Black Panther (film)

Black Panther is a 2018 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, it is the eighteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film is directed by Ryan Coogler, who co-wrote the screenplay with Joe Robert Cole, and stars Chadwick Boseman as T'Challa / Black Panther, alongside Michael B. Jordan, Lupita Nyong'o, Danai Gurira, Martin Freeman, Daniel Kaluuya, Letitia Wright, Winston Duke, Angela Bassett, Forest Whitaker, and Andy Serkis. In Black Panther, T'Challa is crowned king of Wakanda following his father's death, but his sovereignty is soon challenged by a new adversary who plans to abandon the country's isolationist policies and begin a global revolution.

Wesley Snipes expressed interest in working on a Black Panther film in 1992, but the project did not come to fruition. In September 2005, Marvel Studios announced a Black Panther film as one of ten based on Marvel characters and distributed by Paramount Pictures. Mark Bailey was hired to write a script in January 2011. Black Panther was announced in October 2014, and Boseman made his first appearance as the character in Captain America: Civil War (2016). By 2016, Cole and Coogler had joined; additional cast joined in May, making Black Panther the first Marvel film with a predominantly black cast. Principal photography took place from January to April 2017, at EUE/Screen Gems Studios in the Atlanta metropolitan area, and Busan, South Korea.

Black Panther premiered in Los Angeles on January 29, 2018, and was released theatrically in the United States on February 16, 2018, in 2D, 3D, IMAX and other premium large formats. The film received praise from critics for its direction, screenplay, acting, production and costume design, and soundtrack, though the CGI effects received some criticism. Critics considered it one of the best films set in the MCU and noted its cultural significance. It grossed over $1.3 billion worldwide, and became the second-highest-grossing film of 2018 behind Avengers: Infinity War, the third-highest-grossing film ever in the United States, the ninth-highest-grossing film of all time, and the highest-grossing film by a black director.

Black Panther
Black Panther film poster
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ryan Coogler
Produced by Kevin Feige
Written by
Based on
Starring
Music by Ludwig Göransson
Cinematography Rachel Morrison
Edited by
  • Michael P. Shawver
  • Debbie Berman
Production
company
Distributed by Walt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
Release date
  • January 29, 2018 (Dolby Theatre)
  • February 16, 2018 (United States)
Running time
134 minutes[1]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $200–210 million[2][3]
Box office $1.346 billion[4]

Plot

Five African tribes war over a meteorite containing vibranium. One warrior ingests a "heart-shaped herb" affected by the metal and gains superhuman abilities, becoming the first "Black Panther". He unites all but the Jabari Tribe to form the nation of Wakanda. Over centuries, the Wakandans use the vibranium to develop advanced technology and isolate themselves from the world by posing as a Third World country.

In 1992, King T'Chaka visits his brother N'Jobu, who is working undercover in Oakland, California. T'Chaka accuses N'Jobu of assisting black-market arms dealer Ulysses Klaue with stealing vibranium from Wakanda. N'Jobu's partner reveals he is Zuri, another undercover Wakandan, and confirms T'Chaka's suspicions.

In the present day, following T'Chaka's death,[N 1] his son T'Challa returns to Wakanda to assume the throne. He and Okoye, the leader of the Dora Milaje regiment, extract T'Challa's ex-lover Nakia from an undercover assignment so she can attend his coronation ceremony with his mother Ramonda and younger sister Shuri. At the ceremony, the Jabari Tribe's leader M'Baku challenges T'Challa for the crown in ritual combat. T'Challa defeats M'Baku and persuades him to yield rather than die.

When Klaue and Erik Stevens steal a Wakandan artifact from a London museum T'Challa's friend and Okoye's lover W'Kabi urges him to bring Klaue back alive. T'Challa, Okoye, and Nakia travel to Busan, South Korea, where Klaue plans to sell the artifact to CIA agent Everett K. Ross. A firefight erupts and Klaue attempts to flee but is caught by T'Challa, who reluctantly releases him to Ross' custody. Klaue tells Ross that Wakanda's international image is a front for a technologically advanced civilization. Erik attacks and extracts Klaue as Ross is gravely injured protecting Nakia. Rather than pursue Klaue, T'Challa takes Ross to Wakanda where their technology can save him.

While Shuri heals Ross, T'Challa confronts Zuri about N'Jobu. Zuri explains that N'Jobu planned to share Wakanda's technology with people of African descent around the world to help them conquer their oppressors. As T'Chaka arrested N'Jobu, the latter attacked Zuri and forced T'Chaka to kill him. T'Chaka ordered Zuri to lie that N'Jobu had disappeared and left behind N'Jobu's American son in order to maintain the lie. This boy grew up to be Stevens, a U.S. black ops soldier who adopted the name "Killmonger". Meanwhile, Killmonger kills Klaue and takes his body to Wakanda. He is brought before the tribal elders, revealing his identity and claim to the throne. Killmonger challenges T'Challa to ritual combat, where he kills Zuri, defeats T'Challa, and hurls him over a waterfall to his presumed death. Killmonger ingests the heart-shaped herb and orders the rest incinerated, but Nakia extracts one first. Killmonger, supported by W'Kabi and his army, prepares to distribute shipments of Wakandan weapons to operatives around the world.

Nakia, Shuri, Ramonda, and Ross flee to the Jabari Tribe for aid. They find a comatose T'Challa, rescued by the Jabari in repayment for sparing M'Baku's life. Healed by Nakia's herb, T'Challa returns to fight Killmonger, who dons his own Black Panther suit and commands W'Kabi and his army to attack. Shuri, Nakia, and the Dora Milaje join T'Challa, while Ross remotely pilots a jet and shoots down the planes carrying the vibranium weapons. M'Baku and the Jabari arrive to reinforce T'Challa. Confronted by Okoye, W'Kabi and his army stand down. Fighting in Wakanda's vibranium mine, T'Challa disrupts Killmonger's suit and stabs him. Killmonger refuses to be healed, choosing to die a free man rather than be incarcerated.

T'Challa establishes an outreach center at the building where N'Jobu died, to be run by Nakia and Shuri. In a mid-credits scene, T'Challa appears before the United Nations to reveal Wakanda's true nature to the world. In a post-credits scene, Shuri helps Bucky Barnes with his recuperation.

Cast

Black Panther cast by Gage Skidmore
(L:R) Producer Kevin Feige, director Ryan Coogler, and actors Lupita Nyong'o, Michael B. Jordan, Danai Gurira, and Chadwick Boseman promoting Black Panther at the 2016 San Diego Comic-Con International.
  • Chadwick Boseman as T'Challa / Black Panther:
    The king of the African nation of Wakanda,[6][7][8] who gains enhanced strength by ingesting the heart-shaped herb.[9] He ascends to the throne following the death of his father T'Chaka in Captain America: Civil War (2016).[6][10] Boseman called T'Challa an anti-hero who is "very much aware" of his responsibility as the leader of Wakanda.[11][12] Black Panther's suit, which forms around his body, was inspired by a similar design in Ta-Nehisi Coates' Black Panther comic book run.[13] Boseman worked with the same dialect coach he had during Message from the King (2016),[11] and worked with Marrese Crump to stay in shape between Civil War and Black Panther.[10] To prepare for the role, Boseman visited South Africa twice; examined Shaka Zulu, Patrice Lumumba, speeches from Nelson Mandela, and Fela Kuti songs; talked to a Yoruba Babalawo; trained in Dambe, Capoeira Angola, and Zulu stick fighting; and took a DNA test to better understand his African ancestry.[14] He signed a five-film contract with Marvel.[15] Ashton Tyler plays a young T'Challa.[16]
  • Michael B. Jordan as N'Jadaka / Erik "Killmonger" Stevens:
    A U.S. black-ops soldier who seeks to overthrow his cousin T'Challa,[17][18] with his own opinion on how Wakanda should be ruled.[19] Jordan had wanted to play a villain for "a while",[20] and likened Killmonger and T'Challa's relationship to the X-Men characters Magneto and Professor X.[21] He added that Killmonger is strategic, thoughtful, patient, and "trained to a T".[22] Killmonger's bumpy, ritualistic tribal markings on his chest and torso resemble the scar tattoos of the Mursi and Surma tribes,[23] and consisted of 90 individually sculpted silicone molds that took two-and-a-half hours to apply.[16] Jordan would have to sit in a sauna for two hours at the end of the day to remove the prosthetics.[24] Killmonger's dreadlocks hairstyle was a modern take on the character's long hair in the comics.[21] To prepare for the role, Jordan examined Malcolm X, Marcus Garvey, Huey P. Newton, Fred Hampton, and Tupac Shakur.[14] Corey Calliet served as Jordan's trainer on the film, after also doing so on Creed.[25] Seth Carr plays a young Stevens.[16]
  • Lupita Nyong'o as Nakia:
    T'Challa's former lover and a War Dog, an undercover spy for Wakanda, from the River Tribe.[10][26][19] Nyong'o called Nakia a "departure" from her comic counterpart.[19] She begins the film fighting for enslaved women in Nigeria. Nyong'o learned to speak Hausa for the film, and also trained in judo, jujitsu, silat, and Filipino martial arts.[10]
  • Danai Gurira as Okoye:
    An "extremely proud" Wakandan and traditionalist from the Border Tribe, who is the head of the Dora Milaje, Wakanda's all-female special forces and T'Challa's bodyguards.[27][28][29] Director Ryan Coogler cast Gurira based on her performance in Mother of George (2013), rather than her popular role of Michonne in the television series The Walking Dead, which Coogler had not seen. Gurira said that the fighting skills she learned playing Michonne complemented the skills of Okoye,[30] but noted that the Dora Milaje are a secret service, which covers intel as well as fighting. She explained that though the character is stoic, "she also has an unexpected sense of humor. She has a heart, but for her country and for her people."[29] Gurira's head was re-shaved every day to have her head tattoos applied, which took two-and-a-half to three-and-a-half hours.[24]
  • Martin Freeman as Everett K. Ross:
    A member of the Central Intelligence Agency,[31][32] who Freeman described as having an "uneasy peace" with T'Challa. He added that the character goes on an "enlightening journey to Wakanda" in the film.[31] Freeman and the filmmakers sought to depict Ross as a capable agent rather than just comic relief as he is in the comics.[10][33]
  • Daniel Kaluuya as W'Kabi: A confidant to T'Challa and his best friend, who is the head of security for the Border Tribe, serving as the first line of defense for Wakanda.[34][19]
  • Letitia Wright as Shuri:
    T'Challa's 16-year-old sister who designs new technology for the country.[35][10] Wright described Shuri as innovative of spirit and mind, wanting to take Wakanda to "a new place", and felt she was a good role model for young black girls.[35] Executive producer Nate Moore called Shuri the smartest person in the world, even more so than Tony Stark.[10]
  • Winston Duke as M'Baku:
    A powerful, ruthless warrior who is the leader of Wakanda's mountain tribe, the Jabari, who are in protest to T'Challa being the new king.[36] Duke described the Jabari as people who "strongly believe that to move forward, you have to have a strong adherence and respect for the past. So they have a deep moral conscience."[37] Character elements from Christopher Priest's 1998–2003 Black Panther series were adapted for M'Baku's portrayal in the film.[36] M'Baku is not referred to in the film by his comics alter ego "Man-Ape", since Marvel felt there were "a lot of racial implications that don't sit well" in having a black character dress up as an ape. This aspect of the character was instead reworked to have the Jabari tribe worship the gorilla gods, with M'Baku still wearing elements of fur on his arms and legs and a chest-plate that hints at the gorilla. Moore continued, "Man-Ape is a problematic character for a lot of reasons, but the idea behind Man-Ape we thought was really fascinating ... It's a line I think we're walking, and hopefully walking successfully."[36] To further differentiate the Jabari, Duke spoke a version of the Nigerian Igbo language rather than the Xhosa language spoken by other Wakandans.[16]
  • Angela Bassett as Ramonda:
    T'Challa and Shuri's mother, the Queen Mother of Wakanda.[38] Ramonda serves as an adviser to T'Challa for when he would otherwise have turned to his father.[19] Bassett wore a silver, waist-length wig for the role that was made from 120 pieces of hair hand-rolled into dreadlocks.[16] Calliet also served as Bassett's trainer before and during filming, creating high-intensity interval training circuits and helping to craft her diet.[25]
  • Forest Whitaker as Zuri:
    An elder statesman in Wakanda and the keeper of the heart-shaped herb.[19][34] Coogler called Zuri a religious and spiritual figure, referencing the spirituality of Wakanda from the comics, and compared him to Obi-wan Kenobi from the Star Wars series. Zuri is also a "major tie back" to T'Chaka for T'Challa.[39] Denzel Whitaker, who is not related to Forest, plays a young Zuri.[18]
  • Andy Serkis as Ulysses Klaue:
    A South African black-market arms dealer, smuggler and gangster,[10][40] who is allied with Killmonger.[13][19] He uses a piece of advanced Wakandan mining equipment as a sonic disruptor arm-cannon, replacing his left arm, which he lost in Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015).[41] Boseman described Klaue as a threat to Wakanda, one of the few outsiders to enter the country, and someone with access to vibranium. He compared the character to Osama bin Laden.[42] Serkis added that in addition to his desire for vibranium, Klaue is motivated by a "personal" vendetta against T'Challa, and "to expose what he thinks is the hypocrisy of Wakanda".[43]

Additionally, John Kani and Florence Kasumba reprise their respective roles of T'Chaka and Ayo from Captain America: Civil War.[34][44] Kani's son Atandwa portrays a young T'Chaka,[18] and Sterling K. Brown plays his brother N'Jobu, who is Killmonger's father.[45][18] Wakandan elders in the film include Isaach de Bankolé for the River Tribe,[46][16] Connie Chiume for the Mining Tribe,[47][16] Dorothy Steel for the Merchant Tribe, and Danny Sapani for the Border Tribe.[16] Sydelle Noel appears as Xoliswa, a member of the Dora Milaje.[48][49] Marija Abney, Janeshia Adams-Ginyard, Maria Hippolyte, Marie Mouroum, Jénel Stevens, Zola Williams, Christine Hollingsworth, and Shaunette Renée Wilson also play Doras.[16] Nabiyah Be initially announced that she was playing criminal Tilda Johnson,[50] but her character was simply named Linda in the final film due to Gabrielle Dennis being cast as Johnson in the second season of Luke Cage.[51][52][16] Comedian Trevor Noah voices Griot, a Wakandan ship A.I.,[53] Black Panther co-creator Stan Lee has a cameo as a patron in the South Korean casino,[54][18] and Sebastian Stan makes an uncredited appearance in the post-credits scene reprising his role as Bucky Barnes.[55]

Production

Development

In June 1992, Wesley Snipes announced his intention to make a film about Black Panther,[56] and began work on the film by that August.[57] Snipes wanted to highlight the majesty of Africa, which he felt was poorly portrayed in Hollywood films, saying, "Black Panther spoke to me because he was noble, and he was the antithesis of the stereotypes presented and portrayed about Africans, African history and the great kingdoms of Africa."[58] The next July, Snipes planned to begin The Black Panther after starring in Demolition Man (1993),[59] and the next month he expressed interest in making sequels to the film as well.[60] In January 1994, Snipes entered talks with Columbia Pictures to portray Black Panther,[61] and Black Panther co-creator Stan Lee joined the film by March;[62] it entered early development by May.[63] Snipes had discussions with several different screenwriters and directors about the project, including Mario Van Peebles and John Singleton.[58] When the film had not progressed by January 1996, Lee explained that he had not been pleased with the scripts for the project.[64] Snipes said that there was confusion among those unfamiliar with the comics, who thought that the film was about the Black Panther Party.[58]

We've yet to have a major black comic book hero on the screen. Especially the Black Panther, which is such a rich, interesting life. It's a dream come true to originate something [like] that.

