Baiyue

This page was last edited on 22 February 2018, at 17:05.

The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were an ancient conglomeration of indigenous non-Chinese hill tribes who inhabited what is now Southern China and Northern Vietnam between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.[1][2][3][4][5][6] In the Warring States period, the word "Yue" referred to the State of Yue in Zhejiang. The later kingdoms of Minyue in Fujian and Nanyue in Guangdong were both considered Yue states. Although the Yue had an inchoate knowledge of agriculture and shipbuilding, Han dynasty Chinese writers regarded the indigenous Yue peoples as inferior, backward, and uncivilised barbarians who had tattoos, lived in primitive conditions, and lacked basic technology such as swords, bows, arrows, horses and chariots.[7][8][9][10][11]

The Yue aborigines were gradually displaced and assimilated into Chinese culture as the Han empire expanded into what is now Southern China and Northern Vietnam during the first half of the first millennium AD.[12][13][14] Many modern southern Chinese dialects bear traces of substrate languages originally spoken by the ancient Yue. Variations of the name are still used for the name of modern Vietnam, in Zhejiang-related names including Yue Opera, and in the abbreviation for Guangdong.

Baiyue
Yue statue
Statue of a man, from the state of Yue
Chinese name
Chinese 百越
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Bǎiyuè
Wu
Romanization pah yuih
Gan
Romanization bak-yet
Hakka
Pha̍k-fa-sṳ Pak-ye̍t
Yue: Cantonese
Yale Romanization Baak yuht
Jyutping Baak3 jyut6
Canton Romanization Bag3 yüd6
Southern Min
Hokkien POJ Pah-oa̍t
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUC Báh-uŏk
Pu-Xian Min
Hinghwa BUC Beh-e̤̍h
Northern Min
Jian'ou Romanized Bă-ṳ̆e
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Bách Việt
Zhuang name
Zhuang Bakyez

Names

The modern term "Yue" (Chinese: or ; pinyin: Yuè; Cantonese Yale: Yuht; Wade–Giles: Yüeh4; Vietnamese: Việt; Zhuang: Vot; Early Middle Chinese: Wuat) comes from Old Chinese *ɢʷat (William H. Baxter and Laurent Sagart 2014).[15] It was first written using the pictograph "戉" for an axe (a homophone), in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions of the late Shang dynasty (c. 1200 BC), and later as "越".[16] At that time it referred to a people or chieftain to the northwest of the Shang.[5] In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle Yangtze were called the Yángyuè, a term later used for peoples further south.[5] Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC "Yue" referred to the State of Yue in the lower Yangtze basin and its people.[5][16]

The term "Hundred Yue" first appears in the book Lüshi Chunqiu compiled around 239 BC.[17] It was used as a collective term for the non-Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam.[5]

Ancient texts mention a number of Yue states or groups. Most of these names survived into early imperial times:

Ancient Yue states or groups
Chinese Mandarin Cantonese (Jyutping) Zhuang Vietnamese Literal English trans.:
於越/于越 Yūyuè jyu1 jyut6 Ư Việt Yue
揚越 Yángyuè joeng4 jyut6 Dương Việt Yang Yue
閩越 Mǐnyuè man5 jyut6 Mân Việt Min Yue
夜郎 Yèláng je6 long4 Dạ Lang Yelang
南越 Nányuè naam4 jyut6 Namzyied Nam Việt Southern Yue
山越 Shānyuè saan1 jyut6 Sơn Việt Mountain Yue
雒越 Luòyuè lok6 jyut6 Lạc Việt Sea Bird Yue
甌越 Ōuyuè au1 jyut6 Âu Việt Ou Yue

Peoples of the lower Yangtze

Sword of Goujian, Hubei Provincial Museum, 2015-04-06 09
Sword of Goujian, labelled as belonging to a king of Yue

In the 5th millennium BC, the lower Yangtze area was already a major population centre, occupied by the Hemudu and Majiabang cultures, who were among the earliest cultivators of rice paddy fields in the fecund delta areas..[18]

By the 3rd millennium BC, the successor Liangzhu culture shows some influence from the Longshan-era cultures due to trade and commerce.[19] However, Y-chromosome DNA from Liangzhu culture sites shows a high frequency of haplogroup O-M119, which is also common among modern Taiwanese aborigines and speakers of Tai–Kadai languages in southwest China. Wucheng culture sites had a quite different profile, featuring haplogroups O-M95 and O-M122, which are found in several modern populations in east and southeast Asia.[20]

