Bridge over Troubled Water (song)

Last updated on 30 August 2017

"Bridge over Troubled Water" is a song by American music duo Simon & Garfunkel. Produced by the duo and Roy Halee, the song was released as the follow-up single to "The Boxer" in January 1970. The song is featured on their fifth studio album, Bridge over Troubled Water (1970). Composed by singer-songwriter Paul Simon, the song is performed on piano and carries the influence of gospel music. The original studio recording employs elements of Phil Spector's "Wall of Sound" technique using L.A. session musicians from the Wrecking Crew.[1][2]

It was the last song recorded for their fifth and final album, but the first fully completed.[3] The song's instrumentation was recorded in California while the duo's vocals were cut in New York.[3][4][5][6] Simon felt his partner, Art Garfunkel, should sing the song solo, an invitation Garfunkel initially declined.[7] Session musician Larry Knechtel performs piano on the song, with Joe Osborn playing bass guitar and Hal Blaine closing out the song with drums. The song won five awards at the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971, including Grammy Award for Record of the Year and Song of the Year.

The song became Simon & Garfunkel's biggest hit single, and it is often considered their signature song. It was a number one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 for six weeks, and it also topped the charts in the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and New Zealand. It was a top five hit in eight other countries as well, eventually selling over six million copies worldwide, making it among the best-selling singles. It became one of the most performed songs of the twentieth century, with over 50 artists, among them Elvis Presley and Aretha Franklin, covering the song. It was ranked number 48 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.

Bridge Over Troubled Water single.jpg
Bridge Over Troubled Water single.jpg

Background

"Bridge over Troubled Water" was composed by Paul Simon very quickly, so much so that he asked himself, "Where did that come from? It doesn't seem like me." [7] The chorus lyrics were partly inspired by Claude Jeter's line "I'll be your bridge over deep water if you trust in me," which Jeter sang with his group, the Swan Silvertones, in the 1958 song "Mary Don't You Weep."[8] According to gospel producer and historian Anthony Heilbut, Simon later acknowledged his musical debt to Jeter in person, and additionally handed Jeter a check as compensation.[9] Simon wrote the song initially on guitar but decided to transpose it to the piano, to both better reflect the gospel influence and to suit Garfunkel's voice.[3]

When Simon showed the song to his partner, he informed him that he felt Garfunkel should sing it by himself, the "white choirboy way."[7] Garfunkel declined, feeling it was not right for him and believing that Simon should sing it.[3] Garfunkel reportedly liked Simon's falsetto on the demo and suggested that Simon sing. He and producer Roy Halee also thought the song needed three verses and a 'bigger' sound toward the end. Simon agreed and penned the final verse, though he felt it was less than fully cohesive with the earlier verses.[10] The final verse was written about Simon's then-wife Peggy Harper, who had noticed her first gray hairs ("Sail on, silvergirl").[11][12] It does not refer to a drug abuser's hypodermic needle, as is sometimes claimed.[13] The verse was Garfunkel's idea, and Simon has never cared for it.[14]

"Bridge over Troubled Water" was the final track to be recorded but the first one fully completed, with an additional two weeks of post-production.[3] Simon initially composed the song in G major, but arranger and composer Jimmie Haskell transposed the song to E-flat major to suit Garfunkel's voice.[15] The song was recorded in California, to make it easier for Garfunkel to go to Mexico to film Catch-22.[6] Simon wanted a gospel piano sound, and so he hired session musician Larry Knechtel. The song was initially two verses long, but Garfunkel felt the song was too short, and asked Knechtel to play a third verse, to which Simon would write more lyrics. Joe Osborn played the two bass guitars, one high and the other low. A horn section rounded off the song. The drums were played by Hal Blaine in an echo chamber to achieve a hall effect and Los Angeles session percussionist Gary Coleman played the vibraphone. Due to a series of factors, the duo had to work on a new tape; an arranger falsely labeled the song as "Like a Pitcher of Water", wrote Garfunkel's name incorrectly and the string part was unsatisfactory.[16]

Simon and Garfunkel then returned to New York to record the vocals.[17][4][3] The vocal style in "Bridge over Troubled Water" was inspired by Phil Spector's technique in "Old Man River" by The Righteous Brothers.[18] After two months the song was finalized. Simon himself admitted that it sounded like the Beatles' "Let It Be", stating in a Rolling Stone interview: "They are very similar songs, certainly in instrumentation ..."[19]

