRH2A/C: 201.4 m (661 ft)
CRH2B/E: 401.4 m (1,317 ft)
|Width||3,380 mm (11 ft 1 in)|
|Height||3,700 mm (12 ft 2 in)|
|Platform height||1,250 mm (4 ft 1 in)|
|Maximum speed||CRH2A/B/E: 250 km/h (155 mph)
CRH2C (stage 1): 350 km/h (217 mph)
CRH2C (stage 2): 380 km/h (236 mph)
|Traction system||IGBT VVVF inverter control
(Mitsubishi Electric, Hitachi or Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric)
|Power output||CRH2A: 4.8 MW (6,400 hp)
CRH2B/E: 9.6 MW (12,900 hp)
CRH2C (stage 1):
7.2 MW (9,700 hp)
CRH2C (stage 2):
8.76 MW (11,750 hp)
|Electric system(s)||25 kV 50 Hz AC Overhead catenary|
|Current collection method||Pantograph|
|Braking system(s)||Regenerative, electronically controlled pneumatic brakes|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
On October 20, 2004, the Ministry of Railway in China ordered 60 sets of CRH2A trains from Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Japan. Along with 60 sets of Bombardier's Regina-based CRH1A, and 40 sets of Alstom's Pendolino-based CRH5A, these train sets are consider as first batch of CRH trains.
Each of the CRH2A set consists of 8 cars. The first 3 sets (CRH2-001A - CRH2-003A) were built in Japan, the next 6 sets (CRH2-004A - CRH2-009A) were delivered in complete knock down form and assembled by CSR Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock. The remaining 51 sets (CRH2-010A - CRH2-060A) were built by Sifang through technology transfer from Japan.
The first train arrived at Qingdao port on March 8, 2006 with little fanfare, and was not even publicized in China. These trains have a maximum operation speed of 250 km/h (155 mph) and started providing high-speed train service from April 18, 2007, the date of the sixth national railway speed-up.
According to Chinese and Japanese media, CRH2A trains started test trials ahead of commercial operation on the Shanghai-Hangzhou and Shanghai-Nanjing lines on January 28, 2007.
On September 14, 2010, the Chinese MOR ordered additional 40 sets of CRH2A trains (CRH2-151A - CRH2-190A) from CSR Sifang.
In November 2007, the Ministry of Railway in China ordered 10 CRH2 sets with 16 cars per set (8M8T). These trains have been given designations CRH2B (CRH2-111B - CRH2-120B). Each CRH2B has three 1st seating cars (ZY), twelve 2nd seating cars (ZE), and one dining car (CA). Designed maximum operation speed is 250 km/h (155 mph) with a power of 9,600 kW (12,900 hp).
After the introduction of the modified E2-1000 Series, Sifang built its own CRH2 with a maximum safe operating speed of 350 km/h (220 mph). The original train sets imported from Kawasaki had a maximum safe operating speed of 250 km/h (160 mph).
During June 2005 and September 2005, The Chinese Ministry of Railways launched bidding for High speed trains with a top speed over 300 km/h (190 mph). Along with Siemens's Velaro-based CRH3C, CSR Sifang bid 60 sets of CRH2C, includes 30 sets of CRH2C stage one with a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph), and 30 sets of CRH2C stage two with a top speed of 350 km/h (220 mph).
In development and research of the 350 km/h (220 mph) high speed train, The CRH2-300 project was launched by Chinese MOR and CSR. In 2006 the China Development Bank provided CNY 15 billion developmental financial loans to CSR Group for the projects of 200–300 km/h (120–190 mph) high speed trains. Over 50 academics, 150,000 technicians, 600 contractors were involved in the project. This train's livery is not like the CRH2A. Its blue stripe does not end at the fronts of trainsets.
CRH2C Stage one is a modified version of CRH2A. It has a maximum operating speed up to 300 km/h (190 mph) by replacing two intermediate trailer cars with motorized cars. Equipped with an array of the state-of-the-art technologies, including aluminum alloy body with a reduced weight, high speed turntable, high speed pantograph, and optic-fiber based integrated control system.
During the test on December 11, 2009, CRH2-061C reached a top speed of 394.2 km/h (244.9 mph) on Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed rail.
Together with CRH3C, the CRH2C stage one first came into service on Beijing-Tianjin Intercity high-speed rail on August 1, 2008, and all CRH2C stage one trains have been replaced by CRH3C in April, 2009. Currently, most of these trains are serving on the Shanghai-Nanjing high speed rail.
CRH2C Stage two is the "re-design" version of the CRH2. Some of the details, like the aluminum body structure, noise reduction technology & reduction technique, draw on the CRH3C. According to CSR Sifang, the improvements include the following aspects:
Chinese MOR ordered 30 sets of CRH2C stage two, name code CRH2-091C - CRH2-110C and CRH2-141C - CRH2-150C. The first set, CRH2-091C was unveiled in January 2010 and came into service on Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed rail in February, 2010.
In November and December 2007, the Ministry of Railway in China ordered 20 CRH2 sleeper trains with 16 cars per set (8M8T). These trains are modified CRH2Bs, and have been given designations CRH2E (numbered CRH2-121E - CRH2-140E). Each CRH2E has thirteen 1st class sleeping cars (WR), two 2nd class seating cars (ZE), and one buffet car (CA) or one second class/dining car (ZEC). Designed maximum operation speed is 250 km/h (155 mph) with a power of 9600 kW.