From the 9th century BC, two northern Yue peoples, the Gou-Wu and Yu-Yue, were increasingly influenced by their Chinese neighbours to their north. These two states were based in the areas of what is now southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang, respectively. Their aristocratic elite learned the written Chinese language and adopted Chinese political institutions and military technology. Traditional accounts attribute the cultural change to Taibo, a Zhou prince who had self-exiled to the south. The marshy lands of the south gave Gou-Wu and Yu-Yue unique characteristics. They did not engage in extensive agrarian agriculture, relying instead more heavily on fishing, hunting and aquaculture.[21] Prior to Han Chinese migration from the north, the Yue aborigines cultivated wet rice, domesticated water buffalo, built stilt houses,tattooed their faces and dominated the coastal regions from shores all the way to the fertile valleys in the interior mountains.[22][23][24][25][26][27] Water transport was paramount in the south, so the two states became advanced in shipbuilding and developed maritime warfare technology mapping trade routes to Eastern coasts of China and Southeast Asia.[28][29] They were also known for their fine swords.

In the Spring and Autumn period, the two states, now called Wu and Yue, were becoming increasingly involved in Chinese politics. According to the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian, King Goujian of Yue was descended from the legendary Yu the Great.[30]

In 512 BC, Wu launched a large expedition against the large state of Chu, based in the Middle Yangtze River. A similar campaign in 506 succeeded in sacking the Chu capital Ying. Also in that year, war broke out between Wu and Yue and continued with breaks for the next three decades. In 473 BC, Goujian finally conquered Wu and was acknowledged by the northern states of Qi and Jin. In 333 BC, Yue was in turn conquered by Chu.[31]

After the fall of Yue, the ruling family moved south to what is now Fujian and established the Minyue kingdom.

The Yayoi people, the ancient people of Wa, in Japan are genetically and archeologically linked to the early people of the Yangtze-river and share several cultural aspects with them.[32]

Sinification and displacement

Qin empire 210 BCE
Qin empire and Yue peoples, 210 BC
Nam-Viet 200bc
Nanyue, an ancient kingdom consisting parts of the modern southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan and northern Vietnam, 200 BC

The "Treatise of Geography" in the Book of Han describes the Yue lands as stretching from Shaoxing on the southern shore of Hangzhou Bay to Jiaozhi in modern north Vietnam.[31] Throughout the Han dynasty era, two groups of Yue were identified, that of the Nanyue in the far south, who lived mainly in the area of what is now the modern Chinese provinces Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern parts of modern Vietnam; and that of the Minyue to the southeast, centered on the Min River in the modern Fujian province.

After the unification of China by Emperor Qin Shi Huang, the former Wu and Yue states were absorbed into the nascent Qin empire. The Qin armies also advanced south along the Xiang River to modern Guangdong and set up commanderies along the main communication routes. Motivated by the region's vast land and valuable exotic products, Emperor Qin Shi Huang secured his boundaries to the north with a fraction of his large army, and sent the majority south to seize the land and profit from it while attempting to subdue the barbarian Yue tribes of the southern provinces.[33][34][35][36] The Han dynasty historian Sima Qian in his book Records of the Grand Historian wrote: "In the south he seized the land of the hundred tribes of the Yue and made of it Guilin and Xiang provinces, and the lords of the hundred Yue bowed their heads, hung halters from their necks, and pleaded for their lives with the lowest officials of the Qin."[37] By 214 BC, Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern Vietnam were subjugated and annexed into the Qin empire.[38] Emperor Qin Shi Huang imposed sinification by importing Han Chinese settlers to displace, weaken, and ultimately eliminate the indigenous Yue culture and sense of Yue ethnic consciousness to prevent nationalism that could potentially lead to the desire of independent states.[39] To exercise even greater control to sinicize and displace the indigenous Yue, Qin Shi Huang forced the settlement of thousands of Han Chinese immigrants, many of which were convicted felons and exiles to move from northern China to the newly annexed Qin domains.[40]