As their relations frayed preceding their 1970 breakup, Simon began to feel jealous that he allowed Garfunkel to sing it solo:

He felt I should have done it, and many times on a stage, though, when I'd be sitting off to the side and Larry Knechtel would be playing the piano and Artie would be singing "Bridge", people would stomp and cheer when it was over, and I would think, "That's my song, man..."[7]

Commercial performance

Despite the song's five-minute length, Columbia decided to service the song to pop radio. Bob Dylan had previously landed a song past the three-minute barrier on AM radio with "Like a Rolling Stone" in 1965, which played into Columbia's decision.[20] It reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart on February 28, 1970, and stayed at the top of the chart for six weeks. "Bridge over Troubled Water" also topped the adult contemporary chart in the US for six weeks.[21] Billboard ranked it as the No. 1 song for 1970.[22]

The song was certified gold for over one million copies in the US by the Recording Industry Association of America,[23] and the song has sold over six million copies worldwide, making it among the best-selling singles.[24][25]

Awards

The single won the Grammy Award for Record of the Year and Song of the Year in the Grammy Awards of 1971, with its album also winning several awards in the same year.

Covers

The song has been covered by over 50 artists,[26] including Elvis Presley and Willie Nelson. A cover recorded by Johnny Cash and Fiona Apple for Cash's American IV: The Man Comes Around album was nominated for a Grammy Award in 2003.[27]

Aretha Franklin

Aretha Franklin's gospel-inspired studio-recorded cover version released in March 1971 reached number one on the US R&B chart and number six on the pop chart,[28] and later won the Grammy Award for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance in the 1972 awards. Her live performance of the song at the Grammy Awards was released on the 1994 album Grammy's Greatest Moments Volume III.[29]

Elvis Presley

Elvis Presley recorded it in Nashville on June 5, 1970, and it was released on the 1970 album That's the Way It Is (with a false audience fade-out). He included it in his set list for his next engagement in Las Vegas, which included the filming of the 1970 documentary Elvis: That's the Way It Is,[30] and the song was included in the original theatrical release (included version is from the August 11 dinner show). During that summer season in Vegas, Paul Simon attended one of the shows, and, after seeing Elvis perform the song, he was reported to have said, "That's it, we might as well all give up now."[31] Presley continued to use this song throughout his live performances, including his final live appearance in Indianapolis on June 26, 1977. Another live performance was seen in the Golden Globe-winning documentary Elvis on Tour, filmed at the Greensboro Coliseum in Greensboro, North Carolina, on April 14, 1972. Elvis even sang it at one of his Madison Square Garden Shows back in June 1972.

On the studio version, Robert Matthew Watson wrote in his book Heartbreak Hotel: "Presley's outstanding singing is not disguised. This is a fabulous version, burning with sincerity and power, and finding depths not revealed by the composers."

Linda Clifford

Linda Clifford, Curtis Mayfield's protegee signed on his Curtom label, released an up-tempo disco version of "Bridge over Troubled Water" on her album Let Me Be Your Woman in March 1979. This epic version (10:20 in length) was produced by Gil Askey (jazz trumpet player and musical director for many Motown acts) and mixed by Jimmy Simpson, brother of Valerie Simpson from Ashford and Simpson. The song has two originalities, the first one being a 132 bpm tempo (considered the ideal tempo for disco dancing) when the Simon and Garfunkel original is 82 bpm and Aretha Franklin's cover is 76 bpm. It was the first time that this song was covered with a fast tempo. It also has a highly original "Brazilian cuica on a disco beat" break. It became a US disco #11, pop #41, R&B #49 and UK #28.[32]

Cantonese version

A rewriting of the song with Cantonese lyrics ("Many hearts prevail" – zh:滔滔千里心) was collectively sung by many Hong Kong singers for public shows in Hong Kong to raise funds after the Eastern China flood of 1991. In 2009 it was also used in the Artistes 88 Fund Raising Campaign for the victims of Typhoon Morakot.[33]

Dami Im version

Dami Im covered this song during the Family Heroes-themed sixth live show of the fifth season of Australian X Factor on September 29, 2013.[34] Im's performance of the song debuted at number 15 on the Australian Singles Chart. Im later released a version of the song on her self-titled album,[35] which debuted at number 1 in Australia, and was certified Platinum.[36]