–Actor Wesley Snipes, who worked on early iterations of Black Panther[60]

In July 1997, Black Panther was listed as part of Marvel Comics' film slate,[65] and in March 1998, Marvel reportedly hired Joe Quesada and Jimmy Palmiotti, who at the time were editors of the Black Panther comics under the Marvel Knights brand, to work on it;[66][58] Quesada and Palmiotti have both denied that this happened.[58] That August, corporate problems at Marvel put the project on hold,[67] while in August 1999, Snipes was set to produce, and possibly star, in the film.[68] In May 2000, Artisan Entertainment announced a deal with Marvel to co-produce, finance, and distribute a film based on Black Panther.[69] In March 2002, Snipes said he planned to film Blade 3 (2004) or Black Panther in 2003,[70] and reiterated his interest five months later.[71] In July 2004, Blade 3 director David S. Goyer said this was unlikely, as Snipes was "already so entrenched as Blade that another Marvel hero might be overkill".[72]

In September 2005, Marvel chairman and CEO Avi Arad announced Black Panther as one of ten films that would be developed by Marvel Studios and distributed by Paramount Pictures.[73] In June 2006, Snipes said he hoped to have a director for the project soon,[74] and Marvel Studios president Kevin Feige reiterated that Black Panther was in development in February 2007.[75] By July, John Singleton had been approached to direct the film.[76] In March 2009, Marvel hired writers to help come up with creative ways to launch its lesser-known properties, including Black Panther;[77] Nate Moore, the head of the writers program, was overseeing the development of the Black Panther film specifically.[78] Additional development from Snipes stalled at this time, as he was convicted of failing to file a tax return, serving his sentence from June 2010 to April 2013.[79] In January 2011, Marvel Studios hired documentary filmmaker Mark Bailey to write a script for Black Panther, to be produced by Feige.[80] In October 2013, Feige said the film would be made "some day" and noted that the metal vibranium, which comes from Black Panther's home nation Wakanda, had already appeared in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[81] There were discussions of showing Wakanda in the MCU as early as Iron Man 2 (2010), but this was put off until Marvel had "a full idea" of how to depict it.[10]

In October 2014, Feige announced that Black Panther would be released on November 3, 2017, with Chadwick Boseman cast in the title role.[7][8] Boseman did not audition before he was hired for the role, instead discussing what he wanted to do with the part with Marvel.[82] The actor was set to first portray the character in Captain America: Civil War, before starring in his own film.[8] Snipes gave his support for the project, despite no longer being involved.[58] Feige said that Marvel was considering minority filmmakers for the director and writer, but that they were focused on "looking for the best filmmakers, the best writers, the best directors possible. So I'm not going to say for sure that we're going to hire from any one demographic, but we're meeting a lot of people." He added that they had met with former Black Panther comics writer Reginald Hudlin.[83] In January 2015, Boseman said that the film was going through a "brainstorming phase", and he was looking at the different stories in the comics and how they may be merged for the film.[84] The next month, Marvel pushed back the release date to July 6, 2018.[85] In April 2015, Feige said he would be meeting with directors after the release of Avengers: Age of Ultron at the end of the month, and that further casting was underway.[86]

By May 2015, Marvel had discussions with Ava DuVernay to direct this film or Captain Marvel (2019).[87] In June, Feige confirmed that he had met with DuVernay alongside a number of other directors, and said that he expected a decision to be made by mid- to late 2015.[88] By early July, DuVernay had passed on directing the film, explaining that "Marvel has a certain way of doing things and I think they're fantastic and a lot of people love what they do. I loved that they reached out to me... [but] we had different ideas about what the story would be ... we just didn't see eye to eye. Better for me to realize that now than cite creative differences later."[89] Later in the month, DuVernay expanded, wondering if the film was important enough for her to work on, at the expense of other opportunities, stating, "At one point, the answer was yes because I thought there was value in putting that kind of imagery into the culture in a worldwide, huge way ... a black man as a hero—that would be pretty revolutionary." However, despite finding value in the global reach Marvel films have, DuVernay felt it was "important to me that [my work] be true to who I was in this moment. And if there's too much compromise, it really wasn't going to be an Ava DuVernay film.[90]

By October 2015, F. Gary Gray and Ryan Coogler had been considered to direct the film,[91][92] though negotiations with Coogler had cooled,[92] and Gray had chosen to direct Fast & Furious 8 (2017) instead.[93] Joe Robert Cole, a member of the Marvel writers program, was in talks to write the screenplay,[94] and Marvel changed the release date once again, moving it to February 16, 2018.[95] By December, discussions with Coogler were reignited after the successful opening of his film Creed (2015).[92]

Pre-production

Coogler was confirmed as director in January 2016,[96] and explained that he grew up reading comics, so Black Panther "is just as personal to me as the last couple of films I was able to make. I feel really fortunate to be able to work on something I'm this passionate about again."[97][98] After being "wooed" by Feige for months, Coogler agreed to direct the film if he could bring collaborators from his previous films to work on Black Panther, to differentiate it from other MCU films that are often "shot, composed, and edited by the same in-house people". This included Fruitvale Station (2013) cinematographer Rachel Morrison,[99] as well as production designer Hannah Beachler and composer Ludwig Göransson, who both worked with Coogler on Fruitvale Station and Creed.[99][100] Coogler felt Black Panther would be his "most personal movie to date", since he was "obsessed with this character and this story right now, and I think it's going to be very unique and still fit into the overall narrative that [Marvel is] establishing."[101]

What's so great about Panther is he's a superhero who ... sees himself as a politician, as a leader in his country. It just so happens that the country is a warrior-based nation where the leaders have to be warriors, as well, so sometimes he has to go fight.

Ryan Coogler, director of Black Panther[102]

In April 2016, Feige said that Coogler was working on the script with Cole, and that filming would begin at the "very beginning of next year".[103] He added that the film would be the first Marvel Studios production to feature a "primarily African-American cast".[104][105] Lupita Nyong'o entered negotiations to star as T'Challa's love interest the next month,[26] and Michael B. Jordan also joined, in an undisclosed role, after previously working with Coogler on Fruitvale Station and Creed.[17] Later in the month, Nate Moore, now serving as a producer on the film, stated that filming would occur in Atlanta, Georgia, with Marvel "definitely investigating shooting in Africa" as well.[78]

At San Diego Comic-Con International 2016, Nyong'o was confirmed for the film, in the role of Nakia, while Jordan's role was revealed to be Erik Killmonger. Also announced was Danai Gurira as Okoye. Coogler confirmed that filming would begin in January 2017.[27][28] Additional casting occurred from September 2016 until the start of filming, with Winston Duke cast as M'Baku (a role that Yahya Abdul-Mateen II had also tested for),[106] Forest Whitaker as Zuri, Daniel Kaluuya as W'Kabi,[34] Angela Bassett as T'Challa's mother, Ramonda,[38] Sterling K. Brown as N'Jobu,[45] and Letitia Wright in an unspecified role.[107] Florence Kasumba was also revealed to be reprising her role as Ayo from Captain America: Civil War.[34] Amandla Stenberg, who is bi-racial and light skinned, was also considered for a role in the film but was not comfortable taking the place of a dark-skinned actor, and described her decision to pass on the role "really challenging".[108] By January 2017, Marvel received permission from the Oakland, California-based public transit agency AC Transit to use their logo in the film for the opening flashback sequence. The setting was chosen due to Coogler's Oakland roots.[109]

Writing

Ryan Coogler by Gage Skidmore
Coogler promoting Black Panther at the 2016 San Diego Comic-Con International

The production team was inspired by Ta-Nehisi Coates' run on Black Panther, who was writing the comic at the time, including Coates' poetic dialogue, the art by Brian Stelfreeze, and "some of the questions that it's asking".[102] Other runs of Black Panther in the comics that inspired the film include those by Jack Kirby, Christopher Priest (which Coogler felt most influenced the film), Jonathan Hickman, and Hudlin. Characters for the film were picked from throughout the comics, based on what worked best for the film's story.[37] Coogler had hoped to include Spider-Man villain Kraven the Hunter early in the process (before being told the character was unavailable to use in the film) because of a scene in Priest's run that had T'Challa fighting Kraven.[110] Donald Glover and his brother Stephen Glover made some minor contributions to an early draft of the script, which included developing the relationship between T'Challa and his younger sister Shuri.[111] Moore noted that an early script had more scenes outside of Wakanda, with the main characters exploring the theme of "what it means to be African and African-American in the world a bit more". He hoped that these sequences could be revisited for a later film, particularly a "super cool" sequence that was storyboarded but cut to keep the story concise.[112]

Feige described Black Panther as "a big geopolitical action adventure that focuses on the family and royal struggle of T'Challa in Wakanda, and what it means to be a king",[104] with Civil War laying "the groundwork" for T'Challa's morality, and establishing the "geopolitical landscape" that he would have to deal with on returning to Wakanda.[113] Moore compared the politics and humor of the film to Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014), saying that the former would be inherent but not "preachy", and that the latter would avoid the tones of Guardians of the Galaxy (2014) and Ant-Man (2015).[10] He also said the film would be a cross between The Godfather (1972) and the James Bond films as a "big, operatic family drama centered around a world of international espionage".[19] Coogler was influenced by 1970s films such as the works of Francis Ford Coppola in that decade, as well as crime fiction. He also watched the film A Prophet (2009) for inspiration.[114] Feige called the film's story "rich in culturally relevant ideas", with Boseman indicating there were parallels to "pull from" in the film in relation to Donald Trump becoming President of the United States after Barack Obama, though Feige added that "these are conversations we were having two years ago because that is inherently the story within the comics."[42]

Moore felt that the film does not depend on the plots of any other MCU films, but the events of this film do affect the wider MCU moving forward,[10] with Feige stating the film was "a very important" link to Avengers: Infinity War (2018) and its sequel (2019).[115][104] Civil War also introduced the Wakandan language, based on the Xhosa language. Boseman was taught Xhosa by John Kani, who portrays T'Challa's father King T'Chaka.[116] The ceremonial betrothal aspect of the Dora Milaje was not adapted from the comics for the film.[10]

Design

The Maasai people of Kenya (top) inspired about 80% of the design of the Dora Milaje, Wakanda's all-female special forces (bottom).[24]

Masaai-women
Dora Milaje in film

Cole called the film an historic opportunity to depict a black superhero "at a time when African-Americans are affirming their identities while dealing with vilification and dehumanization". He added that it was important to root the themes of the film in the actual cultures of Africa, and that they would be working with experts on the region of Africa that Wakanda is supposed to be located in.[117] Elaborating on this, Cole noted that all the countries in Africa have "different histories, mythologies, and cultures [so] what we tried to do was hone in on some of the history, some of the cultural influences and then extrapolate out in our technology ... we wanted to root it in reality first and then build out from there".[6] Coogler compared the rarity of vibranium existing only in Wakanda to the real-life mineral coltan that can almost only be found in Congo.[118] He wanted Wakanda to feel like a country rather than just one city by featuring multiple tribes, each with their own cultures,[36] and created a project bible that listed each Wakandan tribe and their origins, which guided the design process. Special care was taken in all aspects of the design to create a futuristic look that was not alien,[10] as some of Jack Kirby's comic designs appeared.[119]

Beachler wanted to honor the comic designs, but fill in the gaps with research concentrated on Sub-Saharan Africa, pulling inspiration from Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo-Kinshasa, and Ethiopia,[120] as well as the designs of Zaha Hadid. Moore described this approach as a love letter to Africa.[10] Beachler looked at the architecture of existing tribes, and then tried to advance the technology naturally rather than if Wakanda had been colonized.[120] This combination of old and new was an important theme throughout the film, as well as circular motifs to signify the transmission of energy. Some of the older areas explored in the film include Warrior Falls, the City of the Dead, and the Hall of Kings, which are juxtaposed with the more modern Afro-punk style of the Golden City, the capital.[10] Rondavels were incorporated into the tops of Wakanda's skyscrapers, inspired by the look of mountains at Blyde River Canyon in South Africa.[120] Beachler created different sigils and architecture for each of the Wakandan tribes, with the Border Tribe inspired by Lesotho, the Merchant Tribe having a sigil based on Nigerian writing, and the Golden Tribe using a sun symbol found throughout Africa. Gorilla City, home to the Jabari Tribe, was originally set in a rain forest, but Coogler suggested that it be found up a mountain in snow.[10]

Beachler based the written form of the Wakandan language on an old Nigerian language and also consulted with mining and metallurgy experts for the vibranium technology used throughout the country.[16] This included the vibranium mine where the substance is depicted as glowing blue rocks, before it is refined into the stainless steel look previously seen in the MCU. The film also adapts the kimoyo bead technology from the comics, and features sand-based technology. Beachler wanted all of the futuristic elements of the film to be consistent with projections of what real world technology may be like in 25 or 30 years, including the maglev and hovercraft technology used in vehicles. The Wakandan vehicles depicted in the film include a maglev train for carrying vibranium; the king's Royal Talon Fighter, which looks like a mask from the top and bottom; and the Dragon Flyer, inspired by the Congo peafowl.[10] The majority of Beachler's sets were constructed on sound stages in Atlanta, including the Tribal Council, Shuri's design space, and the Hall of Kings. The Tribal Council set was built with a glass floor through which an old ruin can be seen. The exterior set for Warrior Falls was built on a backlot north of Atlanta, and was inspired by the Oribi Gorge. The set was 36 feet (11 m), made up of a 6 feet (1.8 m) high pool, and then 30 feet (9.1 m) high cliff faces that were designed to be extended to 100 feet (30 m) with visual effects. A framework for the cliffs was hand-sculpted from industrial styrofoam, with a system of tunnels built-in to the design to allow extras to climb up to different areas of the cliffs. The framework was then covered with 25,000 cubic feet (710 m3) of foam that was sculptured to match rocks found at Oribi Gorge. Six large pumps were used to fill the pool at the base of the set, and create a waterfall over the ledge at the bottom. The base of the pool was made from padding so stunts could safely be carried out on the set, but designed to look like rocks and to have enough grip that the actors would not fall over in the water. The set took four months to complete, and was used for two weeks of filming.[16]

Costume designer Ruth E. Carter referenced the Maasai, Himba, Dogon, Basotho, Tuareg, Turkana, Xhosa, Zulu, Suri and Dinka people in her designs.[121][122] She also examined appropriate works by Japanese fashion designer Issey Miyake, French fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent, and American fashion designer Donna Karan.[122] Winnie Mandela provided inspiration to Carter for Angela Bassett's costumes. The Dora Milaje costumes primarily used red to reflect different African cultures, and included beaded tabards that feature talismans for "protection, good spirit, and good luck, and a sense of ownership, as if the costume could be handed down from mother to daughter". Carter specifically wanted to avoid the "girls in the bathing suits" look, and instead have the Dora Milaje wear full armor that they would practically need for battle. She also had to take actors' stunt work into consideration.[10] Anthony Francisco, the Senior Visual Development Illustrator, noted the Dora Milaje costumes were based 80 percent on the Maasai, five percent on samurai, five percent on ninjas, and five percent on the Ifugao people from the Philippines. The arm band and neck rings were a reference to the Southern Ndebele people, which denotes stature. As such, Okoye has gold bands and rings to denote she is a general, compared to the other Dora Milaje wearing silver.[24] The costumes for T'Challa combined his role as king and as the head of the military, including combining a kente cloth cloak with military boots.[10] Carter also used distinct colors and patterns for each of Wakanda's tribes, such as green with shells for the River Tribe based on the Suri; blue with wood for the Border Tribe; black with royal purple for the Black Panther and the Royal Palace;[10][24] plums and purples for the Merchant Tribe in reference to the Tuareg; and ochre for the Mining Tribe inspired by the Himba.[24] Three out of every five people in Wakanda go barefoot, which also influenced the costuming process. The Wakandans wear "normal" clothes outside of the country, which are consistent with their respective Wakandan designs and colors.[10]

Carter created 700 costumes for the film, working with "an army" of illustrators, designers, mold makers, fabric dyers, jewelry makers and more.[122] Hair department head Camille Friend referenced traditional African art, fabrics, hair, and textures, and the current-day natural hair movement in her designs. Friend strived to keep the hair natural, using "braids, locs and twists... extensions, [and] wigs", and as with Carter, designed each tribe to have their own identifiable hair aesthetic, such as the Jabari Tribe having "very straight, clean lines" with war-paint detail, inspired by Senegalese warriors.[24]

Filming

Principal photography had begun by January 21, 2017,[123] at EUE/Screen Gems Studios in the Atlanta metropolitan area,[124][125] under the working title Motherland.[126][127] Filming also took place in the Sweet Auburn neighborhood in Atlanta, which doubled as Oakland; the High Museum of Art, which served as the fictional Museum of Great Britain in London; and Atlanta City Hall, which served as a United Nations building.[124][128] Cinematographer Rachel Morrison, who was eager to work on Black Panther after working with Coogler on Fruitvale Station,[129] first watched all of the other MCU films to understand the established "language", and decided "to see how far we could push" that language and not match it by featuring more contrast in color and shots in this film. Visual effects supervisor Geoff Baumann provided Morrison with before-and-after shots of scenes from Civil War so she could understand what elements are captured on set and what is created digitally.[130] She filmed in 3.4K ArriRaw with Arri Alexa XT Plus cameras and Panavision Primo lenses,[131] primarily using a two-camera set-up with a third or fourth camera on occasion. Morrison said that lighting was her biggest challenge, the magnitude of which "was much bigger than I'd experienced before", and made extensive use of Arri SkyPanel LED light fixtures, which she could preprogram from an iPad. Morrison explained that she surrounded entire sets with SkyPanels and even "built an entire jungle on a sound stage".[129]

