Atta-ur-Rahman (chemist)

Last updated on 18 October 2017

Atta-ur-Rahman (Urdu: عطاالرحمان‎; born 22 September 1942), PhD, FRS, FPAS, is a Pakistani scientist specialising in organic chemistry who served as the Chairman of the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan between until and the Minister for Science and Technology between and [1] He currently serves as the Co-Chair of the UN Committee on Science, Technology and Innovation for UNESCAP.[2]

After studying chemistry at the University of Karachi, Atta-ur-Rahman travelled to Cambridge where he received Ph.D and later Sc.D. in organic chemistry. He also has received honorary doctorates from University of Bradford and Asian Institute of Technology, with research focused on Bio-organic chemistry, Synthetic chemistry and Natural product chemistry.[3] He started teaching as an associate professor in 1974 at the University of Karachi and worked as postdoctoral researcher at the University of Tübingen as part of the German Academic Exchange. He serves as the patron of Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry and professor emeritus of Chemistry at the Karachi University.[4]

Atta-ur-Rahman is an expert in the field of natural product chemistry in South Asia, with over 1080 scientific publications in the field of Organic chemistry, 37 patents, including 221 books written or edited by him, published largely in USA and Europe.[5] He serves as the Editor In Chief of several peer reviewed journals including the Current Medicinal Chemistry and the Current Organic Chemistry. He has been a Fellow of the Royal Society since July 2006 and has served as the President of Pakistan Academy of Sciences. In recognition of his contributions in the field of organic chemistry, he has been conferred with four Government of Pakistan civil awards including Nishan-e-Imtiaz (2002), Hilal-i-Imtiaz (1998), Sitara-i-Imtiaz (1991) and Tamgha-e-Imtiaz (1983).[3][6] He has also been conferred the high Civil Aaward of the Government of Austria“Grosse Goldene Ehrenzeischen am Bande") (2007) in recognition of his eminent contributions to uplift higher education in Pakistan and the close linkages developed with Austria [7] He was the first recipient of the Khwarizmi International Award and the first Muslim to receive the UNESCO Science Prize (1999).[8] He was conferred the highest national award for foreigners, the Friendship Aaward, by the Government of China[9] As of March 28, 2016, he co-chair's of United Nations Committee on Science, Technology and Innovation for the UNESCAP.[10][11]. In a recent national ranking, the Pakistan Council for Science and Technology ranked him as the top among chemistry professional of Pakistan[12]

Atta-Ur-Rahman (cropped).jpg
Atta-Ur-Rahman (cropped).jpg

Education

Atta-ur-Rahman was born on 22 September 1942 in Delhi, British India ( India) into an Urdu-speaking academic family.[13] His grandfather, Sir Abdur Rahman, was a vice-chancellor of the University of Delhi (1934–38) who briefly served as a judge at the Madras High Court.[14]

In 1946, Sir Abdur Rahman was appointed as vice-chancellor of the Punjab University in Lahore, eventually relocating his family there, a year before the Partition of India took place.[14] Sir Abdur Rahman eventually ascended as a Senior Justice at the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1949.[14] His father, Jamil-ur-Rahman, was a lawyer who established a textile industry in Karachi, Sindh.[14] Atta-ur-Rahman was a bright student at school.[14] After settling in Karachi in 1952, he excelled in passing the competitive O-Level and A-Level from the Karachi Grammar School and joined Karachi University.[14]

Attending Karachi University in 1960, Rahman graduated with a bachelor's degree (with honors) in Chemistry in 1964, with degree concentration in natural products.[14][15] He obtained a Master of Science (MSc) in organic chemistry in 1965, and earned a Commonwealth Scholarship for doctoral studies in the United Kingdom.[14] He joined King's College of the Cambridge University and resumed research in natural products under J. Harlon-Mason.[15] In 1968, Rahman received his Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Organic chemistry; his doctoral thesis contained fundamental work on natural products and organic materials.[14] In 1987, Cambridge University also conferred him with the Doctor of Science (Sc.D.) for his contribution for the advancement of the chemical sciences.[15] In 2007, the Coventry University bestowed him with the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in recognition of his services to help improve science education in Pakistan.[15]