Other notable covers

  • Buck Owens and the Buckaroos covered the song in 1971. The version reached the top 10 of the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart in March 1971.
  • BeBe & CeCe Winans covered the song in 1988 for their album Heaven. The song was released as a promo single in 1989.
  • In 1991, P.J.B. featuring Hannah and Her Sisters, a US group assembled by Pete Bellotte and fronted by British singer Hannah Jones, released a dance cover which reached number 21 on the UK Singles Chart.[37]
  • In 2002, Johnny Cash and Fiona Apple covered the song for Cash's album American IV: The Man Comes Around. This version was nominated for a Grammy Award in 2003.
  • In 2005, Anthony Callea covered the song as part of a double A-sided single with "Rain". It reached number one in Australia.
  • Mary J. Blige, David Foster, and Andrea Bocelli performed the song on January 31, 2010, during the 52nd Grammy Awards ceremony, in the context of raising awareness for the victims of the Haiti earthquake.[38] This version reached number 75 on the US Billboard Hot 100.
  • On December 9, 2013, Tessanne Chin covered the song on season 5 of NBC's singing competition The Voice for the semifinal round. The song went to the number one spot on iTunes within 12 hours, with her becoming the first contestant to achieve the top chart position at the end of an applicable voting window that season.[39]
  • "A Bridge over You", a charity single recorded and released independently by the Lewisham and Greenwich NHS Choir, the choir of the Lewisham and Greenwich NHS Trust located in south-east London, was a mashup of "Bridge over Troubled Water" by Simon & Garfunkel and Coldplay's 2005 single "Fix You", with additional arrangement by the choir's conductor, Peter Mitchell. It reached number one on the UK Singles Chart at Christmas 2015.
  • In 2007, Annie Lennox covered the song in Idol Gives Back.
  • In 2010, Amber Riley - as the character of Mercedes Jones - covered the song during the third episode of the second season of Glee. This version peaked at number 73 on the Billboard Hot 100.

Chart performance

Weekly charts

Chart (1970–71) Peak
position
Australia (ARIA)[40] 2
Austria (Ö3 Austria Top 40)[41] 4
Canada 100 (RPM)[42] 1
Canada Adult Contemporary (RPM)[43] 1
Belgium (Ultratop 50 Flanders)[44] 23
France (SNEP)[45] 1
Germany (Official German Charts)[46] 3
Ireland (IRMA)[47] 2
Netherlands (Single Top 100)[48] 5
New Zealand (Recorded Music NZ)[49] 1
Norway (VG-lista)[50] 7
South Africa (Springbok Radio)[51] 4
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[52] 2
Switzerland (Schweizer Hitparade)[53] 5
UK Singles (Official Charts Company)[54] 1
US Best Selling Soul Singles (Billboard)[55] 1
US Billboard Hot 100[55] 1
US Easy Listening (Billboard)[55] 1

Year-end charts

Chart (1970) Rank
Australia [56] 5
Canada [57] 1
UK 4
US Billboard Hot 100[58] 1

Certifications

Region Certification Certified units/Sales
United States (RIAA)[23] Gold 1,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

Preceded by
"Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)" / "Everybody Is a Star" by Sly & the Family Stone
Billboard Hot 100 number-one single (Simon and Garfunkel version)
February 28, 1970 (six weeks)
Succeeded by
"Let It Be" by The Beatles
Preceded by
"I'll Never Fall in Love Again" by Dionne Warwick
Billboard Easy Listening Singles number-one single (Simon and Garfunkel version)
February 28, 1970 (six weeks)
Succeeded by
"Let It Be" by The Beatles
Preceded by
"Never Can Say Goodbye" by The Jackson 5
Billboard Best Selling Soul Singles number-one single (Aretha Franklin version)
May 22, 1971 (one week)
Succeeded by
"Want Ads" by Honey Cone
Preceded by
"Want Ads" by Honey Cone
Billboard Best Selling Soul Singles number-one single (Aretha Franklin version)
June 5, 1971 (one week)
Succeeded by
"Want Ads" by Honey Cone
Preceded by
"Wand'rin' Star" by Lee Marvin
UK Singles Chart number-one single
(Simon and Garfunkel version)