Shortly after filming started, Kani's son Atandwa stated that he would appear in the film alongside his father, the latter reprising the role of T'Chaka,[44] while on-set photographs revealed that Martin Freeman would reprise his role as Everett K. Ross.[123] Marvel announced the start of production on January 26, along with confirming the casting of Freeman, Wright, and John Kani, and revealing that Andy Serkis would reprise his role as Ulysses Klaue from Avengers: Age of Ultron.[132][40] Atandwa portrays a younger version of his father's character, and also served as a cultural consultant during filming, along with dialect coach Beth McGuire who ensured there was continuity between the various actors who had to use "Wakandan accents".[16] Jordan joined the production later than the rest of the core cast. He felt that this aided his performance, since his character is separate from and in conflict with the other characters. Because of this, Jordan kept to himself while he was on set.[10] Since Black Panther and Avengers: Infinity War were filming simultaneously in Atlanta, both production teams worked together closely to ensure a unified presentation of Wakanda in the films, as the country also plays a large role in Infinity War.[125]

Additional filming took place in South Korea,[132] with the city of Busan serving as the setting of a car chase scene,[127] involving 150 cars and over 700 people.[133] Coogler and Morrison referenced the car chase sequences from Bullitt (1968), Drive (2011), and The French Connection (1971), taking the best elements from each for Black Panther's sequence.[130] Filming in Busan began on March 17, 2017,[134] with shooting occurring at the Jagalchi Fish Market.[135] Filming took place by Gwangalli Beach on March 21,[134] with other South Korean filming locations including Marine City in the Haeundae District and at the Gwangandaegyo Bridge.[133] The production crew also hired hundreds of current and former film students from local universities as staff or assistant staff during the South Korea filming.[134] Filming in the country wrapped on March 27,[133] with additional location shooting also taking place at the Rwenzori Mountains and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda.[136][131] John Marzano served as cinematographer for aerial footage of South Africa, Zambia, Uganda, and South Korea.[137][131] At CinemaCon 2017, Wright was revealed to be portraying Shuri in the film.[138] Filming concluded on April 19, 2017.[100]

Post-production

At the end of June 2017, Sydelle Noel revealed she had been cast in the film as Xoliswa, a member of the Dora Milaje.[48][49] In January 2018, Coogler hinted at the inclusion of post-credit scenes.[114] Two are included, with the first showing T'Challa address the United Nations and the second featuring Sebastian Stan reprising his role as Bucky Barnes.[55] The first scene was originally intended to be part of the actual ending of the film, but was taken out so the film could conclude in Oakland, where it begins. Coogler felt having this symmetry was important. The scene was then moved to during the credits.[139] In the scene, T'Challa says "The foolish build barriers, while the wise build bridges." Some noted the relevance of this statement to the political climate of the presidency of Donald Trump, but Coogler stated that the line was added before Trump's election and was simply an African proverb that his wife had found. He added that the intention of the scene was to inspire the audience by making T'Challa seem like a real person in a familiar, real-world environment, similar to how Tony Stark was treated in Iron Man (2008).[140] Coogler was not mandated by Marvel to feature any connections to other films, but was interested in addressing the fact that Barnes was in Wakanda (per the end of Civil War) because he felt it would be fun for the audience. He did not want to include the character in the body of the film since Barnes is not involved in the actual conflict faced by the other characters, but felt that a scene at the end of the credits would be appropriate.[139]

The film was edited by Michael Shawver and Debbie Berman, with Shawver spending time on set during filming as well as at an editing suite near the Atlanta production base.[141] Berman joined the film after an initial director's cut had been produced, two weeks after she completed work on Marvel's Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017).[142] Berman was added because Coogler likes to have both a male and female editing his films.[141] She believed that she was chosen by Marvel because she is South African, and had been expressing interest in Black Panther throughout the editing process for Homecoming after first seeing the character in Civil War.[142] Shawver said that a lot of their time editing was spent discussing the film with Coogler, particularly how their work was affecting the experience of the audience. For instance, Shawver felt that initial versions of the first Warrior Falls fight fell "flat" and used techniques he learned working with Coogler on Creed to have the editing move back-and-forth to mimic the back-and-forth of the fighters. He also felt that adding more reaction shots to the crowd during the fight gave more weight to T'Challa's victory at the end.[143] During the editing of the final fight sequence, Berman pointed out to Coogler that the female Dora Milajae are rescued by the all-male Jabari tribe, which she felt defeated the purpose of all the focus on female characters leading up to that moment. Coogler agreed, and subsequently used additional photography for the film to make the first Jabari fighter to be focused on in the scene female, and also to add female Jabari fighters to the background of the scene. Berman felt that this was an important change that would not have been made without her female perspective in the editing room.[142]

Visual effects

Wakanda in film
Previsualization (top) and completed visual effects shot of Wakanda by Industrial Light & Magic (bottom)

Visual effects for the film were created by: Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) with help from Virtuos, Stereo D, and Scanline VFX; Double Negative; Luma Pictures; Mammal Studios; Method Studios; Perception; Rise Visual Effects Studios; Torm Studios; Trixter; Cantina Creative; Lola VFX; Capital T; Exceptional Minds; Technicolor VFX; Rodeo FX; Imageloom VFX; Anibrain; Method Pune; Bot VFX; Pixstone Images; Futureworks; Vertigo Visual; FX3X; and Yannix Thailand Co.[144][16] Previsualization was completed by Digital Domain and The Third Floor, while Perception also created the main title sequence for the film.[16] Geoffrey Baumann served as visual effects supervisor.[143]

Comparing Black Panther to other MCU films, Baumann noted that the visual effects department often have free rein when creating otherworldly science fiction designs, but had to be more specific with this film due to the need to be authentic to African culture and geography. He noted that for the Warrior Falls environment, the amphitheater-like cliff walls had to be populated with digital spectators that could not simply be copy-and-pasted around the set due to the precise costume designs created by Carter for each tribe and character. Instead, the visual effects department had to work with the costumers to individually model each digital extra for the sequence, with each model being complex. Additionally, Baumann noted that visual effects were used to make adjustments to the opening sequence after test audiences were confusing the characters of T'Chaka and T'Challa, both dressed as the Black Panther. Artists digitally added some grey to T'Chaka's beard and some gold trimmings to his suit to help differentiate the characters without having to reshoot the scene.[143]

ILM was primarily responsible for creating the digital urban environments of Wakanda. ILM VFX supervisor Craig Hammack compared this work to his time on Tomorrowland (2015), but noted the additional challenge of not just building a futuristic city, but also one that was culturally appropriate. He explained that African culture has a "certain amount of earthy material qualities that make things difficult to design as a futuristic city," which would typically use lots of steel and glass. ILM looked to real life examples that blend modern architecture with natural environments like One Central Park in Sydney and modern African architecture like The Pearl of Africa Hotel in Kampala as influences, but also had to "depart from a strict understanding of physics and go into a movie cheat world" at times to produce the desired look. Hammack was also inspired by the architecture of Uganda, where he spent time while aerial footage for the film was being shot. 60,000 individual buildings were designed and modeled for the city, which Hammack said was the first thing ILM began work on and also the last thing they were doing when the film was completed. Other things that ILM worked on during the production included set extensions and blue-screen replacements for interior sets, and the initial rhinoceros. For T'Challa's ancestral plane scenes, ILM replaced the basic set that was used with a full CG environment including an acacia tree and animated panthers. The sky was based on the Northern Lights, with this first designed for nighttime scenes before being replicated for daytime scenes in which the animators had to work hard to keep the effects visible. ILM also added additional sand for the burial sequences to aid in the breathing of Boseman when filming, and additional flames when Killmonger burns the heart-shaped herb.[131]

Method Studios created much of the digital natural environments of Wakanda. The company built a 3,600 square kilometers (1,400 sq mi) landscape that is visible in various aerial shots in the film, which was based on multiple landscapes from across Africa just as diverse landscapes can be seen from the top of Mount Bashenga. Method was also responsible for creating Black Panther's and Killmonger's digital suits, including developing the look of the nanotechnology used in both suits. They created many of the film's digital characters, vehicles, and weapons, with some of those digital creatures being rhinoceroses for the final battle, a sequence that Method did the majority of the work for. Because these rhinoceroses did not have to be seen on screen with the one designed by ILM, only basic structures, scale, and details of the character models had to be shared between the two companies. Much of the work for the final fight included crowd simulation, with Method working alongside the stunt coordinators in motion capture sessions to give each Dora Milaje or Jabari fighter their unique fighting style. In addition to randomizing the height and weight of each digital fighter, the models had to incorporate specific design elements such as the unique face tattoos of each Dora Milaje fighter. Method also worked on the vibranium mine and Shuri's laboratory, including animating the gadgets seen in the latter.[131]

Luma Pictures worked on the Busan car chase sequence, digitally creating the Lexus cars featured in the sequence based on CAD models and on-set reference. Multiple digital versions of the same car were created, so the production could have the actual cars crash and do various stunts with them, with Luma then inserting the digital versions to augment these moments. Luma also created the sonic forces from Klaue's cannon, while Scanline VFX worked on digitally removing Serkis' left arm for the sonic cannon and the London museum heist sequence.[145] Several companies worked on the vibranium sand effects used in Wakandan technology, including ILM for the beginning of the film. Perception referenced these sand effects when creating the main-on-end titles for the film, and also helped create Shuri's laboratory and the interface designs for the displays.[131]

Music

After reading the script, composer Ludwig Göransson decided to go to Africa to do research for the film.[146] He spent a month in Senegal, first traveling around with musician Baaba Maal on his tour,[146][147] and then spending several weeks working with local musicians to form the "base" of his score.[148][149] Göransson was particularly drawn to the talking drum and the tambin, or Fula flute, to use in his character themes,[146][150] along with horns.[149] Nate Moore compared the work Göransson did in defining the sound of the film to the use of music by James Gunn in the Guardians of the Galaxy films,[151] with the composer pushing Marvel out of their comfort zone.[152]

Kendrick Lamar produced the film's curated soundtrack, Black Panther: The Album, along with Top Dawg Entertainment founder Anthony Tiffith, after Coogler wanted to include original songs from Lamar in the film because his "artistic themes align with those we explore in the film".[153][154] The soundtrack features songs that are heard in the film as well as others that are inspired by it, with the other artists featured the majority of "top-billing names" under Top Dawg Entertainment.[154] Göransson collaborated with Lamar and producer Sounwave on the soundtrack.[155] Three singles from the album were released throughout January and February 2018: "All the Stars",[153] "King's Dead",[156] and "Pray for Me".[157] Black Panther: The Album was released on February 9, 2018,[158] while a soundtrack of Göransson's score was released on February 16.[159]

Release

Black Panther had its world premiere at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles on January 29, 2018.[160] The premiere featured a purple carpet that was flanked by women dressed as the Dora Milaje,[161] while Coogler, the cast members, and other guests wore African clothing at the request of Marvel for attendees to wear "royal attire", honoring the African roots of the film.[161][2] Ahead of the premiere screening, Coogler received an extended standing ovation before he announced the cast of the film.[161] Black Panther was released in the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, and Taiwan on February 13,[162] in South Korea on February 14,[163] and the United States on February 16.[95] In the United States, the film opened in 4,020 theaters,[164] with over 3,200 of those in 3D,[165] 404 in IMAX,[164] over 660 in premium large format, and over 200 D-Box locations. In addition, Black Panther was the first MCU film to be converted to ScreenX, a 270-degree wraparound format, that played in over 101 locations in eight countries.[165] The film opened in most markets in its first weekend of release including a "cross-nation release" in Africa, a first for a Disney film.[162][118][136] Black Panther was originally scheduled for release on November 3, 2017,[7] before moving to July 6, 2018 to accommodate Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017).[85] It was then moved to the final February date to accommodate Ant-Man and the Wasp (2018).[95]

Black Panther premiered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on April 18, 2018. The occasion marked the first public film screening since movie theaters were banned in the kingdom in the early 1980's, after ultraconservative religious standards were introduced in 1979. The ban was lifted in December 2017 by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. The film premiered in a newly constructed 620 leather seat cinema, owned by AMC Theatres, in Riyadh's King Abdullah Financial District that was originally intended to be a symphony hall.[166][167] Disney's regional distributor Italia Film revealed that 40 seconds of the film had been removed, which was in line with cuts made to the film across the region. Awwad Alawwad, Saudi Arabia's Minister of Culture and Information, and Adam Aron, CEO of AMC Entertainment, were in attendance for the premiere along with other diplomats and industry experts; no one from the cast or production team was in attendance.[168] Men and women sat together at the screening, after the Saudi government relaxed enforcement of laws banning co-mingling between unrelated men and women.[169] Black Panther screened there for five days before Avengers: Infinity War premiered on April 26.[167]

Marketing

Marvel debuted early footage and concept art from the film in April 2017, at a press event for several of the MCU Phase Three films. Kyle Buchanan at Vulture.com praised the cinematography, costume and production design, and focus on dark-skinned actors and characters, saying "Black Panther doesn't look like any of the other Marvel movies ... If this is what the future of superhero movies looks like, deal me in."[100] Feige believed the screened footage was the first time Marvel had shown raw dailies, a decision made because the company wanted to show off the film's cast (which Feige called "the highest-class cast we've had on a first movie") and diversity, even though editing for it had not yet begun.[170]

A poster was released ahead of the first teaser trailer, which premiered during Game 4 of the 2017 NBA Finals.[171][172] Fans felt the poster was poorly photoshopped, with tweets about it being 27 percent positive and 27 percent negative, according to CNBC's marketing technology firm Amobee.[173] The poster was also compared to a real-life picture of Black Panther Party co-founder Huey P. Newton.[171] The trailer received a much more positive response, with Peter Sciretta of /Film calling it unexpected and refreshing.[174] io9's Charles Pulliam-Moore said it was "every bit as intense as you were hoping it would be",[175] while Andrew Husband for Uproxx felt the single teaser "easily" outshone the entire Homecoming marketing campaign.[172] Forbes's Scott Mendelson felt the film had a chance to become a "seminal event" like Wonder Woman (2017).[176] The trailer was viewed 89 million times in 24 hours,[177] and was a top-trending item on Twitter,[173] generating 349,000 mentions, which was second to the amount the Star Wars: The Last Jedi (2017) teaser received,[177] and "dominated the conversation on social media" over Game 4.[173] comScore and its PreAct service noted the film was the subject of the most new social media conversations for the rest of the week,[178] and the second-most for the week ending June 18 behind Homecoming.[179]

Black Panther cast by Gage Skidmore 2
(L:R) Moderator Chris Hardwick, Feige, Coogler, and the cast of Black Panther at the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con

Costumes from the film were on display at D23 Expo 2017 and the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con,[180][181] with Coogler, Boseman, and other members of the cast presenting exclusive footage of the film at the latter event, to a standing ovation from the audience.[182] The footage featured Kendrick Lamar's song "DNA", which Coogler called "amazing" with appropriate lyrics for the film.[183] In September, Coogler, Gurira, and Moore participated in a panel at the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation's Annual Legislative Conference, where exclusive footage from the film was also shown and met with a positive response.[118] On October 16, 2017, a full trailer was released. Dave Trumbore for Collider praised the trailer for showing an "unmistakable sense of style" unique to the character along with usual superhero elements.[184] Graeme McMillan of The Hollywood Reporter said the message of the trailer was clear: "this isn't like the other Marvel movies, this is something else".[185] BamSmackPow's Brendan Day felt the trailer "does everything right", and noted the music of "BagBak" by Vince Staples and "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised" by Gil Scott-Heron as unique choices.[186] Writing for Rolling Stone, Tre Johnson felt the trailer showed T'Challa as "someone with the arrogance of [John] Shaft, the coolness of [Barack] Obama and the hot-headed impulsiveness of Kanye West", and felt it revealed "an important resetting of a standard of what's possible".[187] A few days later, Marvel Comics published a prelude tie-in comic focusing on one of T'Challa's first missions as the Black Panther set around the time of Iron Man.[188] The first College Football Playoff National Championship halftime show was organized by Disney for the 2018 championship game, with Kendrick Lamar performing to promote Black Panther: The Album and the beginning of ticket sales.[189]

By February 12, Black Panther became the most tweeted about film of 2018 with more than 5 million tweets on Twitter globally,[190] after being a top film in 2017 as well.[191] Twitter launched a custom emoji for the film, that appears when the hashtag #BlackPanther is used.[190] By mid-March, it was the most-tweeted about film of all time, with 35 million tweets. Twitter noted #Wakanda and #WakandaForever, in addition to #BlackPanther, were the most used hashtags related to the film.[192] During New York Fashion Week, designers Cushnie et Ochs, Ikiré Jones, Tome, Sophie Theallet, Fear of God, Chromat, and LaQuan Smith created custom pieces that were inspired by the film for an event titled "Welcome to Wakanda: Fashion for the Black Panther Era".[189][193] Nick Barose applied makeup for the event and Rodney Cutler styled hair.[193]