In addition, Rahman has been conferred with the honoris causa by various institutions including the Bradford University (in 2010); the Asian Institute of Technology (in 2010); and the Universiti Teknologi MARA (in 2011).[16]

Academic career

In 1964, Rahman joined the Karachi University as a lecturer in undergraduate chemistry.[16] He remained associated with the Cambridge University between 1969–73, and is presently honorary Life Fellow at the King's College of the Cambridge University .[16] In 1977, he became the deputy director of the Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry at University of Karachi; eventually he was ascended as the Director in 1990.[16] In 1979, Rahman did the post-doctoral research at the University of Tübingen. Upon returning to Pakistan, he joined Karachi University where he lectures and taught chemistry.[16] He was appointed Professor Emeritus at University of Karachi for life.[18]

In 2008, Rahman was appointed as Patron-in-Chief of the International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences (ICCBS). In 2011, Rahman was made emeritus professor of chemistry at the University of Karachi.[16] With more than 1082 international publications, including 221 books and 37 international patents, he has the distinction of being the only scientist to be elected Fellow of Royal Society (London) in 2006 in recognition of research contributions carried out within a country in the Islamic world. He is also the only scientist from the Muslim world to have been awarded the UNESCO Science Prize (1999). He was awarded an Honorary Life Fellowship by King's College, University of Cambridge in 2007, an honorary Doctorate of Science by CambridgeUniversity 1987, a Doctorate of Education by Coventry University in 2007,[19] a Doctorate of Science by Bradford University in 2010, a Doctor of Philosophy by Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand in 2010 and honorary Doctor of Scıence by University of Technology MARA. Malaysıa.[20] A number of other universities have also granted honorary doctorate degrees to Atta-ur-Rahman including Coventry University, Bradford University, University of Karachi, Sir Syed University and Gomal University. He was given the International Cooperation Award, the highest award of the Chinese Academy of Sciences for Institution Building, on 10 January 2014.[21] Rahman was also conferred the highest national award of China, the Friendship Award, at a ceremony held on 29 September 2014 in Beijing, in recognition for his developing a large number of collaborative programs with China.[22] Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was elected as an "Academician" (Foreign member) of Chinese Academy of Sciences, thereby becoming the first scientist from the Muslim World to be so honoured.[23]

International Praise

Since the HEC's reforms have been carried out in 2002, HEC has received praise from the international higher education observers. Prof. Atta-ur_Rahman, founding Chairman of HEC, has received number of prestigious international awards for the remarkable transformation of the higher education sector under his leadership.[24] German academic, Dr. Wolfgang Voelter of Tübingen University in Germany over viewed the performance of HEC under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman and described the reforms in HEC as "A miracle happened." After teaching and visiting in 15 universities of Pakistan, Voelter wrote that the "scenario of education, science and technology in Pakistan has changed dramatically, as never before in the history of the country.[24] The chairperson of the Senate Standing Committee on Education recently announced the first 6 years of HEC under Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman as "Pakistan's golden period in higher education".[25] Recently ThomsonReuters in an independent assessment of Pakistan's progress in international publications has acknowledged that in the last decade there has been a fourfold increase in international publications and a tenfold growth in highly cited papers, statistics that were better than the BRIC countries [26]

American academic Prof. Fred M. Hayward has also praised the reform process undertaken by Pakistan, admitting that "since 2002, a number of extraordinary changes have taken place."[27] Hayward pointed our that "over the last six years almost 4,000 scholars have participated in PhD programs in Pakistan in which more than 600 students have studied in foreign PhD programs."[27] The HEC instituted major upgrades for scientific laboratories, rehabilitating existing educational facilities, expanding the research support, and overseeing the development of one of the best digital libraries in the region.[27] Seeking to meeting the international standard, a quality assurance and accreditation process was also established, of which, ~95% of students sent abroad for training returned, an unusually high result for a developing country in response to improved salaries and working conditions at universities as well as bonding and strict follow-up by the commission, Fulbright, and others."[28]