In 208 BC, the Qin Chinese renegade general Zhao Tuo defeated An Dương Vương, the king of Âu Lạc in north Vietnam and conquered the Âu Lạc Kingdom, an ancient Vietnamese state situated in the northern mountains of modern Vietnam populated by the ancient Lạc Việt and Âu Việt.[41][42] He annexed Âu Lạc into the Qin Empire the following and declared himself the emperor of Nanyue.[43] Towards the end of the Qin dynasty, many peasant rebellions led Zhao Tuo to claim independence from the imperial government and declared himself the emperor of Nanyue in 207 BC. Zhao led the peasants to rise up against the much despised Qinshi Emperor.[44] Zhao opened up Guangxi and southern China to the immigration of hundreds of thousands of Han Chinese and the kingdom of Nanyue was established after the collapse of the Qin dynasty in 204 BC.[45] Zhao established his capital at Panyu (modern Guangzhou) and partitioned his empire into seven provinces.[46] At its height, Nanyue was the strongest of the Yue states, with Zhao declaring himself emperor and receiving allegiance from the neighboring kings.[47] The dominant ethnicities of this kingdom were the Han Chinese and Yue, who held all the most important positions in the kingdom.[48][49] Unlike Emperor Qin Shi Huang, Zhao respected Yue customs, rallied their local rulers, and forced local chiefs to be controlled by central government administrators. Under Zhao's rule, he encouraged Han Chinese settlers to intermarry with the indigenous Yue through instituting a policy of “Harmonizing and Gathering" while embarking on a sinicization campaign that promoted Han Chinese culture and customs to assimilate the Yue tribes.[50][51][52]

%E6%BC%A2%E6%AD%A6%E5%B8%9D
In 111 BC, Emperor Han Wudi successfully conquered Nanyue and annexed it into the Han empire.[53][54][55]

In 111 BC, the powerful Han dynasty annexed Nanyue into the Han Empire and it was ruled as a Chinese province for the next several hundred years until 939 AD.[56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63] The Han court established nine commanderies in the former territory of Nanyue and the whole area was made part of the Han dynasty proper.[64] Nanyue was seen as attractive to the Han rulers as they desired to secure the area's maritime trade routes and gain access to luxury goods from the south such as pearls, incense, elephant tusks, rhinoceros horns, tortoise shells, coral, parrots, kingfishers, peacocks, and other rare luxuries to satisfy the demands of the Han aristocracy.[65][66][67][68][69] During the Han dynasty, Panyu was already functioning as a center for international maritime trade and was already one of the most economically prosperous metropolises during the Han dynasty.[70] Regions in the principal ports of modern Guangdong were used for the production of pearls and a trading terminal for maritime silk with Ancient India and the Roman Empire.[71][72][73] Sinification of Nanyue was brought about by a combination of Han imperial military power, regular settlement and an influx of Han Chinese refugees, officers and garrisons, merchants, scholars, bureaucrats, fugitives, and prisoners of war.[74][75][76][77][78] Northern and central China was a theater of imperial dynastic conflict and huge episodes of dynastic conflict sent waves of Han Chinese refugees into the south. With dynastic changes, wars, and foreign invasions, Han Chinese living in central China were forced to expand into the unfamiliar and southern barbarian regions in large numbers.[79][80][81] As the number of Han Chinese immigrants into the Yue coastal regions increased, many Chinese families moved south to flee political unrest, military service, tax obligations, persecution, or sought new opportunities while bringing with them Han Chinese culture and ethics as part of the sinicization process, which took root as they settled down into the newly conquered areas.[82][83][84] Immigrants were divided into the early settlers and latecomers. Early arrivals took advantage of the easily accessible fertile land while latecomers had to continue migrating to more remote areas.[85] Conflicts would sometimes arise between the two groups but eventually Han Chinese immigrants from the northern plains moved south to form ad hoc groups and take on the role as powerful local political leaders, many of whom accepted Chinese government titles.[86] According to one Han Chinese immigrant of the 2nd century BC: "The Yue cut their hair short, tattooed their body, live in bamboo groves with neither towns nor villages, possessing neither bows or arrows, nor horses or chariots."[7][87] Throughout the Qin-Han period, large waves of Han Chinese immigrants from the northern and central plains slowly penetrated southern China.[88][89] Each new wave of Han immigrants began to exert additional pressure on the indigenous Yue inhabitants as the Han Chinese in southern China gradually became the predominant ethnic group in local life while displacing the indigenous Yue into more mountainous and remote border areas.[90][91] The difficulty of logistics and the malarial climate in the south made the displacement and eventual sinification of the Yue a slow process.[92][93] Over the same period, the Han dynasty incorporated many other border peoples such as the Dian and assimilated them.[94] Under the direct rule and greater efforts at sinification by the victorious Han, the territories of the Lac states were annexed and ruled directly, along with other former Yue territories to the north as provinces of the Han empire.[95]