Marvel Studios formed a partnership with Lexus on the film, with the 2018 Lexus LC being featured in it.[194] A graphic novel featuring the LC, Black Panther: Soul of a Machine, was released in December 2017 from writers Fabian Nicieza, Geoffrey Thorne and Chuck Brown, with cover illustrations by Scott "Rahzzah" Wilson and Szymon Kudranski.[194][195][196] Lexus also unveiled a concept coupe inspired by the Black Panther.[196] Marvel partnered with Lexus to create a commercial for Super Bowl LII. Promoting the 2018 Lexus LS 500 F Sport, it featured Boseman and Wright reprising their roles. The commercial was released on January 25, 2018, ahead of its airing during the Super Bowl.[197] According to RelishMix, the Lexus commercial had 4.3 million views on social media after its Super Bowl airing.[164] Other marketing partners included shoe manufacturer Clarks who created a variant of their Originals' Trigenic Evo shoe inspired by the film;[198] PepsiCo and Unilever, which launched an arts program in urban areas to provide an opportunity for young people interested in film to be mentored by established artists; Brisk created an interactive Black Panther installation at the 2018 NBA All-Star Game weekend, which showcased nine Brisk labels created by emerging artists to promote the Creators Class program; Lancôme highlighted a line of makeup that Lupita Nyong'o and Letitia Wright used at the premiere of the film; and Synchrony Financial worked with Coogler and Marvel to award the Ghetto Film School Fellows program with a $50,000 grant, with Coogler also visiting the school to speak to the students.[164]

Overall, it had the most expansive advertising budget and biggest line of merchandise of any Marvel non-sequel.[199] Deadline Hollywood estimated that budget to be $140 million.[3] In order to make the film "feel like a cultural event", Asad Ayaz, Executive Vice President of Marketing for Marvel films at Disney, said the marketing campaign was about "super-serving black moviegoers" while still trying to appeal to all.[189] Disney and Marvel created a "synergy program" with the College Football Playoffs on ESPN, the ABC television series Black-ish, Grey's Anatomy, Scandal, and How to Get Away With Murder, the Freeform series Grown-ish, and the Bravo franchise The Real Housewives.[164] Marketing in territories outside the United States by Disney was fairly uniform, though in the Middle East the focus was kept on Black Panther rather than Boseman out of costume, as superhero films "just keep working" in the territory, according to Gianluca Chakra, Managing Partner of major regional Middle East distributor Front Row. This was the same for Asian territories, as well as the film's action which is a strong selling point for audiences there. A Wakanda exhibit was featured in malls in seven Chinese cities, along with displays showing Black Panther next to other established MCU characters. A special trailer created for China had Boseman introducing himself and the character's connection to the other MCU films. Weibo attended the Los Angeles premiere of the film to take pictures and videos with the cast and crew in real time for China, the first time the company has partnered with a foreign studio for this type of engagement.[200]

Home media

Black Panther was released for digital download by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment on May 8, 2018, and on Ultra HD Blu-ray, Blu-ray, and DVD on May 15. The digital and Blu-ray releases included several bonus features: behind-the-scenes featurettes, audio commentary, deleted scenes, a blooper reel, an exclusive look at Ant-Man and the Wasp, and a featurette on the first ten years of the MCU.[201]

Reception

Box office

As of June 17, 2018, Black Panther has grossed $699.6 million in the United States and Canada, and $646.5 million in other territories, for a worldwide total of $1.346 billion.[4] During its theatrical run, it became the highest-grossing solo superhero film,[202] the third-highest-grossing film of the MCU and superhero film overall after The Avengers (2012) and Age of Ultron,[203] as well as the ninth-highest-grossing film of all time.[204] The $370.5 million earned worldwide in its opening weekend was the 15th-largest of all time.[205] By its second weekend, the film earned $54.6 million globally from IMAX, which was the fastest Marvel film to reach the $50 million mark.[206] In its fourth weekend, the film surpassed $1 billion, becoming the fifth MCU film, sixteenth Walt Disney Studios film, and 33rd film overall to do so.[207] Black Panther became the highest grossing film by a black director, surpassing F. Gary Gray's The Fate of the Furious (2017) ($1.236 billion).[208] In March 2018, five weeks after the film released, Deadline Hollywood estimated the net profit of the film would be $461 million, accounting for production budgets, P&A, talent participations and other costs, with box office grosses and ancillary revenues from home media.[3]

Pre-sale ticket records

In December 2017, a survey from Fandango indicated that Black Panther was the second most anticipated film of 2018, behind Avengers: Infinity War.[209] Fandango reported that its first 24 hours of ticket pre-sales for the film were the largest ever for a Marvel film, surpassing Captain America: Civil War.[210] Two weeks ahead of the film's release, Fandango announced that the film outsold all previous superhero films at the same point in the sales cycle, breaking the record previously held by Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016).[211] Additionally, Black Panther had the highest number of ticket pre-sales for any superhero film at Alamo Drafthouse Cinema, after 18 days of sales. This was more than Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017), the next closest film, which only had 72% of Black Panther's ticket sales in the same time frame.[212] AMC Theatres also revealed that the film was out-selling all previous Marvel films, with strong sales in both urban areas and suburban locations.[213]

Four days before its United States opening, IMAX Entertainment CEO Greg Foster revealed that Black Panther had the most advanced IMAX ticket sales of any Marvel film. He added that it did not appear the ticket sales had peaked, stating that a film usually peaks 10 days before it opens, but Black Panther "feels like it's going to peak the day it opens".[214] Atom Tickets also revealed strong pre-sales for the film.[165] On February 15, 2017, Fandango announced that the film had the fourth-highest pre-sale tickets sold, behind Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015), Star Wars: The Last Jedi, and Rogue One (2016). It also became the top pre-seller for a superhero film, beating Captain America: Civil War and Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, for a film released in February, beating Deadpool (2016), as well as for the first quarter of the year, beating The Hunger Games (2012) and Beauty and the Beast (2017).[215]

United States and Canada

Black Panther earned $75.8 million on its opening day in the United States and Canada (including $25.2 million from Thursday night previews), and earned $242.1 million over the four-day Presidents' Day weekend,[164] which was the best Presidents' Day weekend opening,[216] the second-best four-day opening after Star Wars: The Force Awakens ($288 million),[164] best ever for a black director, surpassing F. Gary Gray with The Fate of the Furious ($98 million), and the best ever for a predominantly black cast, surpassing films such as Coming to America (1988) and Bad Boys (1995).[217] The Thursday night gross was the second-best for an MCU film, behind Avengers: Age of Ultron ($27.6 million), the second-best preview night for a non-summer release, behind Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice ($27.7 million), and the best preview night for a February release, beating Deadpool ($12.7 million). $3 million of the Thursday preview gross came from IMAX, which was tied for the most with Age of Ultron and Captain America: Civil War.[164] The total opening day gross was the third-highest for a superhero film, behind Age of Ultron ($84 million) and The Avengers ($80 million), the second-highest pre-summer release, behind Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice ($81 million), and the eighth-highest opening day ever. The $50.6 million earned on Friday was the largest single-day gross for a solo superhero film and the largest single-day gross for a non-sequel film.[218] The $60.1 million earned on Sunday was the best single-day gross for a superhero film and the second best Sunday ever, behind Star Wars: The Force Awakens ($60.5 million).[164][216] The three-day total weekend gross of $202 million was the fifth-best three-day opening ever and the biggest opening for a pre-summer and February release. The film's $40.2 million gross on Monday was the best Monday gross of all time.[164] IMAX contributed $23.5 million to the opening weekend gross,[219] which was the best ever for a February release and any Marvel film, and the fourth-best opening ever. Speaking to the success of the film in its opening weekend, Anthony D'Alessandro of Deadline Hollywood said it was "summer box office records during the second month of the year".[164]

AMC Theatres also reported that Black Panther became the highest-grossing film in history at 33 of their locations after two days, earning more than other films have earned in an entire weekend.[220] They later stated that the film became the highest-grossing film in an opening weekend for 150 of their theaters, with 15 locations more than doubling their previous record and two tripling their previous record. Black Panther also had the second-largest Saturday and largest Sunday in AMC history, and had the second-largest opening weekend for the chain with 4.4 million admissions. Atom Tickets sold more tickets for Black Panther than any other superhero film.[219] Fandango's pre-sales accounted for 30% of the opening weekend gross, one of the largest box office shares for any film in Fandango's history.[221] The opening weekend gross surpassed early projections for the film. Early projections in December 2017 had it earning between $80–90 million,[222][223] which increased to $100–120 million by the end of January 2018,[224] and ultimately increasing again closer to the film's release, projecting it to earn $150–170 million or more.[225][226][162] Several other film studios projected the total could be as high as $180–200 million,[165] while Disney initially projected the film to gross around $150 million in its opening weekend.[162]

On the Tuesday after its opening weekend, Black Panther earned an estimated $21.1 million, which was the best pre-summer Tuesday ever, beating Beauty and the Beast ($17.8 million), the best Tuesday ever for an MCU film, beating The Avengers ($17.6 million), and the second-best Tuesday of all time, after The Force Awakens ($37.3 million). Its five-day total of $263.2 million was still second to The Force Awakens ($325.4 million).[227] The $14.3 million earned the Thursday after its opening weekend was the best Thursday ever for a MCU film, beating The Avengers ($12.4 million). It also surpassed $300 million on Friday, becoming the fastest MCU film to reach that mark in eight days, once again surpassing The Avengers, which had reached the mark in nine days,[228] and tying The Last Jedi and Jurassic World (2015).[229] It also became the MCU film with the highest first-week gross.[230]

In its second weekend, the film earned $112 million, which was a 45 percent decrease from its opening week. This percentage was the smallest decline in a second weekend for any MCU film and was described by D'Alessandro as "an amazing second-weekend hold". It was the second-best second weekend ever after The Force Awakens ($149.2 million) and the best second weekend ever for a Marvel film, beating The Avengers ($103 million). Over its second weekend, the film also surpassed $400 million for its total domestic gross, reaching the mark in ten days; this was the second fastest to reach that milestone, tied with Jurassic World behind The Force Awakens (eight days).[229] It became the highest-grossing film released in the month of February, surpassing The Passion of the Christ (2004) ($370.3 million).[231] IMAX also contributed $9 million to the weekend gross, bringing the domestic total to $36 million, which was the most for any MCU film.[229] By surpassing $400 million, Black Panther exceeded initial early projections for its total domestic gross.[232] By February 28, 2018, the film had earned $421.8 million, which made it the highest-grossing superhero origin film, surpassing Wonder Woman (2017) ($412.6 million).[233][234]

The third weekend at the box office saw the film remain the top grossing film, earning $65.7 million and having its total gross surpass $500 million, becoming the second-highest-grossing MCU film; the $65.7 million was the third-best third weekend ever, behind The Force Awakens ($90.2 million) and Avatar (2009) ($68.5 million).[235] Black Panther remained the top film for the fourth straight weekend with an additional $41.1 million, which was the third-highest fourth weekend of all time, again behind The Force Awakens and Avatar.[236] Black Panther remained number one in its fifth weekend, having the fourth-highest fifth weekend ever with $27 million. It became the first film to hold the number one spot at the box office for at least five weekends since Avatar, which led for seven weeks,[237] and the first February release to hold the top box office spot for five weekends since The Silence of the Lambs in 1991 and Wayne's World in 1992.[238] By surpassing $600 million, it became the seventh film ever to break that point, and the second fastest film to do so in 31 days, after The Force Awakens (12 days).[237][239] The film's sixth weekend saw it fall to number two at the box office, behind Pacific Rim: Uprising, while also becoming the highest-grossing superhero film ever.[240] The next weekend it fell to third, behind Ready Player One and Acrimony,[241] to fourth in its eighth weekend,[242] to sixth in its ninth weekend,[243] and to eighth in its tenth weekend.[244] However, in its eleventh weekend, Black Panther rose back to fifth place, in part because of the release of Avengers: Infinity War the same weekend.[204] The next weekend, the film placed seventh, earning $3.14 million from over 1,600 locations. D'Alessandro noted the gross from that number of locations indicated people were continuing to see Black Panther in conjunction with Infinity War.[245] Black Panther remained in the top ten in its thirteenth weekend, placing ninth.[246] Black Panther is the highest-grossing film of 2018 and became the third-highest-grossing film of all time.[247]

Other territories

Outside the United States and Canada, the film opened in 48 territories in its first weekend and earned $184 million,[205][216] opening at number one in most territories (and second in territories where Fifty Shades Freed performed better, such as in Germany and Italy), and becoming the top February opening in many as well.[205][248] The film opened at number one in the United Kingdom,[248] where it had the best single day gross of 2018 so far and the highest-grossing February opening weekend ever.[205][248] In South Korea, where it also opened at number one, the opening day gross of $4.7 million was the second-best MCU opening and the best ever for February.[248] The $25.3 million it earned in its opening weekend was the fifth-highest Western release in South Korea. The other Asian markets that opened in its first weekend were also number one along with the biggest opening weekend of 2018 to date. The Latin America market also had all territories open at number one, and Black Panther was the best opening of 2018 in all except Argentina and Uruguay. It also was the highest-grossing opening of February of all time in Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama and Paraguay. The African market saw the highest-grossing February opening of all time in Bahrain, East Africa, Kuwait, Qatar, South Africa, the United Arab Emirates, and West Africa. South Africa also had the highest-grossing Saturday ever and the second highest-grossing opening weekend of all time. The Netherlands had the highest-grossing day ever for a superhero film and the highest-grossing February opening weekend ever.[205]

Other territories opening at number one included Australia, Bosnia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Israel, Portugal, Serbia, Ukraine, and in France, Belgium, and Switzerland for the remainder of the opening weekend, after Fifty Shades Freed's top gross on Valentine's Day. Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia recorded the largest opening day ever for February,[248] while Malaysia was the third-highest MCU opening of all time and Indonesia had the third-largest opening weekend of all time.[205] In Hong Kong, the opening was the second-largest opening day in February, while Taiwan and Australia had the third-largest February opening.[248] IMAX accounted for $11.5 million of the opening weekend gross on 272 screens,[219] with Nigeria, Kenya, and Indonesia having the best opening weekend ever in the format, South Korea had the second-best opening weekend, and Angola, Belgium, Bahrain, France, Israel, Netherlands, and Argentina and the best IMAX opening ever for a Marvel film.[205] In its second weekend in 55 territories, the film earned $83.5 million and remained number one in most territories, including retaining the top spot in the Latin America market and becoming the top film in Germany. The West Africa region saw a 7% increase, which resulted in the biggest three-day weekend ever. In South Africa, the second weekend gross became the third-biggest three-day weekend ever, behind the first weekend gross and The Fate of the Furious. The film opened in Russia in IMAX, earning $1.7 million which was a February record in the country, while the opening in Vietnam ($2.5 million, including previews) was the fifth-highest opening weekend, and Trinidad had the biggest opening weekend ever ($700,000).[206]

In its third weekend in 56 territories, the film remained number one in Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, and all markets in Latin America,[249] while its opening in Japan was the top Western film for the weekend, the second overall.[249][235] IMAX contributed $713,000 to Japan's opening weekend, which was a record for a March opening and the fourth-highest Marvel IMAX opening ever. Black Panther also became the highest-grossing film of all time in West and East Africa, the fifth-highest-grossing film all time in South Africa, and the top MCU film in the Netherlands.[249] In its fourth weekend, Black Panther opened in China ($66.5 million), which was the fourth-highest MCU and superhero opening ever in the market. $7.3 million came from IMAX, which was the best-ever March opening weekend and the best-ever opening day for March in the territory. The film also remained at number one in the United Kingdom and the Latin America market except Argentina for the fourth straight weekend, as well as number one in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.[250] The film's fifth weekend saw it once again be the top film in South Africa, where it also became the highest-grossing film ever.[251] along with becoming the highest-grossing film in southern Africa.[252] It also became the fifth-highest-grossing MCU film of all time in other territories.[251] Black Panther remained the top film in South Africa for a sixth weekend and became the highest-grossing superhero film ever in the Netherlands.[202] The film continued to be the top film in South Africa for a seventh week, where it also became the fourth best MCU film in the country,[253] and it became the second-highest grossing MCU film in the United Kingdom in its eighth weekend.[254] As of April 8, 2018, the film's largest markets were China ($104.6 million), the United Kingdom ($67.7 million), and South Korea ($42.8 million).[254]

