Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond

Last updated on 14 July 2017

Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, 4th Duke of Lennox, 4th Duke of Aubigny, KG, PC (9 December 1764 – 28 August 1819) was a Scottish peer, soldier, politician, and Governor General of British North America.

Henry Hoppner Meyer10.jpg
Henry Hoppner Meyer10.jpg

Background

Richmond was born to General Lord George Lennox, the younger son of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, and Lady Louisa, daughter of William Kerr, 4th Marquess of Lothian. His aunts included the famous five Lennox sisters.

Cricket

Richmond was a keen cricketer. He was an accomplished right-hand bat and a noted wicket-keeper. An amateur, he was a founder member of the Marylebone Cricket Club. In 1786, together with the Earl of Winchilsea, Richmond offered Thomas Lord a guarantee against any losses Lord might suffer on starting a new cricket ground. This led to Lord opening his first cricket ground in 1787. Although Lord's Cricket Ground has since moved twice, Richmond and Winchilsea's guarantee provided the genesis of the best-known cricket ground in the world, a ground known as the Home of Cricket. Nearly always listed as the Hon. Colonel Charles Lennox in contemporary scorecards, Richmond had 55 recorded first-class appearances from 1784 to 1800 and played a few more games after that.

Army general

Richmond became a British Army captain at the age of 23 in 1787. On 27 May 1789, while a colonel in the Duke of York's regiment, he was involved in a duel with Frederick, Duke of York, who had expressed the opinion that "Colonel Lennox had heard words spoken to him at Daughbigny's, to which no gentleman ought to have submitted", effectively an accusation of failing to respond to an insult in the way that a gentleman should. At Wimbledon Common, Richmond fired, but his ball "grazed his Royal Highness's curl"; the Duke did not fire.[1] Richmond shortly after exchanged his company for the commission of a lieutenant-colonel in the 35th Regiment of Foot.[2] On 1 July of the same year, he was involved in another duel, with Theophilus Swift, Esq., in consequence of a pamphlet criticising Richmond's character published under Swift's name. They met in a field near the Uxbridge Road, where Swift was wounded in the body, but recovered.[3]

Charlotte, 4th Duchess of Richmond (1768-1842), by Joseph Nollekens.jpg
Charlotte, 4th Duchess of Richmond (1768–1842) (Joseph Nollekens, 1812)

Later in the year he married Lady Charlotte Gordon. In 1794 and 1795 he participated in naval engagements against the French in the West Indies and Gibraltar, but was sent home when he came into conflict with his superiors. He was also MP for Sussex, succeeding his father, from 1790 until he succeeded to the dukedom.

Duke

He became the 4th Duke of Richmond on 29 December 1806, after the death of his uncle, Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond. In April 1807 he became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He remained in that post until 1813. He participated in the Napoleonic Wars and in 1815 he was in command of a reserve force in Brussels, which was protecting that city in case Napoleon won the Battle of Waterloo. On 15 June, the night before the Battle of Quatre Bras, his wife held a ball for his fellow officers. This glittering celebration became famous, and Thackeray immortalised it in Vanity Fair.

Although the Duke observed the battle the next day, as well as Waterloo on 18 June, he did not participate in either.

Governor General of Canada

In 1818 he was appointed Governor General of British North America.

During the summer of 1819 Richmond undertook an extensive tour of Upper and Lower Canada. At William Henry (Sorel, Que.) he was bitten on the hand by a fox. The injury apparently healed, and he continued to York (Toronto) and Niagara (Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont.), even examining military sites as far distant as Drummond Island. Returning to Kingston, he planned a leisurely visit to the settlements on the Rideau. During this part of the journey the first symptoms of hydrophobia appeared. The disease developed rapidly and on 28 August he died in extreme agony in a barn a few miles from a settlement that had been named in his honour. After a state funeral in Quebec City, his body was brought back to Quebec, where on 4 September he was buried in the Anglican Holy Trinity Cathedral.[4][5]

Some accounts suggest that the duke had been bitten by a dog; stronger contemporary evidence, however, supports the view that he received the rabies infection from a fox.

The night before his death, he slept at the "Masonic Arms", which was renamed the "Duke of Richmond Arms" to commemorate the visit.

Richmond's title was inherited by his son, Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond.

Legacy

Richmond County, Nova Scotia; Richmond, Ontario; March Township, Ontario; Huntley Township, Ontario; Torbolton Township, Ontario; Fitzroy Township, Ontario; Earl of March Secondary School; Lennoxville, Quebec; Richmond, Quebec; and Richmond County, Nova Scotia; along with Richmond Street in Toronto, Ontario were named after him. According to tradition, the town of Richmond Hill, Ontario, was also named after him, as he was said to have passed through the then village during his visit in 1819.

4th Duke of Richmond, Cairn.png
Cairn marking the approximate location of the Duke's death.
4th Duke of Richmond, plaque.png
Plaque on the 4th Duke of Richmond's cairn.

Richmond Park (football ground) in Inchicore, Dublin, still bears his name. Now the home ground of St. Patrick's Athletic Football Club, it was once a part of Richmond Barracks as Richmond was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1807 - 1813). It was to these barracks that over 3,000 prisoners were brought after the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin. After independence the barracks were renamed Keogh Barracks and later were redeveloped as housing for the capital's poor and again renamed Keogh Square.