Han Civilisation
Han empire and Yue peoples, 2 AD

With the political and commercial southward expansion of the Han dynasty in addition to the southward migration of the Han Chinese led to greater contact with non-Han southerners.[96][97][98] The Han dynasty was motivated to expand towards the southern parts of modern China to what Han dynasty writers and local Chinese agents considered barbarian peripheral regions in part from a desire to capture the region's exotic and rare goods, the abundance of untapped natural resources as well as securing international maritime trade routes.[99] Han conquests brought the Chinese into contact with new barbarian peoples within the empire.[100][101][102][103][104] During the Han Dynasty, the Chinese perspective shaped the hierarchical social order of Heaven, Human, and Earth where the Emperor's divine position that who reigned a hierarchical social world as the Son of Heaven who governed the civilized areas populated by the Han Chinese in contrast to the "barbarians", who belonged to the lowest position in the hierarchy of the Chinese social order, and all who belonged to this lowest level were considered to be inferior.[105] As the Han dynasty expanded southward, Chinese civilization was spread to the southern part of modern China as the area was considered long by ancient Chinese writers a primitive and barbarian region.[106][107][108][109][110][111][112] The Han government coined a variety of terms to describe inhabitants living beyond the Han dynasty's confines.[113] Continuing internal Han Chinese migration during the Han dynasty eventually brought all the non-Chinese Yue coastal peoples under Chinese political control and cultural influence.[114] As the heartland of the Han Chinese was centralized around the Yellow River, all regions to the south beyond the Yangtze River were considered barbaric and distant.[115] By the time of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 AD), the Han empire would have regular interaction with non-Chinese peoples such as the Yue, and the Han Chinese foisted a sinocentric worldview that purportedly considered the Han Chinese as a highly civilized and advanced people inhabiting a superior civilization, and the indigenous non-Han southerners living in surrounding frontier regions of China’s they considered barbaric.[116][117][118][119][120] Han dynasty officials shared a common contempt for Yue life and culture, regarding the indigenous Yue aborigines as an inferior and uncivilized people who had no future but to be ruled by the Chinese governing elite. The justifications for Han Chinese guardianship over the indigenous Yue peoples rested on the notion of racial superiority and Chinese cultural ethnocentricity, in which the indigenous Yue peoples were viewed as inferior, backward, and uncivilised heathens without the innate capacity of governing themselves and inherent incapability of producing a cultural, technological, and economically advanced civilization like the Han Chinese.[121][122][123][124] Non-Han Chinese such as Yue were seen by Han colonial administrators as a barbaric race for their perceived lack of civilization and that importing an influx of Han Chinese immigrants were seen as part of a civilizing project spearheaded by a dynastic Han imperialist enterprise to take over the land from a backward people that the Han dynasty bureaucrats saw as an inferior periphery to the Han Chinese.[125][126][127][128] Casting themselves as leaders of a universal empire, Han Chinese rulers, imperial officers, colonial administrators, and explorers considered the Yue to be bereft of the superior Han civilization and was thus considered worthy of being conquered.[129] The newly conquered and subjugated Yue were obliged to acknowledge Chinese dominance and Han cultural superiority, along with the emperor’s cosmic status, by deferentially offering tribute and to accept the fact that a more developed and advanced group has come in and taken their place.[130][131]

%E4%BC%8F%E6%B3%A2%E5%B1%B1
The Han dynasty General Ma Yuan left behind a legacy by enforcing full Chinese administration that brought restoration and order through the adoption of Han statutes, laws and customs to assimilate the conquered Yue aborigines.