Critical response

The performances of Chadwick Boseman, Michael B. Jordan, and Letitia Wright (L to R) were widely praised by critics.[255]

Chadwick Boseman by Gage Skidmore July 2017 (cropped)
Michael B. Jordan by Gage Skidmore 3
Letitia Wright by Gage Skidmore

The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports an approval rating of 97% based on 378 reviews, with an average rating of 8.2/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Black Panther elevates superhero cinema to thrilling new heights while telling one of the MCU's most absorbing stories—and introducing some of its most fully realized characters."[256] As of February 18, 2018, it is the best-reviewed live-action superhero film on the site, beating The Dark Knight (2008) and Iron Man (both 94%).[257] Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned a score of 88 out of 100, based on 55 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[258] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A+" on an A+ to F scale, the second superhero film to receive that grade after Marvel's The Avengers. Filmgoers polled by comScore's PostTrak service gave the film a 92% overall positive score and a 88% "definite recommend", with a third of people planning to see the film again.[164][229] RelishMix reported that Twitter hashtags for #BlackPanther and tagging of the film's Twitter account from audiences leaving the theater set an all-time film record in its opening weekend, with 559,000 unique posts in one day (100,000 posts for a film is average).[164]

Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter highlighted the actors in the film, feeling that Boseman "certainly holds his own, but there are quite a few charismatic supporting players" including Jordan, Nyong'o, and Wright.[259] Peter Debruge at Variety said the film was one of the best standalone Marvel films so far, and that it "celebrates its hero's heritage".[260] Writing for The New York Times, Manohla Dargis called Black Panther "a jolt of a movie", and praised it as an "emblem of a past that was denied and a future that feels very present" due to its focus on black imagination, creation, and liberation.[261] At the Los Angeles Times, Kenneth Turan praised the themes of the film and their exploration of what wealthy countries owe to the poor and oppressed, and noted that the film "draws energy from Coogler's sense of excitement at all he's attempting", saying that the film was worth seeing twice which he felt was rare for a modern superhero film.[262] Richard Roeper, writing for the Chicago Sun-Times, called the film "one of the best superhero movies of the century" and said audiences should watch the film if they appreciate "finely honed storytelling with a Shakespearean core; winning performances from an enormously talented ensemble; provocative premises touching on isolationism, revolution and cultures of oppression, and oh yeah, tons of whiz-bang action sequences and good humor".[263] Brian Truitt of USA Today awarded the film four out of four stars, and called it Marvel Studios' best origin film since Guardians of the Galaxy. Truitt also praised the "superb cast" and stated, "While the themes are deep, Black Panther is at the same time a visual joy to behold, with confident quirkiness, insane action sequences and special effects, and the glorious reveal of Wakanda".[264]

Also giving the film four stars, Peter Travers of Rolling Stone called it unlike any other Marvel film, "an exhilarating triumph on every level from writing, directing, acting, production design, costumes, music, special effects to you name it".[265] Natasha Alford of The Grio said, "Black Panther is remarkable because this film is a movement, a revolution in progress, and a joy to experience all wrapped into one", and called it "a master class in what it means to be proud of who you are, where you have been and where you and your people are going".[266] Jamie Broadnax of Black Girl Nerds called the film a masterpiece from Marvel and added, "it's afro-futuristic and Blackity-black as hell. It's everything I've ever desired in a live-action version of this popular superhero and yet so much more. Quite frankly, the experience is indescribable."[267] Jamelle Bouie of Slate said, "it is fair to say that Black Panther is the most political movie ever produced by Marvel Studios, both in its very existence... and in the questions its story raises." He added that the film should be included with Superman (1978), Spider-Man 2 (2004), and The Dark Knight as superhero films that do not "transcend the genre as much as they embrace it in all its respects". Bouie concluded, "Black Panther could have been just another Marvel romp [but] Coogler and company had the power, and perhaps the responsibility, to do much more. And they did."[268] Although praising the film itself and calling it a "refreshing answer to the increasingly stale world of superhero cinema", Devindra Hardawar at Engadget was critical of the CGI, notably the digital actors used, calling them "weightless, ugly and, worst of all, incredibly distracting". Hardawar felt two "particularly disappointing" CGI shots were when T'Challa flips over a car during the Korea chase, and when T'Challa and Kilmonger punch each other as they fall within the vibranium mines.[269]

Community response

Many have wondered why Black Panther means so much to the black community and why schools, churches and organizations have come to the theaters with so much excitement. The answer is that the movie brings a moment of positivity to a group of people often not the centerpiece of Hollywood movies. Plus, what we know from the research on racial and ethnic socialization is that it helps to strengthen identity and helps reduce the likelihood on internalizing negative stereotypes about one's ethnic group.

—Erlanger Turner, assistant professor of Psychology at the University of Houston–Downtown[270]

In early January 2018, New York resident Frederick Joseph created a GoFundMe campaign to raise money for children of color at the Boys & Girls Club in Harlem to see Black Panther.[271] Joseph called the film a "rare opportunity for young students (primarily of color) to see a black major cinematic and comic book character come to life. This representation is truly fundamental for young people, especially those who are often underserved, unprivileged, and marginalized both nationally and globally."[272] Joseph promoted the campaign with Boseman on The Ellen DeGeneres Show, where host Ellen DeGeneres personally pledged $10,000. The campaign went on to raise over $45,000,[273] exceeding its goal.[271] Joseph planned to donate excess money from the campaign to other programs for children in Harlem,[273] and asked others to create their own campaigns in their own communities to take more children to see the film, which he named the "Black Panther Challenge".[271]

GoFundMe created a centralized page for anyone wishing to create a campaign for the challenge,[274] and donated $100 to 10 campaigns created using the sign-up page.[275] Over 400 additional campaigns were started around the world, and the overall campaign became the largest GoFundMe in history for an entertainment event by raising over $400,000.[164] Many celebrities offered their support and contributions to the campaigns,[271] including Snoop Dogg, Chelsea Clinton, director J. J. Abrams,[273] and actress Octavia Spencer who intended to buy out a theater in Mississippi for underserved members of the community.[276] Obi Umunna, a Jacksonville, Florida-based attorney born to Nigerian immigrants, participated in the challenge, wanting the children of her community to have the "awesome opportunity ... to see themselves represented in a very positive light [rather than] the negative images that you see on a daily basis".[277] British actress Jade Anouka created a version of the challenge specifically for the United Kingdom, seeking to raise £1000 to send 100 young people to the Peckhamplex theater in London to see the film. When almost £4000 were raised, Anouka decided to double the number of young people she would send to the film while donating the remainder of the money to local charities. Anouka stated, "A superhero movie with black actors and that has a great female presence is something I couldn't even imagine dreaming about seeing when I was younger ... I think it's going to be just really inspiring for some young people". Other versions of the challenge were run in South Africa and Ghana. Joseph explained that he chose not to stop after the end of the original GoFundMe campaign because he had hoped the challenge would spread to other countries like this, saying the film "is wrapped in blackness but it's not inherently American blackness; it's actually an African blackness and that layer of the black existence is fundamental, globally."[273]

Science & Entertainment Exchange Director for the National Academy of Sciences Richard Loverd felt the film would increase interest in science, technology, and Africa for young black Americans, similarly to how The Hunger Games films and Brave (2012) sparked girls' interest in archery.[118] Jamie Broadnax, editor-in-chief and creator of the website Black Girl Nerds, felt many people of color who generally do not watch comic book films would go to Black Panther since "they're going to see themselves reflected in a huge way that they just haven't been able to see before",[278] especially since the film avoided black pain, suffering, and poverty, usual topics in films about the black experience.[191] She added that the strong female characters, such as Shuri, would be an inspiration for girls.[278] Gil Robertson, co-founder and president of the African American Film Critics Association, called the film "critically important" and "a gate-opener opportunity for other black-centered projects".[278] Child development expert Deborah Gilboa felt the film would make a huge impact on children's spirits, by offering positive role models and showing "someone like them succeed[ing] in a big, big way. That's how we help build a generation of young people who are engaged in the greater good and courageous in their actions."[272] Tre Johnson of Rolling Stone felt that "after decades of trying to nail the modern black superhero, we may finally be getting what we've asked for – and getting it right." Johnson said Black Panther felt different from the Blaxploitation films in the 1970s and the "Blaxploitation-lite" attempts at black superhero films in the 1990s and early 2000s because it was "respectable, imaginative and powerful", setting "a new direction for depicting not only black superheroes, but also how we imagine our heroes".[187] In the film's opening weekend, 37% of audiences in the United States were African-American, according to Screen Engine/comScore's PostTrak service, compared to 35% Caucasian, 18% Hispanic, and 5% Asian.[164] This was the most diverse audience for a superhero film ever, where African-Americans generally make up 15% of audiences for such films.[189] In its second weekend, demographics were 37% Caucasian, 33% African American, 18% Hispanic and 7% Asian.[229]

Analysis

Cultural importance

Writing for Time, Jamil Smith felt Black Panther, which he described as a film "about what it means to be black in both America and Africa—and, more broadly, in the world", was "poised to prove to Hollywood that African-American narratives have the power to generate profits from all audiences. And, more important, that making movies about black lives is part of showing that they matter." He added that the film felt like a resistance to "a regressive cultural and political moment fueled in part by the white-nativist movement... Its themes challenge institutional bias, its characters take unsubtle digs at oppressors, and its narrative includes prismatic perspectives on black life and tradition."[279] Discussing why the film was a defining moment for black America in The New York Times Magazine, Carvell Wallace said that in contrast to earlier black superhero films, Black Panther "is steeped very specifically and purposefully in its blackness". He felt the film and the fictional Wakanda would "function as a place for multiple generations of black Americans to store some of our most deeply held aspirations. We have for centuries sought to either find or create a promised land where we would be untroubled by the criminal horrors of our American existence." Wallace also commented on how the film fits into the larger idea of Afrofuturism, particularly in its presentation of Wakanda.[191] Historian Nathan D. B. Connolly felt Black Panther was "a breakthrough in black cultural representation. It's a powerful fictional analogy for real-life struggles. And Black Panther owes its very existence to centuries of political and artistic activity, always occurring in real places and under the mortal (but still super-) powers of real people... Black Panther taps a 500-year history of African-descended people imagining freedom, land and national autonomy." Connolly also felt, culturally, the film would be this generation's A Raisin in the Sun (1961).[280] Writer and activist Shaun King felt the film was a cultural moment in American black history similar to Rosa Parks' Montgomery bus boycott, Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, the rise of the hip-hop music genre, Michael Jackson's album Thriller becoming the best-selling album of all time, Barack Obama being elected president, and Colin Kaepernick's protests during the national anthem.[281]

By contrast, James Wilt, writing for Canadian Dimension, stated that "at its core, Black Panther contains a fundamentally reactionary understanding of black liberation that blatantly advocates respectability politics over revolution, sterilizes the history of real-life anti-colonial struggles in Africa and elsewhere, and allows white folks such as myself to feel extremely comfortable watching it". Wilt considered the scene where Ross is portrayed as "the hero" for shooting down the Wakandan ships attempting to leave as the film's way of endorsing the crushing of armed revolt against oppression, and in particular, "it helped solidify the message that violence is perfectly fine, so long as it's not directed against white people." Wilt also wrote, concerning the villain Killmonger, that "all the most hideous traits imaginable are downgraded on to [him], making the only major African-American character and agitator for revolution a manic killer consumed by rage and violence", which is a common trope.[282] Russell Rickford of Africa is a Country agreed with Wilt's assessment of Killmonger, whose role as a character is "to discredit radical internationalism" and reproduce "a host of disturbing tropes".[283] Faisal Kutty from Middle East Eye felt the film had underlying Islamophobic themes, such as in the beginning of the film where Islamic characters are depicted as villains by showing a group based on Boko Haram that kidnapped several girls and forced them to wear hijab.[284]

African and African-American representation

A number of writers looked to the film's subtext and what it said about African history, colonialism (including post-colonialism and neocolonialism), and tensions between African and African-American cultures. Patrick Gathara, writing in The Washington Post, described the film as offering a "regressive, neocolonial vision of Africa", which – rather than a "redemptive counter-mythology" – offers "the same destructive myths". Gathara highlighted the Africa that is portrayed, still essentially a European creation, as being divided and tribalized, with Wakanda run by a wealthy and feuding elite, centered upon "royalty and warriors", whose fortune comes not from its citizens' endeavors, skill or innate abilities, but from a "lucky meteor strike", and as a country which, despite its advanced technical abilities, does not evince any great thinkers, nor even a means of succession beyond lethal combat and primeval trials of strength. The Wakandans "still cleanly fit into the Western molds [of] a dark people in a dark continent" according to Gathara, and that they "remain so remarkably unsophisticated that a 'returning' American can basically stroll in and take over, just as 19th-century Europeans did to the real Africa ... [The film] should not be mistaken for an attempt at liberating Africa from Europe. Quite the opposite. Its 'redemptive counter-mythology' entrenches the tropes that have been used to dehumanize Africans for centuries."[285]

Dwayne Wong (Omowale) writing in HuffPost saw the film and its comic origins as "address[ing] serious political issues concerning Africa's relationship to the West that is very rarely given the serious attention that it deserves". Wakandans are "at times portrayed as being very suspicious towards outsiders, to the point of almost being xenophobic" and "no outsider can truly be trusted" with its security. He concluded that while the country is fictional, the politics "are very real. The end of colonialism did not end Western tampering in Africa's politics. We see this issue still going on in Africa today" with the film offering "an opportunity to explore this issue of neo-colonialism and its continued impact on Africa's development".[286] Carlos Rosario Gonzalez of Bam! Smack! Pow!, noting the struggle between T'Challa and Killmonger, saw "two very distinct philosophies collide... what it means to be African and conversely, what Africa means to Afro-minorities today", and described the film as exploring these themes "through the lens of colonialism". In this view, Wakanda represents Africa without Western colonialism, and Killmonger shows us that "we can sometimes inevitably become what we seek to destroy," concluding that Killmonger wants to use Wakanda's resources to become a colonizer of the West while "Wakanda's conservative ways created the very problem that sought to destroy them, Erik Killmonger".[287] Jelani Cobb, writing in The New Yorker, discussed the divide between Africans and African-Americans, which he called a "fundamental dissonance". He felt T'Challa and Killmonger represented "dueling responses to five centuries of African exploitation at the hands of the West. The villain, to the extent that the term applies, is history itself". Cobb added, "nothing in Marvel's collection of films is or could be political in the same way as Black Panther, because, in those other stories, we were at least clear about where the lines of fantasy departed from reality." The film "exists in an invented nation in Africa, a continent that has been grappling with invented versions of itself ever since white men first declared it the 'dark continent' and set about plundering its people and its resources."[288]

Christopher Lebron, in a piece for Boston Review, saw Black Panther as "racist". He observed that black Americans who had been left in poverty and oppression, as exemplified by Killmonger, were still being "relegated to the lowest rung of political regard" in the film, treated as less deserving of empathy and less capable of their acts being deemed heroic, than even Ross' white spy. Lebron felt that T'Challa could have shown himself a good person by "understand[ing] that Killmonger is in part the product of American racism and T'Chaka's cruelty" and by "realiz[ing] that Wakanda has been hoarding resources", and could have agreed that justice sometimes requires violence as a last resort against oppression. He summed up by commenting that "In 2018, a world home to both the Movement for Black Lives and a president [Donald Trump] who identifies white supremacists as fine people, we are given a movie about black empowerment where the only redeemed blacks are African nobles. They safeguard virtue and goodness against the threat not of white Americans or Europeans, but a black American".[289]