The first batch of CRH2E, CRH2-121E - CRH2-126E, came into service on Beijing-Shanghai railway on December 21, 2008. On 23 July 2011, one sleeper coach on CRH2-139E trainset has been derailed in the 2011 Wenzhou train collision, together with CRH1-046B.
The rest of CRH2Es were deployed on Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway since January 2015, operating overnight sleeper trains between Beijing and Guangzhou (including some trains to Shenzhen).
Since CRH2E-2463, brand new CRH2E rolls off the production line in the beginning of 2017. The layout inside CRH2E-2463 is different from the previous ones. Its corridor dominates the centre of the sleeping car, while on either side the bunk beds are fixed parallel. Each bed has a layout similar to airplane first class, and passengers are no longer sharing the room. Instead, each passenger has separate compartment looks like a capsule. Each capsule comes with independent tables, outlets, lamps, hangers and curtains. The hull of the train is redesigned so the noise level is lower compare to previous models.
In 2008, the Chinese MOR & CSR launched CRH2-380 project, the main purpose is to develop new-generation of high speed trains with maximum operation speed of 380 km/h (240 mph). CRH2 is one of the fundamental platforms of the new trains, which is designated as CRH380A.
At the time of the sixth national railway speed-up, at least 37 CRH2A sets had been delivered by Kawasaki and Sifang. In 2008, all 60 CRH2A sets had been delivered by Kawasaki. The post-2008 production model of the CRH2 are designed and made solely by Sifang with a maximum safe operation speed of 350 km/h (220 mph).
|Type5 (Second Batch)||ZE||ZYE||ZE||ZEC||ZE||ZY||ZE|
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2|
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2||Unit 3||Unit 4|
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2|
|Power Units||Unit 1||Unit 2||Unit 3||Unit 4|
As of February, 2011
|Operator||Quantity||Series number||Lines serving||Note|
|Beijing Railway Bureau||4||CRH2-028A、CRH2-037A、
|Jinghu Railway、Jingguang Railway、
|Xi'an Railway Bureau||1||CRH2-038A||Longhai Railway|
|Wuhan Railway Bureau||25||CRH2-011A、CRH2-018A、CRH2-019A、CRH2-022A、
CRH2-039A、CRH2-040A、CRH2-045A ～ CRH2-056A、
|Jingguang Railway、Wujiu Railway、Hanyi Railway、
Handan Railway、Xiangyu Railway、
Hening PFL、 Hewu PFL
|Shenyang Railway Bureau||2||CRH2-057A、CRH2-058A||Jingha Railway、Jinghu Railway|
|Shanghai Railway Bureau||25||CRH2-002A ～ CRH2-009A、CRH2-014A、CRH2-020A、
CRH2-021A、CRH2-023A ～ CRH2-025A、CRH2-030A、
CRH2-156A ～ CRH2-161A、CRH2-165A ～ CRH2-168A
|Jinghu Railway、Hukun Railway、
Longhai Railway、Huhang PDL、Hangyong PDL、Xiaoyong Railway、
Yongtaiwen PFL、Wenfu PFL、Fuxia PFL、Xiashen PFL
Huning PDL、Hening PFL、Hewu PFL、Jingguang Railway
|Nanchang Railway Bureau||22||CRH2-012A、CRH2-013A、CRH2-015A ～ CRH2-017A、
CRH2-163A、 CRH2-164A、CRH2-169A ～ CRH2-172A
|Hukun Railway、Wujiu Railway、Wenfu PFL、Fuxia PFL、Xiashen PFL、Changjiu ICR|
|China MOR||2||CRH2-001A、CRH2-042A||Official Train|
|1||CRH2-010A||Track Inspection Train|
|Shanghai Railway Bureau||10||CRH2-111B ～ CRH2-120B||Jinghu Railway、Hukun Railway、Huhang PDL、Hangyong PDL、Xiaoyong Railway、Yongtaiwen PFL、Wenfu PFL、Fuxia PFL、Xiashen PFL、Huning PDL、Hening PFL、Hewu PFL、Hanyi Railway、Jingguang Railway|
|Shanghai Railway Bureau||27||CRH2-062C ～ CRH2-067C、CRH2-069C ～ CRH2-090C||Huhang PDL、Hangyong PDL、Huning PDL、Hening PFL、Ninghang PDL、Jinghu PDL|
|Track Inspection Train|
|Wuhan Railway Bureau||20||CRH2-097C～CRH2-110C、
|Xi'an Railway Bureau||9||CRH2-091C ～ CRH2-096C、CRH2-145C ～ CRH2-147C||Zhengxi PDL|
|China MOR||1||CRH2-061C||Track Inspection Train|
|Beijing Railway Bureau||10||CRH2-121E ～ CRH2-125E、
CRH2-137E ～ CRH2-140E
|Jinghu Railway||(CRH2-139E was written off in Wenzhou train collision )|
|Nanchang Railway Bureau||4||CRH2-126E、CRH2-128E、
|Hukun Railway、Wenfu PFL、Fuxia PFL、Xiashen PFL||Sleeper berths apparently converted to seats; no overnight trains are scheduled on the Fuxia line in 2012.|
|Shanghai Railway Bureau||5||CRH2-127E、CRH2-129E、
|Jinghu Railway、Hukun Railway、Longhai Railway、Huhang PDL、Hangyong PDL、Xiaoyong Railway、Yongtaiwen PFL、Wenfu PFL、Fuxia PFL、Xiashen PFL、Huning PDL|
|China Railway Corporation||1||CRH2-205J||N/A||Comprehensive Inspection Trains painted in an orange livery converted from the destroyed CRH2-139E.|