The HEC's reforms brought about by Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman were also applauded by the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) which reported that the "progress made was breath-taking and has put Pakistan ahead of comparable countries in numerous aspects."[29] In limited time, the HEC established and provided free access to scientific literature by high-speed Internet for all universities, the upgrade of research equipment accessible across the country, and the programme of establishing new universities of science and technology, including science parks attracted the foreign investors, prove the efficiency and the long-term benefits for the country enabled.[29] The UNCSTD has closely monitored the development in Pakistan in the past years, coming to the unanimous conclusion that HEC's program initiated under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman is a "best-practice" example for developing countries aiming at building their human resources and establishing an innovative, technology-based economy.".[30] A number of institutions have been named after Prof. Rahman including the “Atta-ur-Rahman Institute of Natural Product Discovery” (RIND) at Malaysia’s largest university, Universiti Teknologi Mara [31] and the Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences at National University of Science & Technology in Islamabad .[32]

Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has won four international awards for the revolutionary changes in the higher education sector brought in the HEC. The Austrian government conferred its highest civil award (“Grosse Goldene Ehrenzeischen am Bande") in recognition of his eminent contributions.[7] Nature, a leading science journal, has also written a number of editorials and articles about the transformation brought about in Pakistan in the higher education sector under the HEC. In an article entitled "Pakistan Threat to Indian Science" published in the leading daily newspaper Hindustan Times, India, it has been reported that Prof. C. N. R. Rao, Chairman of the Indian Prime Minister's Scientific Advisory Council made a presentation to the Indian Prime Minister at the rapid progress made by Pakistan in the higher education sector under the leadership of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, Chairman, Higher Education Commission. It was reported that as result of the reforms brought about in Pakistan " Pakistan may soon join China in giving India serious competition in science". "Science is a lucrative profession in Pakistan. It has tripled the salaries of its scientists in the last few years.".[33] Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was conferred the highest national Award of the Republic of China in September 2014 for his contributions to develop strong linkages between Pakistan and China in various fields of higher education, science and technology.[34]. In 2016 he was elected as Academiciann (Foreign Member) of Chinese Academy of Sciences, thereby becoming the first scientist from the Islamic world to be bestowed this honour [35].

HAARP Research

In 2010, Atta ur-Rahman published his views that the United States government had financed a science research project, the HAARP program, in Alaska that could affect the weather.[36][37][38] Since 2003, Rahman quoted the European Union resolution condemning USA for research on altering weather patterns through HAARP as well as the 12 international patents obtained in the field by the US supported HAARP initiative in Alaska[39] Rahman has been in conflict with Pervez Hoodbhoy, a nuclear physicist, who has bitterly criticised Rahman on the tremendous achievements of Pakistan in higher education during his tenure as Chairman Higher education Commission with the status of a Federal Minister[36]

This sparked off a debate when Pervez Hoodbhoy lamented the decline of academic standards in Pakistan.[38][40] The views of Hoodbhoy have been strongly refuted by neutral international authorities, Fred Hayward (US consultant to USAID),[41] Wolfgang Voelter (Tübingen University)[42] and Michael Rode (Innsbruck University, Chairman of UN Commission on Science, Technology & Development)[43] who have praised the remarkable transformation of the higher education sector in Pakistan under the leadership of Atta-ur-Rahman.[44] A number of major international prizes and awards have also been won by Atta-ur-Rahman in recognition of these contributions[44] Atta-ur-Rahman has subsequently clarified that he did not state that HAARP could cause earthquakes but he did refer to the European Union resolution that condemned the US funded research on HAARP which could potentially alter weather patterns and on which 12 US patents had been obtained [37][45][46][47]