Accolades

Year Award Category Recipient(s) Result Ref(s)
2018 Billboard Music Awards Top Soundtrack Black Panther: The Album Nominated [290]
Golden Trailer Awards Best of Show "Crown" (Create Advertising Group) Won [291][292]
Best Action Won
Best Action TV Spot "Entourage: 60" (AV Squad) Won
Best Music TV Spot (for a Feature Film) "Women of Wakanda" (Tiny Hero) Won
Best Sound Editing in a TV Spot (for a Feature Film) "Team" (Tiny Hero) Nominated
Best Billboard "Arclight Motion Billboard" (The M Factor) Nominated
Best Radio / Audio Spot "Just Getting Started" (Tiny Hero) Nominated
Best Wildposts (Teaser Campaign) "Character Series" (Art Machine) Nominated
MTV Movie & TV Awards Movie of the Year Black Panther Won [293]
Best Actor Chadwick Boseman Won
Best Hero Chadwick Boseman Won
Best Villain Michael B. Jordan Won
Best Scene Stealer Letitia Wright Nominated
Best Fight Chadwick Boseman vs. Winston Duke Nominated
Best On-Screen Team Chadwick Boseman, Lupita Nyong'o, Danai Gurira, and Letitia Wright Nominated
Saturn Awards Best Comic-to-Motion Picture Release Black Panther Pending [294]
Best Actor in a Film Chadwick Boseman Pending
Best Actress in a Film Lupita Nyong'o Pending
Best Supporting Actor in a Film Michael B. Jordan Pending
Best Supporting Actress in a Film Danai Gurira Pending
Best Performance by a Younger Actor in a Film Letitia Wright Pending
Best Film Director Ryan Coogler Pending
Best Film Screenplay Ryan Coogler, Joe Robert Cole Pending
Best Film Production Design Hannah Beachler Pending
Best Film Editing Michael P. Shawver, Claudia Castello Pending
Best Film Music Ludwig Göransson Pending
Best Film Costume Designer Ruth E. Carter Pending
Best Film Make-Up Joel Harlow, Ken Diaz Pending
Best Film Special / Visual Effects Geoffrey Baumann, Craig Hammack, Dan Sudick Pending
BET Awards Best Movie Black Panther Pending [295]
Album of the Year Black Panther: The Album Pending
Teen Choice Awards Choice Sci-Fi Movie Black Panther Pending [296]
Choice Sci-Fi Movie Actor Chadwick Boseman Pending
Choice Sci-Fi Movie Actress Lupita Nyong'o Pending
Letitia Wright Pending
Danai Gurira Pending
Choice Collaboration "Pray for Me" – The Weeknd & Kendrick Lamar Pending

Future

With the release of Black Panther, Feige said "there are many, many stories to tell" about the character, and that he wanted Coogler to return for any potential sequel.[297] Coogler added that he wanted to see how T'Challa would grow as a king in future films, since his reign only began recently in the MCU, while in the comics, he has been king since childhood.[298] In March 2018, Feige added there was "nothing specific to reveal" in terms of a sequel, but that there "absolutely" were "ideas and a pretty solid direction on where we want to head with the second one".[299]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ As depicted in the 2016 film Captain America: Civil War[5]