22 March – 11 April 1970 (three weeks)
Succeeded by
"All Kinds of Everything" by Dana
Preceded by
"There There" by Radiohead
Canadian number-one single (Clay Aiken version)
June 28, 2003 (thirteen weeks)
Succeeded by
"Someday" by Nickelback
Preceded by
"Despacito" by Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee featuring Justin Bieber
UK Singles Chart number-one single
(Artists for Grenfell version)

23 – 29 June 2017 (one week)
Succeeded by
"Despacito" by Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee featuring Justin Bieber

Artists for Grenfell Tower charity single

Grenfell Single.jpg
Grenfell Single.jpg

To raise money for the families of the victims of the Grenfell Tower fire in June 2017 and for The London Community Foundation, Simon Cowell arranged the recording and release of a charity single on June 21, 2017.[59] It reached number one on the UK Singles Chart on June 23, 2017.[60]

Artists

The song is performed by the following artists:[59]

Vocals

Instruments

Charts

Chart (2017) Peak
position
Australia (ARIA)[61] 53
Austria (Ö3 Austria Top 40)[62] 32
Belgium (Ultratip Flanders)[63] 26
Finland Download (Latauslista)[64] 23
France (SNEP)[65] 111
Hungary (Single Top 40)[66] 31
Ireland (IRMA)[67] 25
New Zealand Heatseekers (RMNZ)[68] 4
Scotland (Official Charts Company)[69] 1
Switzerland (Schweizer Hitparade)[70] 28
UK Singles (Official Charts Company)[60] 1