Positions held

  • Fellow, King's College, Cambridge University (1969–1973, 2007– for Life)
  • Professor at H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry at Karachi University
  • Professor Emeritus at H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry at Karachi University (2012)
  • Coordinator General of COMSTECH(1996–2012)
  • Federal Minister of Science & Technology (2000–2002)
  • Federal Minister of Education (2002)
  • Federal Minister/Chairman, Higher Education Commission, Pakistan (resigned due to govt issues)(2002–2008)
  • Advisor to the Prime Minister of Pakistan on Science and Technology(2002–2008)
  • Honorary Life Fellow, King's College, Cambridge University (2007–present)
  • Member UNESCO High Level Panel on Science & Technology for Development (2011–present)
  • Member Board of Governors, Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver, Canada (2010–present)
  • Distinguished National Professor International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences at Karachi University (2011–for Life)
  • Professor Emeritus, University of Karachi (2011– for Life)
  • Patron-in-Chief International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences at Karachi University (2009–present)
  • President Pakistan Academy of Sciences (2003–2006)(2011–2014)
  • President Network of Academies of Sciences of Islamic Countries (NASIC) (2007–present)
  • Vice President Academy of Sciences of Developing Countries (TWAS) (2008–2011)
  • Co-Chairman Science, Technology and Innovation Committee of United Nations Economic Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (2016–present)

Government work and political advocacy

After securing the fellowship of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, Rahman had been affiliated with the Pakistan government regarding education and science affairs.[16] From 1996 till 2012, Rahman served in the board of directors of the Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation, representing Pakistan's delegation.[16] In 1997, Rahman served as the Coordinator General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation's (OIC) Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation (COMSTECH) that comprised 57 Ministers of Science and Technology from 57 OIC member countries.[48]

In 1999, he joined the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoSci) as its minister, assisting in drafting the official science policy of the country. In 2002, he was appointed as minister of the Ministry of Education (MoEd) as well as becoming the chairman of the Higher Education Commission (HEC) until resigning in 2008.[49] Rahman served as the president of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences for two non-consecutive terms; first from 2003 until 2006, and from 2010 until 2015 for a second term.[16] In 2012, Rahman used this position on providing guidance on science and technology affairs to the Pakistan government on multiple occasions. Rahman bitterly criticized the alleged hydrogen powered vehicle invented by Agha Waqar Ahmad.[50] In a nationwide televised debate with Abdul Qadeer Khan, Samar Mubarakmand, and Pervez Hoodbhoy, he notable argued against it and proved that such invention was in a violation of the second law of thermodynamics as well as law of conservation energy.[51] In 2016 Prof. Rahman was appointed as Co-Chairman of a United Nations Committee on Science, Technology and Innovation covering the member countries of UNESCAP [10]. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has been appointed as the Chairman of two steerin Committees formed to establish the Pakistan Austrian Engineering University (Fachhochschule) in Haripur, Hazara, and the Pakistan Italian Engineering University in Lahore [52]. Prof. Rahman is also the Chairman of the Search Committee for appointment of Vice Chancellors in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and some 20 Vice Chancellors have been appointed by the Search Committee under his Chairmanship.[53]

Rahman is also the former vice-president of The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), which he secured in 2010.[16] The Austrian government also honoured him with its highest civil award ("Das Große Goldene Ehrenzeichen am Bande", 2007) in recognition of his eminent contributions.[54]

In recognition of the contributions of Rahman, a number of institutions have been named after him within and outside Pakistan. These include a natural product chemistry institute (Atta-ur-Rahman Research Institute of Natural Product Discovery, RiND) at the University of Technology Mara in Malaysia,[55] Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences at National University of Science & Technology in Islamabad,[56] and Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Building at the International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi[57] The Academy of Sciences in the Developing World (TWAS) based in Trieste, Italy has introduced a Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Prize in Chemistry to a scientist from the developing world each year. The Prize carries a cash award of $5,000 and a Certificate.[58] Rahman has established a research center for Genomics research at the University of Karachi named after his father Jamil-ur-Rahman from a personal donation. The Center has been named as the "Jamil-ur-Rahman Center for Genomics Research" and has the state of the art facilities for gene sequencing, the only such facility in Pakistan[59]