References

  1. ^ "Black Panther (12A)". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  2. ^ a b Setoodeh, Ramin (February 5, 2018). "Chadwick Boseman and Ryan Coogler on How 'Black Panther' Makes History". Variety. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 17, 2018). "'Black Panther' Poised For $460M+ Profit; Faith-Based 'I Can Only Imagine' Surprises With $15M+". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Black Panther (2018)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  5. ^ Anderson, Jenna (May 18, 2017). "New Black Panther Synopsis Revealed". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on May 20, 2017. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Topel, Fred (August 10, 2016). "Exclusive: 'Black Panther' Screenwriter on Wakanda's Rise Within the Marvel Universe [TCA 2016]". /Film. Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
  7. ^ a b c Siegel, Lucas (October 28, 2014). "Marvel Announces Black Panther, Captain Marvel, Inhumans, Avengers: Infinity War Films, Cap & Thor 3 Subtitles". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
  8. ^ a b c Strom, Marc (October 28, 2014). "Chadwick Boseman to Star in Marvel's Black Panther". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
  9. ^ Donn, Emily (June 9, 2017). "Black Panther Director Explains T'Challa's Powers". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Trumbore, David (January 24, 2018). "'Black Panther': 90 Things to Know about the MCU's Game-Changing Movie". Collider. Archived from the original on January 24, 2018. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
  11. ^ a b Rosen, Christopher (September 10, 2016). "Chadwick Boseman teases Black Panther as the 'anti-hero' superhero". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
  12. ^ Breznican, Anthony (December 2, 2015). "Black Panther: Meet Marvel's fearsome warrior from Captain America: Civil War". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 2, 2015. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
  13. ^ a b Breznican, Anthony (July 23, 2017). "Black Panther cast details their secret Comic-Con footage". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  14. ^ a b Eells, Josh (February 18, 2018). "The 'Black Panther' Revolution". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on March 3, 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  15. ^ Yamato, Jen (October 28, 2014). "Chadwick Boseman Signed For 5 Films As Black Panther, Captain Marvel Bring Diversity To Superhero Slate". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 4, 2015. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Black Panther Press Kit" (PDF). Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  17. ^ a b Kit, Borys (May 13, 2016). "Michael B. Jordan Joins Marvel's 'Black Panther' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 13, 2016. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d e Pritchard, Tom (February 13, 2018). "All the Easter Eggs and References We Spotted in Black Panther". Gizmodo UK. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Breznican, Anthony (July 12, 2017). "How Black Panther aims to be the superhero version of The Godfather and 007". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  20. ^ Starnes, Joshua (July 24, 2016). "Comic-Con: Kevin Feige, Directors and Stars on the Marvel Cinematic Universe". ComingSoon.net. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
  21. ^ a b Bell, Crystal (July 23, 2017). "Michael B. Jordan's Black Panther Villain Is 'Unapologetically Who He Is'". MTV. Archived from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  22. ^ Osborn, Alex (July 23, 2017). "Comic-Con 2017: What Motivates Villain Killmonger in Black Panther". IGN. Archived from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  23. ^ Breznican, Anthony (July 12, 2017). "Black Panther: 20 New Images From the Marvel Adventure! – Killmonger's Tribal Scars". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Hoo, Fawina Soo (February 12, 2018). "The Costume, Hair and Makeup in Marvel's 'Black Panther' Are A Celebration of Black Culture and Heritage". Fashionista. Archived from the original on February 27, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  25. ^ a b Olya, Gabrielle (March 2, 2017). "Here's How Angela Bassett Will Shape Up for Marvel's Black Panther". People. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  26. ^ a b Kit, Borys (May 12, 2016). "Lupita Nyong'o in Talks to Star in 'Black Panther' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  27. ^ a b Strom, Marc (July 23, 2016). "SDCC 2016: Marvel's 'Black Panther' Confirms Additional Cast". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 24, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  28. ^ a b Ching, Albert (July 23, 2016). "SDCC: Marvel Studios Reveals Latest Phase 3 Secrets". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
  29. ^ a b Breznican, Anthony (July 13, 2017). "From Michonne to Marvel Comics: Danai Gurira brings fierce loyalty to Black Panther". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 13, 2017. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  30. ^ Davis, Brandon (November 11, 2016). "Danai Gurira Compares Black Panther Role to the Walking Dead's Michonne". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  31. ^ a b Schmidt, Joseph (November 19, 2017). "'Black Panther's Martin Freeman Talks About His Character's Journey". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on November 20, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  32. ^ Perry, Spencer (January 2, 2018). "Black Panther Character Bios Released, New Preview Coming Next Week". ComingSoon.net. Archived from the original on January 2, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  33. ^ Daniell, Mark (February 14, 2018). "He's no 'goofy white guy': Black Panther's Martin Freeman explains what makes his character tick". Toronto Sun. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  34. ^ a b c d e "Forest Whitaker Joins Marvel's 'Black Panther'". Marvel.com. October 7, 2016. Archived from the original on October 7, 2016. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  35. ^ a b Mullen, Matt (June 7, 2017). "Letitia Wright". Interview. Archived from the original on June 15, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  36. ^ a b c d Breznican, Anthony (July 13, 2017). "How Black Panther solves the problem of M'Baku". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 13, 2017. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  37. ^ a b Busch, Jenna (July 23, 2017). "Ryan Coogler, Winston Duke and Letitia Wright Talk Black Panther at Comic-Con". ComingSoon.net. Archived from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  38. ^ a b Morse, Ben (November 21, 2016). "Angela Bassett Boards Marvel's 'Black Panther'". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on November 21, 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  39. ^ Breznican, Anthony (June 9, 2017). "Black Panther trailer decoded: Secrets of the new Marvel movie – Slide 8". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017. 'He's somewhat a religious figure, or spiritual figure,' Coogler says of Zuri. 'Spirituality is something that exists in Wakanda in the comics and it's something we wanted to have elements of in the film. Forest's character, more than anything, is a major tie back to T'Challa's father. Zuri is someone he looks to for guidance.' He says think of him as the Wise Old Man – Black Panther's version of Obi-Wan Kenobi.
  40. ^ a b Breznican, Anthony (January 26, 2017). "Marvel confirms Andy Serkis for Black Panther, releases plot summary". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on January 27, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  41. ^ Breznican, Anthony (June 9, 2017). "Black Panther trailer decoded: Secrets of the new Marvel movie – Slide 14". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017. In the comics, Klaue's weapon was an ultra-sonic emitter he used as a prosthetic for his missing arm. In this film, he attaches a piece of advanced Wakandan mining equipment as his arm-cannon – which is presumably what led the CIA and Black Panther to capture him. In this shot, we can see the limb has been taken from him.
  42. ^ a b Breznican, Anthony (July 12, 2017). "Chadwick Boseman reveals Black Panther plot details, explains political relevance". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  43. ^ Vejvoda, Jim (October 14, 2017). "Andy Serkis' Black Panther Villain Out to Expose Wakanda's 'Hypocrisy'". IGN. Archived from the original on October 15, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  44. ^ a b Koopman, Sarah (January 16, 2017). "Atandwa And John Kani Are in Atlanta And All The Signs Point To Them Joining The 'Black Panther' Cast". The Huffington Post South Africa. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  45. ^ a b Storm, Marc (January 5, 2017). "Sterling K. Brown Signs on To Marvel's 'Black Panther'". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on November 21, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  46. ^ Breznican, Anthony (June 9, 2017). "Black Panther trailer decoded: Secrets of the new Marvel movie – Slide 18". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017. Among the tribal rulers, the camera lingers on one especially compelling presence. Coogler says the man with the emerald suit and lip plate is 'the elder of one of the largest tribes in Wakanda'. He's played by actor Isaach De Bankolé, known for brutalizing Daniel Craig's 007 in Casino Royale. Across from him sits T'Challa's widowed mother, Ramonda (played by Angela Bassett)...
  47. ^ Joyce, Liam Karabo (January 3, 2018). "Local actress confirms Black Panther role". Independent Online. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  48. ^ a b Tatiana (June 30, 2017). "Saturn Awards: Sydelle Noel Talks GLOW & Black Panther". With An Accent. Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  49. ^ a b Marston, George (August 4, 2017). "Report: Arrow Adds Black Panther Actress in Recurring Role". Newsarama. Archived from the original on August 5, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  50. ^ Erao, Matthew (June 21, 2017). "Black Panther Confirmed to Include Nightshade". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
  51. ^ "Atriz baiana está no filme Pantera Negra". Correio (in Portuguese). February 7, 2018. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  52. ^ Strom, Marc (July 5, 2017). "Mustafa Shakir & Gabrielle Dennis Join Netflix Original Series 'Marvel's Luke Cage'". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  53. ^ Bonomolo, Cameron (May 21, 2018). "Trevor Noah Had a Secret Cameo in 'Black Panther' That Fans Just Now Noticed". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  54. ^ Fitch, Adam (September 11, 2017). "Stan Lee Has Already Filmed Cameos for Black Panther Avengers 4, & More". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  55. ^ a b Armitage, Hugh (February 7, 2018). "Black Panther's post-credits scenes explained". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  56. ^ Carr, Jay (June 21, 1992). "Can penguin cones be far behind?". The Boston Globe.
  57. ^ Carr, Jay (August 30, 1992). "Tolkin to sit in director's chair". The Boston Globe.
  58. ^ a b c d e f Parker, Ryan; Couch, Aaron (January 29, 2018). "Wesley Snipes Reveals Untold Story Behind His 'Black Panther' Film". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  59. ^ Valentine, Evan (November 22, 2014). "Everything You Need to Know About Black Panther: An Introduction to the Marvel Cinematic Universe's New Addition". Collider. Archived from the original on November 23, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
  60. ^ a b Persall, Steve (August 3, 1993). "Future is bright for Snipes". St. Petersburg Times.
  61. ^ Brodie, John (January 5, 1994). "Hollywood Pours Its Heroes into Tights". Chicago Sun-Times.
  62. ^ Pitts, Jr., Leonard (March 27, 1994). "A comics milestone from the action-filled universe of superheroes come new characters, and a new diversity". Miami Herald. p. J1.
  63. ^ Lovece, Frank (May 15, 1994). "Off the drawing board". Newsday.
  64. ^ Nye, Doug (January 28, 1996). "Stan Lee hopes New World deal pumps life into his creations". The State.
  65. ^ Dawes, Amy (July 27, 1997). "Action! Movie studios lining up to turn comics into cinematic gold". Daily News of Los Angeles.
  66. ^ Smith, Andrew (March 22, 1998). "So here's the wackiest gimmick of all – good writing for comics". The Commercial Appeal.
  67. ^ Fortes, Stephan (August 23, 1998). "Blade Runner". Newsday.
  68. ^ Radford, Bill (August 1, 1999). "Superheroes at home on big screen". The Gazette.
  69. ^ Fleming, Michael (May 16, 2000). "Artisan deal a real Marvel". Variety. Archived from the original on April 9, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  70. ^ Guzman, Rene A. (March 24, 2002). "Snipes' Blade draws focus to black comic book heroes". San Antonio Express-News.
  71. ^ Hutchen, Monroe (August 22, 2002). "Undisputed". Latino Review. Archived from the original on August 5, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2006.
  72. ^ Morris, Clint (July 16, 2004). "Goyer talks Superman and Black Panther". Moviehole.net. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2006.
  73. ^ "Marvel Making Movies". IGN. September 6, 2005. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2006.
  74. ^ Malone, Sam (June 1, 2006). "Snipes on Blade and Black Panther". Superhero Hype!. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2006.
  75. ^ Radford, Bill (February 8, 2007). "Marvel stays true to superhero characters in transition to big screen". The News-Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved February 11, 2007.
  76. ^ Morales, Wilson (July 27, 2007). "John Singleton News". BlackFilm.com. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  77. ^ Graser, Marc (March 26, 2009). "Marvel's hiring writers". Variety. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
  78. ^ a b Carter, Kelley L. (May 17, 2016). "The man who put Marvel in the black". The Undefeated. ESPN. Archived from the original on May 20, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  79. ^ Inoa, Christopher (February 9, 2018). "A Definitive Timeline of Wesley Snipes' Attempts To Make Black Panther". Syfy Wire. Archived from the original on June 19, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
  80. ^ Kit, Borys (January 20, 2011). "'Black Panther' Back in Development at Marvel". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
  81. ^ Wigler, Josh (October 23, 2013). "Black Panther Movie is 'Absolutely in Development,' Says Marvel's Kevin Feige". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
  82. ^ Labrecque, Jeff (November 20, 2014). "Breaking Big: Welcome to The Show, Chadwick Boseman". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 1, 2014. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  83. ^ Sciretta, Peter (October 28, 2014). "Watch: All Of Your Marvel Phase 3 Questions Answered By Marvel Head Kevin Feige". /Film. Archived from the original on October 30, 2014. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  84. ^ Huver, Scott (February 3, 2015). "Chadwick Boseman Shares New "Black Panther" Insight: 'It's a Brainstorming Phase'". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on February 4, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
  85. ^ a b Strom, Marc (February 10, 2015). "Marvel Studios Schedules New Release Dates for 4 Films". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
  86. ^ Lussier, Germain (April 12, 2015). "Kevin Feige Phase 3 Updates: 'Thor: Ragnarok,' 'Black Panther,' 'Inhumans' and 'Captain Marvel'". /Film. Archived from the original on April 13, 2015. Retrieved April 12, 2015.
  87. ^ Sneider, Jeff (May 12, 2015). "Marvel Courting Ava DuVernay to Direct Diverse Superhero Movie (Exclusive)". The Wrap. Archived from the original on May 13, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
  88. ^ Kilday, Gregg (June 24, 2015). "Paul Rudd and Marvel's Kevin Feige Reveal 'Ant-Man's' Saga, from Director Shuffle to Screenplay Surgery to Studio's "Phase Three" Plans". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
  89. ^ Sangweni, Yolanda (July 3, 2015). "Exclusive: Ava DuVernay Won't Be Directing 'Black Panther' Movie". Essence. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
  90. ^ Lee, Ashley (July 18, 2015). "Ava DuVernay's Advice on Hollywood: 'Follow the White Guys, They've Got This Thing Wired'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 20, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  91. ^ Kroll, Justin (October 5, 2015). "'Fast and Furious 8' Director Search Narrowed Down to Four". Variety. Archived from the original on December 5, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  92. ^ a b c Kit, Borys; Ford, Rebecca (December 4, 2015). "'Creed' Director Ryan Coogler in Talks to Direct Marvel's 'Black Panther'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 5, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  93. ^ Kroll, Justin (October 8, 2015). "'Furious 8': F. Gary Gray Confirms He Will Direct". Variety. Archived from the original on December 5, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  94. ^ Sneider, Jeff (October 6, 2015). "Joe Robert Cole Nearing Deal to Write 'Black Panther' for Marvel (Exclusive)". TheWrap. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  95. ^ a b c Strom, Marc (October 8, 2015). "Marvel Studios Phase 3 Update". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on October 8, 2015. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  96. ^ Strom, Marc (January 11, 2016). "Ryan Coogler to Direct Marvel's 'Black Panther'". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on January 12, 2016. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
  97. ^ Wilding, Josh (January 13, 2016). "Exclusive: Creed director Ryan Coogler talks for the first time about helming Marvel's Black Panther". HeyUGuys.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  98. ^ White, Brett (January 13, 2016). "Coogler Calls 'Black Panther' A 'Personal' Project". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  99. ^ a b Valentini, Valentina (November 30, 2016). "'Moonlight,' 'Black Panther' Production Designer on Big Break With Ryan Coogler". Variety. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  100. ^ a b c Buchanan, Kyle (April 18, 2017). "You're Not Ready for Black Panther's Stunning New Spin on Superhero Movies". Vulture. Archived from the original on April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  101. ^ Solomon, Dan (May 16, 2016). "How 'Creed' Auteur Ryan Coogler Punches Through The Hollywood Mold". Fast Company. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  102. ^ a b Riesman, Abraham (July 24, 2016). "Black Panther Director Ryan Coogler: Ta-Nehisi Coates Has 'Absolutely' Influenced the Movie". Vulture. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  103. ^ Foutch, Haleigh (April 11, 2016). "'Black Panther': Kevin Feige Reveals Ryan Coogler Is Co-Writing; Talks Filming Dates". Collider. Archived from the original on April 11, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  104. ^ a b c Hewitt, Chris (February 2016). "Set Phase 3 To Stun". Empire. United Kingdom: Bauer Media Group. p. 21. Black Panther (February 9, 2018)... Feige confirms that the film, which will be the last Marvel movie before the Avengers return, will boast a 'primarily African-American cast', while Creed's Ryan Coogler is reportedly in negotiations to direct (Coogler declined to comment). As for the film itself, 'It's a big geo-political action adventure that focuses on the family and royal struggle of T'Challa in Wakanda, and what it means to be a king. T'Challa's story is very important to us as it links to the next Avengers films, which is why we brought it forward.'
  105. ^ Alexander, Julia (December 31, 2015). "Black Panther will feature majority black cast, is crucial to Avengers: Infinity War". Polygon. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
  106. ^ Kroll, Justin (September 28, 2016). "'Black Panther' Taps 'Person of Interest' Actor Winston Duke to Play M'Baku (Exclusive)". Variety. Archived from the original on September 29, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  107. ^ Kroll, Justin (October 20, 2016). "'Black Panther' Adds 'Ready Player One' Actress Letitia Wright (Exclusive)". Variety. Archived from the original on October 21, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  108. ^ Paris, Amanda (February 23, 2018). "5 things you should probably know about Amandla Stenberg". CBC.ca. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on March 4, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  109. ^ Baldassari, Erin (January 13, 2017). "AC Transit bus could get screen time in forthcoming Marvel movie". East Bay Times. Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
  110. ^ Ashurst, Sam (February 9, 2018). "Ryan Coogler reveals which Spider-Man villain he wanted for Black Panther (Exclusive)". Yahoo! UK. Archived from the original on February 9, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  111. ^ Rife, Katie (February 8, 2018). "Donald and Stephen Glover gave Ryan Coogler notes on Black Panther's script". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  112. ^ Bradley, Bill (May 21, 2018). "A Marvel Exec Tried To Stop The Most Jarring 'Infinity War' Death". HuffPost. Archived from the original on May 23, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2018.
  113. ^ Giroux, Jack (April 11, 2016). "Ryan Coogler Is Co-Writing 'Black Panther,' Which Might Not Be Another Origin Story". /Film. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  114. ^ a b Davis, Erik (January 8, 2018). "Exclusive: 'Black Panther' Director Ryan Coogler Talks 'James Bond' Influences And That Kendrick Lamar Album". Fandango. Archived from the original on January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
  115. ^ McMillan, Graeme (December 30, 2015). "Marvel's 'Black Panther' Will Set Up 'Avengers: Infinity War,' Says Kevin Feige". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 31, 2015. Retrieved December 31, 2015.
  116. ^ Breznican, Anthony (May 5, 2016). "Black Panther's language: Where Civil War found the words of Wakanda". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on May 9, 2016. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  117. ^ Patterson, Brandon Ellington (February 6, 2016). "Oscars So White? Black Panther to the Rescue". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  118. ^ a b c d Johnson, Jason (September 25, 2017). "Best Part of Congressional Black Caucus Week? Exclusive Footage of Marvel's Black Panther". The Root. Archived from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
  119. ^ Fujikawa, Jenn (February 9, 2018). "The Architectural Inspirations Behind Wakanda in Marvel Studios' 'Black Panther'". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  120. ^ a b c Darville, Jordan (August 21, 2017). "This Designer Created Worlds For Moonlight, Lemonade, And Black Panther". The Fader. Archived from the original on August 25, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  121. ^ Rogo, Paula (June 10, 2017). "Ruth Carter Is The Veteran Black Costume Designer Serving Looks in Black Panther". Essence. Archived from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  122. ^ a b c Moore, Booth (January 15, 2018). "'Black Panther' Costume Designer Talks Tribal-Tech Inspirations". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  123. ^ a b Wilding, Josh (January 21, 2017). "Martin Freeman, Chadwick Boseman And More Spotted on Black Panther Set". We Got This Covered. Archived from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
  124. ^ a b Walljasper, Matt (January 24, 2017). "What's filming in Atlanta now? Black Panther, I, Tonya, Stranger Things, and why MCU = ATL". Atlanta. Archived from the original on January 26, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  125. ^ a b Lussier, Germain (February 2, 2018). "How the Teams Behind Black Panther and Infinity War Worked Together to Create a Unified Wakanda". io9. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  126. ^ Peters, Megan (October 18, 2016). "Black Panther Working Title Revealed". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
  127. ^ a b Lee, Hyo-won (February 1, 2017). "'Black Panther' to Shoot Key Scenes in South Korea". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
  128. ^ Harpaz , Beth (March 21, 2018). "High Museum, other Atlanta spots featured in Black Panther". Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  129. ^ a b "Rachel Morrison on Black Panther and Mudbound". Arri. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  130. ^ a b Sperling, Nicole (February 16, 2018). "Black Panther Cinematographer Rachel Morrison Shoots and Scores". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on June 10, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  131. ^ a b c d e f Seymour, Mike (February 25, 2018). "Black Panther: Building Wakanda". FX Guide. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  132. ^ a b Strom, Marc (January 26, 2017). "Marvel Studios Begins Production On 'Black Panther'". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on January 26, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  133. ^ a b c Lee, Hyo-won (March 27, 2017). "First Look: 'Black Panther' Car Chase Scene". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 28, 2017. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  134. ^ a b c Shin, Joseph (March 17, 2017). "Black Panther's Korea Film Shoot Attracts Local Film Talent". The Korea Bizwire. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
  135. ^ Schmidt, Joseph (March 18, 2017). "Black Panther Set Footage Shows First Look at the Dora Milaje". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on March 19, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  136. ^ a b Mumbere, Daniel (February 17, 2018). "Black Panther wins the hearts of African cinema fans". Africanews. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  137. ^ "Black Panther". Marzano Films. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  138. ^ Anderson, Jenna (March 29, 2017). "Black Panther: Letitia Wright Confirmed as Shuri". ComicBook.com. Archived from the original on March 29, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
  139. ^ a b Fullerton, Huw (February 16, 2018). "Black Panther director Ryan Coogler unpicks the film's post-credits scenes". Radio Times. Archived from the original on June 10, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  140. ^ Boone, Josh (February 16, 2018). "The 'Black Panther' End-Credits Scenes, Explained by Director Ryan Coogler (Exclusive)". Entertainment Tonight. Archived from the original on June 10, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  141. ^ a b Smith, Andy (March 3, 2018). "Rhode Islander Michael Shawver talks about editing 'Black Panther'". The Providence Journal. Archived from the original on June 10, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  142. ^ a b c Peña, Kylee. "Editing Marvel's Black Panther: Debbie Berman ACE". Creative COW. Archived from the original on June 10, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  143. ^ a b c Frazer, Bryant (April 30, 2018). "Black Panther Editor, VFX Supe and Sound Designer Talk Creative Collaboration at NAB". Studio Daily. Archived from the original on June 10, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  144. ^ Frei, Vincent (January 9, 2018). "Black Panther". Art of VFX. Archived from the original on February 1, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  145. ^ Hellard, Paul (February 9, 2018). "Luma & ScanlineVFX deliver for Black Panther". FXPhd. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  146. ^ a b c Pearce, Sheldon (February 7, 2018). "How Black Panther Composer Ludwig Göransson Found the Sound of Wakanda". Pitchfork. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  147. ^ Hrishikesh Hirway (March 14, 2018). "Ludwig Göransson – 'Killmonger'". Song Exploder (Podcast). Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  148. ^ Flook, Ray (July 21, 2017). "Musical Anatomy of a Superhero: The Best SDCC Panel That I Didn't Intend To See". Bleeding Cool. Archived from the original on July 21, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  149. ^ a b Genius (February 16, 2018). The Making Of "Wakanda" With Ludwig Göransson Presented By Marvel Studio's Black Panther. YouTube. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  150. ^ Steenberg, Andrew (March 20, 2018). "Wakanda (and Sweden) Forever: Black Panther's Ludwig Göransson". Toronto International Film Festival. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  151. ^ Wilson, Sean (February 21, 2018). "Exclusive interview: Black Panther producer Nate Moore talks Marvel, diversity and superheroes". Cineworld. Archived from the original on June 3, 2018. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  152. ^ Edith Bowman (February 18, 2018). "Episode 77: Ryan Coogler & Marvel's Nate Moore on the Music of Black Panther, Kendrick Lamar & Ludwig Göransson". Soundtracking (Podcast). Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  153. ^ a b Foutch, Haleigh (January 4, 2018). "Kendrick Lamar Will Produce and Curate Marvel's 'Black Panther' Soundtrack". Collider. Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