The development of the Han Empire's colonialism of the Baiyue was justified through sinocentrism, that legitimizing aggressive expansion through military conquest and assimilation was a mission in the face to what the Han rulers perception of the indigneous Yue as backward, primitive, and uncivilized barbarians due to their lack of civilization.[132][133][134][135][136][137][138] Early Han Chinese government officials regarded the Yue as inferior due to their lack of cultural, technological, and economic sophistication.[139][140][141][142] Han dynasty officials expressed scorn, prejudice and contempt towards the Yue's lack of civilization as they saw the Yue as a backward people that was to be inevitably replaced and assimilated by the more culturally superior and advanced Han Chinese.[143][144][145][146][147][148] The Chinese as early as the Zhou dynasty were acutely aware of the difference between themselves and non-Chinese and of their own inherent superiority of Chinese civilization.[149][150] With the Han dynasty's interaction with non-Chinese peoples such as the Yue, key elements of this view established by Han rulers was that the Han dynasty was a celestial empire based on a hierarchical social world in which all were assigned their status, including non-Chinese. Han rulers affirmed the Chinese cultural view that Chinese civilization was superior and would be convinced that it would be available to less cultured peoples to recognize it along with the cosmic status of the emperor.[151][152] The Chinese made a clear distinction within their own Chinese world order between themselves as well as among the people they categorized as barbarians, especially groups such as the Yue would be inevitably colonized through Han imperialist expansion.[153][154] Local Yue tribal chieftrains throughout the conquered regions who adopted elements of Han Chinese civilization would further legitimize the Han dynasty's colonization.[155] Various indigenous Yue political identities were completely decimated by 110 BC as the Han dynasty absorbed the remnants of Nanyue into the empire. Powerful Han colonialists such as General Ma Yuan enforced the adoption of Han statutes, laws and customs in the first century AD to civilize and assimilate the conquered Yue tribes.[156] Ma provided insight on how the Yue were seen as culturally distinct from the Han Chinese in terms of cultural sophistication, laws and statutes, levels of technological advancement, economic development and complexity of social stratification. Ma would later go down in Chinese history as a heroic official who brought Chinese civilization to the Yue.[157] The Han dynasty sought to exert a permanent influence on Yue administration, law, education, literature, language, and culture through the implementation of Imperial Han Chinese law and Confucian ethics that would eventually displace indigenous customs, thus assimilating the indigenous Yue into civilized Han subjects.[158] Han bureaucrats imposed Confucianism to re-educate and reform the Yue as they believed that they could be civilized and ultimately be absorbed into Chinese culture.[159] Han Chinese bureaucrats imposed much of Chinese high culture onto the indigenous Yue including bureaucratic Legalist techniques and Confucian ethics, art, literature, and language. Furthermore, Han government administrators sought to assimilate the Yue under their authority through the additional establishment of Confucianist institutes and schools dedicated towards teaching of Confucian ethics, philosophies and Han Chinese morality.[160][161] Attempts by the Han dynasty to assimilate non-Han Chinese groups such as the Baiyue were recorded in the Book of Han.[162] Han colonial authorities used colonial administrative structures, kinship networks, and cults to rule the Yue indirectly.[163] Tribal divisions among the Yue were exploited by the Han dynasty with the Han military winning battles against the southern kingdoms and commandaries that were of geographic and strategic value to them. Han foreign policy also exploited the political turmoil among Yue leaders and enticed them with bribes and lured prospects for submitting to the Han Empire as a subordinate vassal.[164] By the end of the Han dynasty, local Chinese officials described the uncivilized and primitive nature of the Yue as they were prone to fight one another.[165][166]

As the number of Han Chinese migrants intensified following the Han Empire's annexation of Nanyue, the Yue were gradually displaced and driven out into poorer land on the hills and into the mountains.[167][168][169][170][171][172][173][174][175][176][13][177][178][179] Military farm colonies were established to administer the newly conquered domains and paved the way for further subsequent Chinese settlement as large incoming waves of Han Chinese immigrants from Northern and central China poured into the southern lowlands and interior river valleys over the centuries throughout succeeding Chinese dynasties.[180][181][182][183][184] Han Chinese military garrisons showed little patience with the Yue aborigines who refused to submit to Han Chinese imperial power and resisted the influx of Han Chinese immigrants, driving them out to the coastal extremities and the highland areas where they became marginal scavengers and outcasts.[185][186][187][188] Unlike the nomadic peoples of Central Asia, such as the Xiongnu or the Xianbei, the Yue never posed any serious threat to the Han dynasty's colonial expansion as no foreign kingdom ever posed an equivalent military threat to the Han empire than the nomadic steppe peoples of the north.[189] Displaced Yue tribes often staged sneak attacks and small-scale raids or attacks to reclaim their lost territories on Chinese settlements termed "rebellions" by traditional historians but were eventually put down by the strong action of the Han dynasty's military superiority.[190][191][192][193][194][195][196] Large numbers of Yue aborigines were eventually absorbed and assimilated into Chinese civilization while the remnants of the ancient Yue continue to live in the modern provinces of Zhejiang and Guangdong.[197][198][199][200][201][202][203][204][205][206][207][208][209] Speakers of the Kam–Tai languages—in modern China such as the Zhuang, Buxqyaix, Dai, Aisui, Kam, Hlai, Mulam, Anan, Ong Be, Thai, Lao, and Shan—retain their ethnic identities.[210][211][212]