Honours and awards

Rahman is the most decorated scientist of Pakistan having won four civil awards from successive governments including the highest national Civil Award of Nishan-i-Imtiaz. Rahman was elected as Fellow of Royal Society (London) in July 2006 thereby becoming one of the 4 scientists from the Muslim world to have ever won this honor in the last 350 years when the Royal Society was established, and the only scıentıst to be so recognısed for researches carrıed out wıthın a Islamıc country. His citation on election to the Royal Society reads "Atta-ur-Rahman has discovered a large number of natural products, many of which have exhibited exciting biological activities. He has developed biomimetic synthetic approaches to the anti-cancer alkaloids of Catharanthus roseus. He has also developed new methods for determination of absolute configurations of several classes of organic compounds by circular dichroism studies. These contributions are embodied in 800 research papers in leading international journal,37 international patents and 59 chapters in books. He has also written/edited 221 books published by major international companies. Atta-ur-Rahman has played a pivotal role in the establishment of a world-class Centre of natural product chemistry, a challenging task in a developing country. As Federal Minister for Science & Technology for the last 4 years, he has brought about revolutionary changes in the science & technology and higher education sectors in Pakistan, acknowledged in an editorial in "Nature". As head of a Committee of 57 Ministers of Science (COMSTECH), he has contributed to the uplifting of science in a large number of countries in Africa, Middle East and Central & South Asia." [60] He is also the only scientist from the Muslim world to have been conferred the UNESCO Science Prize in 1999.[61] He has been conferred honorary doctorate degrees by many universities including the degree of Doctor of Science (Sc.D.) by the Cambridge University (UK) (1987) and an Honorary degree of Doctor of Education by Coventry University UK in November 2007. He was elected Honorary Life Fellow of King's College, Cambridge University, UK in 2007. Rahman was conferred the TWAS Prize for Institution Building in Durban, South Africa in October 2009 in recognition of his contributions bringing about revolutionary changes in the higher education sector in Pakistan.[62] He was awarded the Engro Excellence Award in Science & Technology 2011 with a prize of Rs. 5 million (US $59,000) for meritorious contributions.[63] He proceeded to use the money, in addition to funds from his private finances, to establish a research center on Genomics in Karachi University named after his father Jamil-ur-Rahman,[64] and to start a TWAS Prize in Chemistry for deserving young researchers from developing countries that has been instituted by TWAS, The World Academy of Sciences, Trieste, Italy.[58] He received the highest national award for foreigners, the "Friendship Aaward" by the government of China in 2014[9]

He is President of Network of Academies of Sciences of Islamic Countries (NASIC) and the former Vice-President (Central & South Asia) of the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) Council, and Foreign Fellow of Korean Academy of Sciences. Rahman was the President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (2003–06), and was again elected President of Pakistan Academy of Sciences in January 2011. He has been appointed as Co-Chairman of Science, Technology and Innovation Committee of United Nations Economic Social Commission for Asia and Pacific [10]

National awards

In recognition of his eminent contributions in the field of Organic Chemistry, he has been conferred with many civil awards, including:

  • Nishan-e-Imtiaz (2002) (highest national civil award)
  • Hilal-e-Imtiaz (1998)
  • Sitara-e-Imtiaz (1991)
  • Tamgha-e-Imtiaz (1983)
  • Babai Urdu Award (1994)
  • First Pakistan Academy of Sciences-INFAQ Foundation Prize, Gold Medal (1996)
  • Salimuzzaman Siddiqui Gold Medal (1995)
  • Scientist of the Year Award (for 1985)/Prize Rs. 200,000 (1987)
  • FPCCI Prize for Technological Innovation (1985)
  • Open Gold Medal of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (1984)
  • Gold Medal of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (Under 40) (1977)
  • Best Book Prize, Pakistan National Book Council, Government of Pakistan
  • Engro Excellence Award (2010)
  • HEC National Distinguished Professor (2011)
  • Professor Emeritus University of Karachi (2011)
  • Lifetime Achievement Award by University of Management and Technology, Lahore (2012)