  154. ^ a b Tyler-Ameen, Daoud; Madden, Sydney; Richmond, Justin (February 6, 2018). "Here's How 'Black Panther: The Album' Came Together". NPR. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  155. ^ Heath, Larry (April 27, 2018). "Black Panther composer Ludwig Göransson talks working with Kendrick Lamar and the next Childish Gambino record". The AU Review. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  156. ^ Legaspi, Althea (January 11, 2018). "Kendrick Lamar, Future, James Blake Team on Jay Rock's 'King's Dead'". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 13, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  157. ^ Madden, Sidney (February 2, 2018). "Kendrick Lamar and the Weeknd Team Up For 'Pray For Me'". NPR. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  158. ^ Moniuszko, Sara (January 15, 2018). "Everything we know about the Marvel superhero film 'Black Panther'". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 15, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
  159. ^ "'Black Panther' Score Album Details". Film Music Reporter. February 15, 2018. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  160. ^ Rahman, Abid (January 29, 2018). "'Black Panther': First Reactions From the Premiere". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 30, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  161. ^ a b c Couch, Aaron (January 30, 2018). "'Black Panther' Premiere Began With a Standing Ovation". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  162. ^ a b c d McNary, Dave (February 12, 2018). "'Black Panther' Heading Toward Massive $170 Million-Plus Opening". Variety. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  163. ^ Lee, Hyo-won (February 4, 2018). "'Black Panther' Team Kick Off Global Press Tour in South Korea: 'Not Just a Popcorn Movie'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  164. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 20, 2018). "'Black Panther' Goes Wild: At $242M Superhero Owns 2nd Best 4-Day Opening & Defeats 'Last Jedi' – Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  165. ^ a b c d D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 14, 2018). "Before 'Black Panther' Pounces To Potential $180M+, 'Fifty Shades Freed' Will Pop at Valentine's Day B.O." Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  166. ^ Vivarelli, Nick (April 5, 2018). "'Black Panther' to Break Saudi Arabia's 35-Year Cinema Ban". Variety. Archived from the original on April 5, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  167. ^ a b Ritman, Alex (April 5, 2018). "'Black Panther' to Break Saudi Arabia's 35-Year Cinema Ban". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 5, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  168. ^ Ritman, Alex (April 18, 2018). "Saudi Arabia Prepares for First Public Cinema Opening in 35 Years". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  169. ^ Ritman, Alex (April 18, 2018). "Saudi Arabia Breaks 35-Year Cinema Ban With Historic 'Black Panther' Screening". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  170. ^ Buchanan, Kyle (April 25, 2017). "Let Kevin Feige Get You Even More Hyped for Black Panther". Vulture. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  171. ^ a b Menta, Anna (June 9, 2017). "Marvel's 'Black Panther' Poster Is Here And Fans Are Pointing Out A Major Detail". Elite Daily. Archived from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  172. ^ a b Husband, Andrew (June 9, 2017). "The First Teaser Trailer For Marvel's 'Black Panther' Is Finally Here". Uproxx. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  173. ^ a b c David, Javier E.; DiChristopher, Tom (June 11, 2017). "'Black Panther' teaser trailer debuts steals the spotlight, challenging LeBron James and 'Wonder Woman'". CNBC. Archived from the original on June 12, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  174. ^ Pearson, Ben (June 9, 2017). "'Black Panther' Teaser Trailer: T'Challa Takes the Throne". /Film. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  175. ^ Pulliam-Moore, Charles (June 9, 2017). "The First Black Panther Teaser Trailer is Here and It's Epic as Hell". io9. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  176. ^ Mendelson, Scott (June 9, 2017). "Trailer: 'Black Panther' May Be A 'Wonder Woman'-Level Event". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  177. ^ a b Kit, Borys (June 12, 2017). "'Black Panther' Teaser Trailer Racks Up 89M Views in First 24 Hours (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 13, 2017. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  178. ^ McNary, Dave (June 12, 2017). "'Black Panther' Climbs to Top of Social Media Chart With First Trailer". Variety. Archived from the original on June 17, 2017. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
  179. ^ McNary, Dave (June 19, 2017). "'Spider-Man: Homecoming' Dominates Social Media". Variety. Archived from the original on June 20, 2017. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  180. ^ Strom, Marc (June 1, 2017). "Marvel Announces Epic Experiences For Fans at Disney's D23 Expo 2017". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  181. ^ Perry, Spencer (July 21, 2017). "Black Panther Costumes on Display at Comic-Con". ComingSoon.net. Archived from the original on July 21, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  182. ^ Breznican, Anthony (July 22, 2017). "Intense, secret Black Panther footage scores standing ovation at Comic-Con". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on July 23, 2017. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  183. ^ Yamato, Jen (July 22, 2017). "Ryan Coogler explains why Kendrick Lamar is the perfect sound for 'Black Panther'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 23, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
  184. ^ Trumbore, Dave (October 16, 2017). "'Black Panther': New Trailer Teases One of Marvel's Most Exciting Movies Yet". Collider. Archived from the original on October 22, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  185. ^ McMillan, Graeme (October 16, 2017). "'Black Panther' Trailer Says So Little So Beautifully". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 22, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  186. ^ Day, Brendan (October 20, 2017). "What makes the Black Panther movie trailer awesome". BamSmackPow (FanSided). Time Inc. Archived from the original on October 22, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  187. ^ a b Johnson, Tre (October 17, 2017). "Black Superheroes Matter: Why a 'Black Panther' Movie Is Revolutionary". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on October 22, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  188. ^ Pulliam-Moore, Charles (October 17, 2017). "We Finally Know What the Black Panther Was Up to Before Captain America: Civil War". io9. Archived from the original on October 20, 2017. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
  189. ^ a b c d McClintock, Pamela (February 21, 2018). "Disney's 'Black Panther' Playbook: A Peek at the Marketing of a Phenomenon". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  190. ^ a b Wagmeister, Elizabeth (February 12, 2018). "Marvel's 'Black Panther' Becomes Most Tweeted Movie of 2018". Variety. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
  191. ^ a b c Wallace, Carvell (February 12, 2018). "Why 'Black Panther' Is a Defining Moment for Black America". The New York Times Magazine. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
  192. ^ Houlb, Christian (March 20, 2018). "Black Panther is the most-tweeted-about movie of all time". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  193. ^ a b Maloney, Nora (February 13, 2018). "Backstage at the Black Panther New York Fashion Week Presentation". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  194. ^ a b Couch, Aaron (July 18, 2017). "'Black Panther' Unveils Lexus Partnership Ahead of Comic-Con (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  195. ^ Arrant, Chris (August 28, 2017). "Black Panther Taken for a Ride in a Lexus Courtesy of Fabian Nicieza". Newsarama. Archived from the original on August 29, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
  196. ^ a b Lexus (October 24, 2017). "Lexus Introduces Two New Vehicles Inspired by Marvel Studios' 'Black Panther' Ahead of SEMA 2017". PR Newswire. Archived from the original on October 24, 2017. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
  197. ^ Couch, Aaron (January 25, 2018). "'Black Panther' Super Bowl Ad Drops Early". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  198. ^ Schneider-Levy, Barbara (February 1, 2018). "Marvel Teams Up With Clarks to Launch Special 'Black Panther' Sneakers". Footwear News. Archived from the original on February 1, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  199. ^ Bart, Peter (February 22, 2018). "'Black Panther' Registers Global Social & Box Office Impact, Even Setting Records on Turbulent African Continent". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  200. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (February 13, 2018). "Can 'Black Panther' Be A Box Office Game-Changer Overseas?". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  201. ^ Chitwood, Adam (April 10, 2018). "'Black Panther' Blu-ray Release Date, Bonus Features, and Cover Art Revealed". Collider. Archived from the original on April 10, 2018. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  202. ^ a b Tartaglione, Nancy (March 25, 2018). "'Pacific Rim: Uprising' Tops $150M In Global Bow; 'Black Panther' Now #1 Solo Superhero Movie WW – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
  203. ^ McClintock, Pamela (March 24, 2018). "Box Office: 'Black Panther' Becomes Top-Grossing Superhero Film of All Time in U.S." The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 7, 2018. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
  204. ^ a b McClintock, Pamela (April 30, 2018). "'Avengers: Infinity War' Box Office: What Fueled the Movie's Record Opening". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 1, 2018. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
  205. ^ a b c d e f g Tartaglione, Nancy (February 19, 2018). "'Black Panther' Blasts Off With $169M Overseas; $371M WW Weekend – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  206. ^ a b Tartaglione, Nancy (February 25, 2018). "'Black Panther' Runs Past $300M Offshore, $700M WW; 'Operation Red Sea' Rises in China – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  207. ^ McClintock, Pamela (March 10, 2018). "Box-Office Milestone: 'Black Panther' Joins Billion-Dollar Club". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 12, 2018. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  208. ^ Mendelson, Scott (March 25, 2018). "Box Office: 'Black Panther' Tops 'Last Jedi' And 'Avengers'". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 18, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  209. ^ Alexander, Bryan (December 28, 2017). "Fans pick 'Avengers,' 'Black Panther' as 2018's most-anticipated films in Fandango poll". USA Today. Archived from the original on December 29, 2017. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  210. ^ Tiffany, Kaitlyn (January 10, 2018). "Black Panther had the biggest first day ticket presale of any Marvel movie". The Verge. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  211. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 31, 2018). "'Black Panther' Slashes Superhero Advance Ticket Sales Records on Fandango". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  212. ^ Couch, Aaron (January 31, 2018). "'Black Panther' Sets Alamo Drafthouse Superhero Record". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 1, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  213. ^ Lang, Brent; Lopez, Ricardo (February 5, 2018). "'Black Panther's' Grassroots Marketing Movement Is Unlike Any Other Marvel Movie". Variety. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  214. ^ Lopez, Ricardo (February 12, 2018). "'Black Panther' Sees More Imax Pre-Sales Than Any Other Marvel Film". Variety. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
  215. ^ Khosla, Proma (February 15, 2018). "'Black Panther' has one of the highest ticket presale rates of all time". Mashable. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  216. ^ a b c McNary, Dave (February 20, 2018). "Will 'Black Panther' See One of the Best Second Weekends Ever?". Variety. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  217. ^ Khal (March 27, 2018). "Every Record 'Black Panther' Has Broken (So Far)". Complex. Archived from the original on June 18, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  218. ^ Mendelson, Scott (February 17, 2018). "Box Office: 'Black Panther' Superhero Fatigues To Record $76M Friday". Forbes. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  219. ^ a b c D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 20, 2018). "'Black Panther' Box Office Halo Heats Up Exhibition Stocks". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  220. ^ McClintock, Pamela (February 17, 2018). "'Black Panther' Top-Grossing Film in History at 33 AMC Theaters". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  221. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 20, 2018). "Fandango Ticket Sales Rep More Than 30% Of 'Black Panther's $242M Record Opening Weekend". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  222. ^ Robbins, Shawn (December 22, 2017). "Long Range Forecast: Is Marvel's 'Black Panther' Poised to Become 2018's First Blockbuster?". BoxOffice. Archived from the original on December 26, 2017. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  223. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 10, 2018). "'Black Panther' Poised To Pounce on B.O.: Advance Ticket Sales Beating 'Captain America: Civil War'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  224. ^ McClintock, Pamela (January 25, 2018). "'Black Panther' Tracking for Heroic $100M–$120M U.S. Debut". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  225. ^ McNary, Dave (February 1, 2018). "'Black Panther' Bounds Toward Huge $150 Million Presidents Day Weekend Opening". Variety. Archived from the original on February 2, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  226. ^ McClintock, Pamela (February 12, 2018). "'Black Panther' Now Tracking for Massive $165M U.S. Debut". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2018.
  227. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 21, 2018). "'Black Panther' Posts Record $21M Pre-Summer Tuesday; Second Weekend To Reap $104M–$109M". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  228. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy; D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 23, 2018). "'Black Panther' Dashes Past $520M Worldwide, Eyes $190M+ In Second Global Weekend". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  229. ^ a b c d e D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 26, 2018). "'Black Panther' Breaks More Records: $112M Second Weekend Is Second-Best Ever As Marvel Movie Crosses $400M". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  230. ^ McNary, Dave (February 23, 2018). "Box Office: 'Black Panther' Becomes Highest-Grossing MCU Film in First Week". Variety. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  231. ^ McNary, Dave (February 25, 2018). "Box Office: 'Black Panther' Rules With $108 Million in Second Weekend". Variety. Archived from the original on February 27, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  232. ^ "Long Range Tracking: 'Ready Player One'". BoxOffice. February 2, 2018. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  233. ^ Schwerdtfeger, Conner (February 28, 2018). "Black Panther Is About To Hit A Major Superhero Movie Milestone". Cinema Blend. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  234. ^ McNary, Dave (February 28, 2018). "'Black Panther' Passes 'Wonder Woman,' 'Toy Story 3' at U.S. Box Office". Variety. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  235. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 4, 2018). "'Black Panther' Busts Past Half Billion; 'Red Sparrow' Flies Low With $17M – Sunday AM B.O. Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  236. ^ McNary, Dave (March 11, 2018). "Box Office: 'Black Panther' Tops 'A Wrinkle in Time' in Disney-Dominant Weekend". Variety. Archived from the original on June 8, 2018. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  237. ^ a b McNary, Dave (March 18, 2018). "'Black Panther' Surpasses 'Tomb Raider' for Fifth Box Office Crown". Variety. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  238. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 14, 2018). "Can 'Tomb Raider' Take Down 'Black Panther' At The Weekend Box Office? – Preview". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  239. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 18, 2018). "'Black Panther' Keeps B.O. Treasure From 'Tomb Raider'; How 'I Can Only Imagine' Hit A$17M High Note". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  240. ^ Rubin, Rebecca (March 25, 2018). "'Black Panther' Surpasses 'The Avengers' as Highest-Grossing Superhero Movie of All Time in U.S." Variety. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
  241. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 1, 2018). "How Warner Bros. Sold 'Ready Player One' On The Spielberg Spirit & Beat Tracking With $53M+ 4-Day – Sunday Postmortem". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 2, 2018. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
  242. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 8, 2018). "'A Quiet Place' Opens To $50M: How Paramount Turned Up The Volume on the John Krasinski-Emily Blunt Pic". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 9, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  243. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 16, 2018). "The Rock Rebounds: 'Rampage' Shushes 'A Quiet Place' With $35.7M No. 1 Opening". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 16, 2018. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  244. ^ Busch, Anita; D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 22, 2018). "'A Quiet Place' Still Noisy With $21.7M As 'Rampage' Beats Chest, 'Super Trooper 2' Surprises – Sunday AM Update". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  245. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (May 7, 2018). "'Infinity War' Is Second-Fastest Pic To $400M With Second-Best 2nd Weekend Ever, Now Back At $115M+ – Monday". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 7, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  246. ^ Busch, Anita; D'Alessandro, Anthony (May 13, 2018). "'Infinity War' Is Now Second-Fastest To Half Billion; 'Life of the Party' No Pizzazz With $18M+". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 14, 2018. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  247. ^ McClintock, Pamela (April 7, 2018). "Box Office: 'Black Panther' Sails Past 'Titanic' to Become No. 3 Title of All Time in U.S." The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 7, 2018. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  248. ^ a b c d e f Tartaglione, Nancy (February 17, 2018). "'Black Panther' Rises To $82M Through Friday; $150M+ Weekend in Sight – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  249. ^ a b c Tartaglione, Nancy (March 4, 2018). "'Black Panther' Pouncing On $400M Overseas, $900M WW – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  250. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (March 11, 2018). "'Black Panther' Tops $500M Overseas, $1B WW With $67M China Bow; 'Tomb Raider' Kicks Off – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 12, 2018. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
  251. ^ a b Tartaglione, Nancy (March 18, 2018). "'Tomb Raider' Tops $100M Offshore, Digs Up $41M in China – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  252. ^ Chutel, Lynsey (March 21, 2018). "'Black Panther' is now the highest grossing film ever in East, West and southern Africa". Quartz Africa. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  253. ^ Busch, Anita; Tartaglione, Nancy (April 1, 2018). "'Ready Player One' Grabs $128M Abroad While Taking $181M+ Globally; 'Peter Rabbit' Crosses $200M – Int'l Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 2, 2018. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
  254. ^ a b Tartaglione, Nancy (April 8, 2018). "'Ready Player One' Racing To $400M WW; Scores $161M+ In China For WB Best – International Box Office". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 9, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  255. ^ "Black Panther Reviews: More Than Just Another Marvel Triumph". Rotten Tomatoes. February 6, 2017. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  256. ^ "Black Panther (2018)". Rotten Tomatoes (Fandango). Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  257. ^ McClintock, Pamela (February 18, 2018). "'Black Panther' Earns Highest-Ever Score for Live-Action Superhero Pic on Rotten Tomatoes". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  258. ^ "Black Panther Reviews". Metacritic (CBS Interactive). Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  259. ^ McCarthy, Todd (February 6, 2018). "'Black Panther': Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  260. ^ Debruge, Peter (February 6, 2018). "Film Review: 'Black Panther'". Variety. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  261. ^ Dargis, Manohla (February 6, 2018). "Review: 'Black Panther' Shakes Up Marvel With Flair and Feeling". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  262. ^ Turan, Kenneth (February 6, 2018). "'Black Panther' is a royally imaginative standout in the Marvel Cinematic Universe". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  263. ^ Roeper, Richrd (February 13, 2018). "'Black Panther': One of Marvel's best movie superheroes comes out of Africa". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  264. ^ Truitt, Brian (February 6, 2018). "Review: Rousing, representative 'Black Panther' is one spectacular superhero". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  265. ^ Travers, Peter (February 6, 2018). "'Black Panther': Marvel's History-Making Superhero Movie's a Masterpiece". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  266. ^ Alford, Natasha (February 6, 2018). "Early Review: 'Black Panther' is a masterpiece. Here's why you need to see it for yourself". The Grio. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  267. ^ Broadnax, Jamie (February 6, 2018). "BGN Film Review: 'Black Panther' – Marvel's Greatest Accomplishment". Black Girl Nerds. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  268. ^ Bouie, Jamelle (February 15, 2018). "Black Panther Is a Marvel Movie Superpowered by Its Ideas". Slate. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  269. ^ Hardawar, Devindra (February 24, 2018). "'Black Panther' is amazing. Why are its CG models so terrible?". Engadget. Archived from the original on June 20, 2018. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  270. ^ Turner, Erlanger (March 9, 2018). "Why 'Black Panther' means so much to the black community". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on June 16, 2018. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  271. ^ a b c d Edwards, Breanna (January 22, 2018). "#BlackPantherChallenge Has Taken the Internet by Storm and Celebrities Are Chipping In". The Root. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  272. ^ a b Tate, Allison Slater (January 11, 2018). "Man wants kids everywhere to see 'Black Panther' – and he's going to send them". Today. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  273. ^ a b c d Agbabiaka, Precious Mayowa (February 9, 2018). "'Young black people can be heroes too': the campaign to send kids to see Black Panther". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 18, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  274. ^ Rosario, Richy (January 18, 2018). "#BlackPantherChallenge Inspires Nationwide Initiative For Kids To Watch 'Black Panther'". Vibe. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  275. ^ Lee, Lauren (January 10, 2018). "An activist starts a GoFundMe campaign to help kids in Harlem see 'Black Panther'". CNN. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  276. ^ Lenker, Maureen Lee (January 31, 2018). "Octavia Spencer plans to buy out Mississippi screening of 'Black Panther' for underserved communities". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on February 1, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  277. ^ Reynolds, Tiffanie (January 17, 2018). "Local attorney puts Jacksonville up to Black Panther Challenge for underprivileged youth". The Florida Times-Union. Jacksonville. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  278. ^ a b c Truitt, Brian (January 29, 2018). "Daring, diverse 'Black Panther' promises to be Hollywood's latest 'cultural touchstone'". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 31, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2018.
  279. ^ Smith, Jamil (February 8, 2018). "The Revolutionary Power of Black Panther". Time. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  280. ^ Connolly, Nathan D.B. (February 16, 2018). "How 'Black Panther' Taps into 500 Years of History". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  281. ^ King, Shaun (February 20, 2018). "Black Panther is one of the most important cultural moments in American history". Medium. Archived from the original on June 8, 2018. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  282. ^ Wilt, James (February 21, 2018). "How Black Panther liberalizes black resistance for white comfort". Canadian Dimension. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  283. ^ Rickford, Russell (February 22, 2018). "I have a problem with Black Panther". Africa is a Country. Archived from the original on March 4, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  284. ^ Kutty, Faisal (February 27, 2018). "Is Black Panther Islamophobic?". Middle Eastern Eye. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  285. ^ Gathara, Patrick (February 26, 2018). "'Black Panther' offers a regressive, neocolonial vision of Africa". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  286. ^ Wong (Omowale), Dwayne (January 14, 2018). "The Black Panther and Neo-Colonial Politics in Africa". HuffPost. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  287. ^ Gonzalez, Carlos Rosario (February 19, 2018). "The remnants of colonialism still haunt us, but Black Panther offers a solution". Bam! Smack! Pow! (Fansided). Time, Inc. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  288. ^ Cobb, Jelani (February 18, 2018). "'Black Panther' and the Invention of 'Africa'". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on February 28, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  289. ^ Lebron, Christopher (February 17, 2018). "'Black Panther' Is Not the Movie We Deserve". Boston Review. Archived from the original on March 4, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  290. ^ "Billboard Music Awards 2018 Nominations: See the Full List". Billboard. April 17, 2018. Archived from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  291. ^ Hipes, Patrick (May 9, 2018). "Golden Trailer Award Nominations: 'The Shape Of Water', 'Hitman's Bodyguard' Top List". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 2, 2018. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  292. ^ Hipes, Patrick (May 31, 2018). "'Black Panther' Wins Best in Show at Golden Trailer Awards". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 2, 2018. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  293. ^ Nordyke, Kimberly (June 18, 2018). "MTV Movie & TV Awards: 'Black Panther,' 'Stranger Things' Take Top Honors". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  294. ^ McNary, Dave (March 15, 2018). "'Black Panther,' 'Walking Dead' Rule Saturn Awards Nominations". Variety. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  295. ^ "BET Networks Announces Official Nominees For The 'BET Awards' 2018" (Press release). New York, NY: Black Entertainment Television. May 16, 2018. Archived from the original on May 17, 2018. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  296. ^ Cohen, Jess (June 13, 2018). "Teen Choice Awards 2018: Avengers: Infinity War, Black Panther and Riverdale Among Top Nominees". E! Online. Archived from the original on June 13, 2018. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  297. ^ Setoodeh, Ramin (February 14, 2018). "'Black Panther': Marvel Studios President Kevin Feige on Casting Chadwick Boseman and Sequel Talk". Variety. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  298. ^ Erao, Matthew (February 6, 2018). "Coogler Interested in Seeing What Kind of King Black Panther Becomes in Sequels". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on February 9, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  299. ^ Breznican, Anthony (March 9, 2018). "Marvel Studios chief Kevin Feige on the future of Black Panther, Captain Marvel, X-Men – and beyond". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 9, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2018.

External links

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.