Language

Knowledge of Yue speech is limited to fragmentary references and possible loanwords in other languages, principally Chinese. The longest is the Song of the Yue Boatman, a short song transcribed phonetically in Chinese characters in 528 BC and included, with a Chinese version, in the Garden of Stories compiled by Liu Xiang five centuries later.[213]

There is some disagreement about the languages they spoke, with candidates drawn from the non-Sinitic language families still represented in areas of southern China, Tai–Kadai, Hmong–Mien and Austroasiatic. Chinese, Tai–Kadai, Hmong–Mien and the Vietic branch of Austroasiatic have similar tone systems, syllable structure, grammatical features and lack of inflection, but these features are believed have spread by diffusion across the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area, rather than indicating common descent.[214]

Jerry Norman and Mei Tsu-Lin presented evidence that at least some Yue spoke an Austroasiatic language:[16][215][216]

  • Zheng Xuan (127–200 AD) wrote that (middle Chinese: "jaat", modern Mandarin Chinese , modern Sino-Vietnamese: "trát") was the word used by the Yue people (越人) to mean "die". Norman and Mei reconstruct this word as OC *tsət and relate it to Austroasiatic words with the same meaning, such as Vietnamese chết and Mon chɒt.
  • According to the Shuowen Jiezi (100 AD), "In Nanyue, the word for dog is (Chinese: 撓獀; pinyin: náosōu; EMC: nuw-ʂuw)", possibly related to other Austroasiatic terms. Sōu is "hunt" in modern Chinese.
  • The early Chinese name for the Yangtze (Chinese: ; pinyin: jiāng; EMC: kœ:ŋ; OC: *kroŋ; Cantonese: "kong") was later extended to a general word for "river" in south China. Norman and Mei suggest that the word is cognate with Vietnamese sông (from *krong) and Mon kruŋ "river".

They also provide evidence of an Austroasiatic substrate in the vocabulary of Min Chinese.[16][217] Norman and Mei's hypothesis is widely quoted, but has recently been criticized by Laurent Sagart who suggest that on the most eastern coast Austronesian languages were spoken and in inland areas Austroasiatic languages.[218]

Scholars in China often assume that the Yue spoke an early form of Tai–Kadai. The linguist Wei Qingwen gave a rendering of the "Song of the Yue boatman" in Standard Zhuang. Zhengzhang Shangfang proposed an interpretation of the song in written Thai (dating from the late 13th century) as the closest available approximation to the original language, but his interpretation remains controversial.[213][218]

Legacy

Wuyishan Chengcun Hancheng Yizhi 2012.08.24 10-17-24
Ruins of a Minyue city in Wuyishan, Fujian

The fall of the Han dynasty and the succeeding period of division sped up the process of sinicization. Periods of instability and war in northern and central China, such as the Northern and Southern dynasties and during the Song dynasty sent larges waves of Han Chinese into the south.[219] Waves of migration and subsequent intermarriage and cross-cultural dialogue has resulted to a mixture of Chinese and non-Chinese peoples in the south.[220][221] Large incoming waves of Han Chinese immigrants from Northern and Central China poured into the south over the centuries through various succeeding Chinese dynasties has resulted in large-scale intermixing between the Han Chinese and Yue aborigines with much of the indigenous Yue being displaced.[222] Modern Lingnan culture also contains both Nanyue and Han Chinese elements: the modern Cantonese language closely resembles Middle Chinese (the prestige language of the Tang Dynasty), but has retained some features of the long-extinct Nanyue language. Some distinctive features of the vocabulary, phonology, and syntax of southern varieties of Chinese are attributed to substrate languages that were spoken by the Yue.[223][224]

By the Tang dynasty (618–907), the term "Yue" had largely become a regional designation rather than a cultural one, as in the Wuyue state during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in what is now Zhejiang province.

In ancient China, the characters and (both yuè in pinyin) were used interchangeably, but they are differentiated in modern Chinese:

  • The character "越" refers to the original territory of the state of Yue, which was based in what is now northern Zhejiang, especially the areas around Shaoxing and Ningbo. The Shaoxing opera of Zhejiang, for example, is called "Yue Opera". It is also used to write Vietnam, a word adapted from Nányuè (Vietnamese: Nam Việt), (literal English translation as Southern Yue).
  • The character "粵" is associated with the southern province of Guangdong. Both the regional dialects of Yue Chinese and the standard form, popularly called "Cantonese", are spoken in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Macau and in many Cantonese communities around the world.

References

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