International awards

Fellowships

Research activities

  • Editor-in-Chief/Executive Editor of following international journals:
    • Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry (Netherlands)
    • Current Medicinal Chemistry (Netherlands)
    • Current Pharmaceutical Design (Netherlands)(Founding Editor)
    • Current Organic Chemistry (Netherlands)
    • Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening (Netherlands)
    • Current Organic Synthesis (Netherlands)
    • Current Nanoscience
    • Letters in Organic Chemistry (Netherlands)
    • Medicinal Chemistry
    • Nanoscience and Nanotechnology-Asia
    • Current Organic Chemistry
    • Natural Product Research (Founding Editor, UK)
    • Current Pharmaceutical Analysis
    • Current Analytical Chemistry
  • Editor of an encyclopedic series of books on natural product chemistry, Studies in Natural Product Chemistry, 52 volumes of which have been published by Elsevier Science Publishers under his Editorship since 1990.
  • Co-Editor of book series, Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry
  • Director of H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi
  • Patron-in-Chief of the International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi

See also

References

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  2. ^ APP (2016-03-07). "Dr Atta to head UN committee on science, technology and Innovation for UNESCAP". Retrieved 2016-03-07.
  3. ^ a b "International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences | University Of Karachi". www.iccs.edu. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
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  13. ^ Atta ur Rahman at muslim-science.com
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  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
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  22. ^ [email protected]
  23. ^ https://www.col.org/news/news/chinese-academy-sciences-elects-col-board-member-dr-atta-ur-rahman-first-foreign-member
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  26. ^ The report is available at http://images.info.science.thomsonreuters.biz/Web/ThomsonReutersScience/%7Bdab71dc1-d7d8-48af-88a6-fa7efa61ae22%7D_Pakistan_Citation_Report_FINAL.pdf
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  30. ^ Rode, Bernd Michael. Letter from Chairman/European Coordinator of ASEA-UNINET published in DAWN today, DildilpakistanWordpress, retrieved 10 March 2010
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  37. ^ a b http://dawn.com/2010/11/20/haarp-a-us-weapon-of-mass-destruction/
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  39. ^ http://vaken.se/modules/newbb/viewtopic.php?topic_id=17744
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  44. ^ a b Higher Education Commission of Pakistan
  45. ^ http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+REPORT+A4-1999-0005+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN
  46. ^ http://www.fourwinds10.net/siterun_data/science_technology/new_technologies_and_inventions/news.php?q=1267570385
  47. ^ The European Parliament document “The European Parliament: – having regard to the hearing on HAARP and Non-lethal Weapons held by the Foreign Affairs Subcommitee on Security and Disarmament in Brussels on 5 February 1998,” and “T. whereas, despite the existing conventions, military research is ongoing on environmental manipulation as a weapon, as demonstrated for example by the Alaska-based HAARP system,” and “Legal aspects of military activities – 26. Calls on the European Union to seek to have the new ‘non-lethal’ weapons technology and the development of new arms strategies also covered and regulated by international conventions; 27. Considers HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project) by virtue of its far-reaching impact on the environment to be a global concern and calls for its legal, ecological and ethical implications to be examined by an international independent body before any further research and testing; regrets the repeated refusal of the United States Administration to send anyone in person to give evidence to the public hearing or any subsequent meeting held by its competent committee into the environmental and public risks connected with the high Frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) programme currently being funded in Alaska; 28. Requests the Scientific and Technological Options Assessment (STOA) Panel to agree to examine the scientific and technical evidence provided in all existing research findings on HAARP to assess the exact nature and degree of risk that HAARP poses both to the local and global environment and to public health generally; 29. Calls on the Commission, in collaboration with the governments of Sweden, Finland, Norway and the Russian Federation, to examine the environmental and public health implications of the HAARP programme for Arctic Europe and to report back to Parliament with its findings;” and “HAARP – a weapons system which disrupts the climate On 5 February 1998 Parliament’s Subcommittee on Security and Disarmament held a hearing the subject of which included HAARP. NATO and the US had been invited to send representatives, but chose not to do so. The Committee regrets the failure of the USA to send a representative to answer questions, or to use the opportunity to comment on the material submitted.