Notes

References

  1. ^ "Sold on Song – Bridge Over Troubled Water". BBC Radio 2. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  2. ^ Hartman, Kent (2012). The Wrecking Crew. St. Martin’s Griffin. pp. 261–263. ISBN 978-1-250-03046-7.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Eliot 2010, p. 104.
  4. ^ a b Browne 2012, p. 30.
  5. ^ Eliot 2010, p. 61.
  6. ^ a b Eliot 2010, p. 111.
  7. ^ a b c d Eliot 2010, p. 105.
  8. ^ Sisario, Ben. "Claude Jeter, Gospel Singer With Wide Influence, Dies at 94 ", The New York Times, January 10, 2009. Accessed January 11, 2009.
  9. ^ Hinckley, David (8 January 2009). "Legendary singer Claude Jeter dies". New York Daily News. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  10. ^ Kingston, Victoria, Simon and Garfunkel: the Definitive Biography, Sidgwick & Jackson, UK, 1996 p.101-02
  11. ^ Dawidoff, Nicholas (May 12, 2011). "Paul Simon's Restless Journey". Rolling Stone (1130): 60–61.
  12. ^ Dawidoff, Nioclas (25 August 2011). "Paul Simon’s Restless Journey". Rolling Stone India. RollingStoneIndia.com. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  13. ^ Bennighof 2007, p. 43.
  14. ^ "Simon and Garfunkel, 'Bridge Over Troubled Water' | 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Rolling Stone. 2011-04-07. Retrieved 2016-10-02.
  15. ^ Ebel 2004, pp. 58–60.
  16. ^ Giles Smith (September 11, 1994). "Lives of the great songs / Bridge over troubled water". The Independent. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  17. ^ Ebel 2004, p. 61.
  18. ^ "Across America Promotional CD Interview With Art". Art Garfunkel Official Website. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  19. ^ Browne 2012, p. 154.
  20. ^ Eliot 2010, p. 106.
  21. ^ Whitburn, Joel (1996). The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits, 6th Edition (Billboard Publications)
  22. ^ Billboard Year-End Hot 100 singles of 1970
  23. ^ a b "American single certifications – Simon & Garfunekl – Bridge over Troubled Water". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH
  24. ^ Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2, illustrated ed.). Barrie & Jenkins. ISBN 0-214-20480-4.
  25. ^ Moore-Gilbert, Bart (2002-03-11). The Arts in the 1970s: Cultural Closure. Routledge. Retrieved 2012-05-30.
  26. ^ Charlesworth 1997, p. 49.
  27. ^ Eliot 2010, pp. 103, 164.
  28. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942–2004. Record Research. p. 215.
  29. ^ "Grammy's Greatest Moments, Volume III: Various Artists". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
  30. ^ "YouTube". YouTube. Retrieved 2016-10-02.
  31. ^ Eliot, Marc (2010). Paul Simon: A Life. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 105. ISBN 9780470900871.
  32. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Hot Dance/Disco: 1974-2003. Record Research. p. 60.
  33. ^ "Artists raise fund in HK for Taiwan flood victims". China.org.cn.
  34. ^ Hardie, Giles (29 September 2013). "Minogue reduced to tears on X Factor". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  35. ^ Hung, Steffen. "Discography Dami Im". Australian Charts Portal. Hung Medien. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
  36. ^ "ARIA Charts - Accreditations - 2013 Albums". Archived from the original on 2014-02-05.
  37. ^ "Ultimate Music Database". Umdmusic.com. Retrieved 2016-10-02.
  38. ^ Rodriguez, Jayson (1 February 2010). "Mary J. Blige, Andrea Bocelli Brought ‘Heavy Emotion’ To Grammy Duet For Haiti". MTV.
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-18. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  40. ^ "Australian-charts.com – Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over Troubled Water". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  41. ^ "Austriancharts.at – Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over Troubled Water" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  42. ^ RPM (March 14, 1970). "Adult Contemporary – Volume 13, No. 4, March 14 1970" (PDF). RPM archives. (Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada). Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  43. ^ RPM (March 14, 1970). "Top Singles – Volume 13, No. 4, March 14 1970" (PDF). RPM archives. (Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada). Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  44. ^ "Ultratop.be – Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over Troubled Water" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  45. ^ "Lescharts.com – Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over Troubled Water" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  46. ^ "Musicline.de – Simon & Garfunkel Single-Chartverfolgung" (in German). Media Control Charts. PhonoNet GmbH. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  47. ^ "Chart Track: Week 5, 1970". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  48. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over Troubled Water" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  49. ^ "Charts.org.nz – Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over Troubled Water". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  50. ^ "Norwegiancharts.com – Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over Troubled Water". VG-lista. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  51. ^ Brian Currin. "South African Rock Lists Website – SA Charts 1969 – 1989 Acts (S)". Rock.co.za. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
  52. ^ "Spanishcharts.com – Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over Troubled Water" Canciones Top 50. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  53. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Simon & Garfunkel – Bridge over Troubled Water". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  54. ^ "Archive Chart: 1970-03-22" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  55. ^ a b c "Simon & Garfunkel – Chart history" Billboard Hot 100 for Simon & Garfunkel. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  56. ^ "Australian Chart Book". Austchartbook.com.au. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-10-02.
  57. ^ "Item Display - RPM - Library and Archives Canada". collectionscanada.gc.ca.
  58. ^ "Top 100 Hits of 1970/Top 100 Songs of 1970". Musicoutfitters.com. Retrieved 2016-10-02.
  59. ^ a b Metro.co.uk, Rebecca Lewis for (20 June 2017). "Simon Cowell’s Grenfell Tower charity single available from 8am on June 21". Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  60. ^ a b "Archive Chart: 2017-06-23" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  61. ^ "ARIA Chart Watch #427". auspOp. July 1, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
  62. ^ "Austriancharts.at – Artists for Grenfell – Bridge Over Troubled Water" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
  63. ^ "Ultratop.be – Artists for Grenfell – Bridge Over Troubled Water" (in Dutch). Ultratip. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  64. ^ "Artists for Grenfell: Bridge Over Troubled Water" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved July 2, 2017.
  65. ^ "Le Top de la semaine : Top Singles Téléchargés – SNEP (Week 25, 2017)" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  66. ^ "Archívum – Slágerlisták – MAHASZ" (in Hungarian). Single (track) Top 40 lista. Magyar Hanglemezkiadók Szövetsége. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  67. ^ "IRMA – Irish Charts". Irish Recorded Music Association. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  68. ^ "NZ Heatseekers Singles Chart". Recorded Music NZ. 26 June 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
  69. ^ "Archive Chart: 2017-06-23". Scottish Singles Top 40. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  70. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Artists for Grenfell – Bridge Over Troubled Water". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved July 3, 2017.

Sources

  • Eliot, Marc (2010). Paul Simon: A Life. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-43363-8.
  • Fornatale, Pete (2007). Simon and Garfunkel's Bookends. Rodale. ISBN 978-1-59486-427-8.

External links

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.