Ancestry and issue

Ancestry

Ancestors of Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Charles II of England
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Francis Brudenell, Lord Brudenell
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Anne Brudenell
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Lady Frances Savile
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. George Lennox
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Henry Cadogan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Bridget Waller
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Lady Sarah Cadogan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Jan Munter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Margaret Cecilia Munter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Margaretha Trip
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. William Kerr, 2nd Marquess of Lothian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. William Kerr, 3rd Marquess of Lothian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Lady Jane Campbell
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. William Kerr, 4th Marquess of Lothian
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Sir Thomas Nicolson, 1st Baronet, of Glenbervie
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Margaret Nicolson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Margaret Nicolson
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Lady Louisa Kerr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. John Darcy, Lord Conyers
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Robert Darcy, 3rd Earl of Holderness
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Bridget Sutton
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Lady Caroline Darcy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Frederica Susanna Schomberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Caroline Elisabeth of the Palatinate
 
 
 
 
 
 

Issue

Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond, engraving after John Kay, 1789.jpg
The Duke of Richmond, 1789.

Richmond had fourteen children:[6]

  • Lady Mary Lennox (15 August 1790 – 7 December 1847), married Sir Charles Fitzroy and had issue.
  • Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond (3 August 1791 – 21 October 1860).
  • Lt.-Col. Lord John George Lennox (3 October 1793 – 10 November 1873), married Louisa Rodney and had issue.
  • Lady Sarah Lennox (c. 1794 – 8 September 1873), married Peregrine Maitland.
  • Lady Georgiana Lennox (30 September 1795 – 15 December 1891), married William FitzGerald-de Ros, 23rd Baron de Ros, and had issue.
  • Lord Henry Adam Lennox (6 September 1797 – 1812), fell overboard from HMS Blake and drowned.
  • Lord William Lennox (20 September 1799 – 18 February 1881), married first Mary Ann Paton and second Ellen Smith; had issue by the latter.
  • Lady Jane Lennox (c. 1800 – 27 March 1861), married Laurence Peel and had issue.
  • Captain Lord Frederick Lennox (24 January 1801 – 25 October 1829).
  • Lord Sussex Lennox (11 June 1802 – 12 April 1874), married Hon. Mary Lawless and had issue.
  • Lady Louisa Maddelena Lennox (2 October 1803 – 2 March 1900), married Rt. Hon. William Tighe, died without issue.
  • Lady Charlotte Lennox (c. 1804 – 20 August 1833), married Maurice Berkeley, 1st Baron FitzHardinge of Bristol, and had issue.
  • Lt.-Col. Lord Arthur Lennox (2 October 1806 – 15 January 1864), married Adelaide Campbell and had issue.
  • Lady Sophia Georgiana Lennox (21 July 1809 – 17 January 1902), married Lord Thomas Cecil, died without issue.

References

Notes

  1. ^ Millingen, pp. 131–32.
  2. ^ Millingen, p. 133.
  3. ^ Millingen, p. 135.
  4. ^ Woods, p. 45.
  5. ^ Wasik and Murphy, p. 8-10.
  6. ^ General Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond thepeerage.com

Bibliography

  • Harry Altham, A History of Cricket, Volume 1 (to 1914), George Allen & Unwin, 1962.
  • Derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum, 1999.
  • Rowland Bowen, Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970.
  • G. B. Buckley, Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket, Cotterell, 1935.
  • Arthur Haygarth, Scores & Biographies, Volume 1 (1744–1826), Lillywhite, 1862.
  • J. G. Millingen, The History of Duelling, Volume 2, London: Richard Bentley, 1841.
  • John Nyren, The Cricketers of my Time (ed. Ashley Mote), Robson, 1998.
  • David Underdown, Start of Play, Allen Lane, 2000.
  • H. T. Waghorn, The Dawn of Cricket, Electric Press, 1906.
  • Bill Wasik and Monica Murphy, Rabid: A Cultural History of the World's Most Diabolical Virus, Penguin Group, 2012
  • Eric Arthur, Toronto, No Mean City (Third Edition, rev. and ed. Stephen A. Otto), University of Toronto Press, 1986.
  • Lord's 1787–1945 by Sir Pelham Warner ISBN 1-85145-112-9.
  • Woods, Shirley E. Jr. Ottawa: The Capital of Canada, Toronto: Doubleday Canada, 1980. ISBN 0-385-14722-8.

External links

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Lord George Henry Lennox
Lord Pelham
Member of Parliament for Sussex
1790–1801
With: Lord Pelham
Succeeded by
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Parliament of Great Britain
Member of Parliament for Sussex
1801–1806
With: Lord Pelham 1801
John Fuller 1801–1806
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John Fuller
Charles William Wyndham
Government offices
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The Duke of Bedford
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1807–1813
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Sir John Coape Sherbrooke
Governor General of British North America
1818–1819
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The Earl of Dalhousie
Military offices
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Sir William Medows
Governor of Kingston-upon-Hull
1813–1814
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The Lord Hill
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Governor of Plymouth
1814–1819
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The Duke of Wellington
Honorary titles
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Vice-Admiral of Sussex
1812–1819
Succeeded by
The Earl of Egremont
Preceded by
The Duke of Norfolk
Lord Lieutenant of Sussex
1816–1819
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Richmond
3rd creation
1806–1819
Succeeded by
Charles Gordon-Lennox
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Lennox
2nd creation
1806–1819
Succeeded by
Charles Gordon-Lennox
French nobility
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Aubigny
1806–1819
Succeeded by
Charles Gordon-Lennox

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