(21) HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project) is run jointly by the US Air Force and Navy, in conjunction with the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Similar experiments are also being conducted in Norway, probably in the Antarctic, as well as in the former Soviet Union.(22) HAARP is a research project using a ground based apparatus, an array of antennae each powered by its own transmitter, to heat up portions of ionosphere with powerful radio beams.(23) The energy generated heats up parts of the ionosphere; this results in holes in the ionosphere and produces artificial ‘lenses’. HAARP can be used for many purposes. Enormous quantities of energy can be controlled by manipulating the electrical characteristics of the atmosphere. If used as a military weapon this can have a devastating impact on an enemy. HAARP can deliver millions of times more energy to a given area than any other conventional transmitter. The energy can also be aimed at a moving target which should constitute a potential anti-missile system. The project would also allow better communications with submarines and manipulation of global weather patterns, but it is also possible to do the reverse, to disrupt communications. By manipulating the ionosphere one could block global communications while transmitting one’s own. Another application is earth-penetrating, tomography, x-raying the earth several kilometres deep, to detect oil and gas fields, or underground military facilities. Over-the-horizon radar is another application, looking round the curvature of the earth for in-coming objects. From the 1950s the USA conducted explosions of nuclear material in the Van Allen Belts(24) to investigate the effect of the electro-magnetic pulse generated by nuclear weapon explosions at these heights on radio communications and the operation of radar. This created new magnetic radiation belts which covered nearly the whole earth. The electrons travelled along magnetic lines of force and created an artificial Aurora Borealis above the North Pole. These military tests are liable to disrupt the Van Allen belt for a long period. The earth’s magnetic field could be disrupted over large areas, which would obstruct radio communications. According to US scientists it could take hundreds of years for the Van Allen belt to return to normal. HAARP could result in changes in weather patterns. It could also influence whole ecosystems, especially in the sensitive Antarctic regions. Another damaging consequence of HAARP is the occurrence of holes in the ionosphere caused by the powerful radio beams. The ionosphere protects us from incoming cosmic radiation. The hope is that the holes will fill again, but our experience of change in the ozone layer points in the other direction. This means substantial holes in the ionosphere that protects us. With its far-reaching impact on the environment HAARP is a matter of global concern and we have to ask whether its advantages really outweigh the risks. The environmental impact and the ethical aspect must be closely examined before any further research and testing takes place. HAARP is a project of which the public is almost completely unaware, and this needs to be remedied. HAARP has links with 50 years of intensive space research for military purposes, including the Star Wars project, to control the upper atmosphere and communications. This kind of research has to be regarded as a serious threat to the environment, with an incalculable impact on human life. Even now nobody knows what impact HAARP may have. We have to beat down the wall of secrecy around military research, and set up the right to openness and democratic scrutiny of military research projects, and parliamentary control. A series of international treaties and conventions (the Convention on the prohibition of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques, the Antarctic Treaty, the Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space including the moon and other celestial bodies, and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea) casts considerable doubt on HAARP on legal as well as humanitarian and political grounds. The Antarctic Treaty lays down that the Antarctic may be used exclusively for peaceful purposes.(25) This would mean that HAARP is a breach of international law. All the implications of the new weapons systems should be examined by independent international bodies. Further international agreements should be sought to protect the environment from unnecessary destruction in war.”
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External links

Government offices
Preceded by
Abdul Qadeer Khan
Science Advisor to the Prime Minister
31 January 2004 – 28 March 2008
Succeeded by
Ishfaq Ahmad

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