Amulet

This page was last edited on 13 October 2017, at 17:04.

An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, and is alleged to have the magical power to protect its holder– either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing.[1] Amulets are different from talismans because a talisman may have alleged magical powers other than protection.[2] Amulets are sometimes confused with pendants– small aesthetic objects that hang from necklaces. Any given pendant may indeed be an amulet, but so may any other object which purports to protect its holder from danger.

Potential amulets include gems, especially engraved gems, statues, coins, drawings, pendants, rings, plant parts, animal parts, and even written words in the form of a magical spell or incantation to repel evil or bad luck. Magic scrolls are found to be used in various cultures, and artifacts of scrolls with magical inscriptions have been found in the middle east, Europe, and the far east.

The word "amulet" comes from the Latin word amulētum. The earliest extant use of that term is in Pliny's Natural History, in which it means "an object that protects a person from trouble".[1][3]

Iranian amulet.jpg
Iranian amulet to ward off the evil eye

In cultures

Ancient Rome

Amulets were particularly prevalent in ancient Roman society, being the inheritor of the ancient Greek tradition, and inextricably linked to Roman religion and magic (see Magic in the Greco-Roman World). Amulets are usually outside of the normal sphere of religious experience, though associations between certain gemstones and gods has been suggested. For example, Jupiter is represented on milky chalcedony, Sol on heliotrope, Mars on red jasper, Ceres on green jasper, and Bacchus on amethyst.[4] Amulets are worn to imbue the wearer with the associated powers of the gods rather than for any reasons of piety. The intrinsic power of the amulet is also evident from others bearing inscriptions, such as vterfexix (utere fexix) or "good luck to the user."[5] Amulet boxes could also be used, such as the example from part of the Thetford treasure, Norfolk, UK, where a gold box intended for suspension around the neck was found to contain sulphur for its apotropaic (evil-repelling) qualities.[6]

China and Japan

%E5%9B%9B%E5%9B%BD%E7%AC%AC%E4%BA%8C%E5%8D%81%E4%B8%89%E7%95%AA%E6%9C%AD%E6%89%80 %E8%96%AC%E7%8E%8B%E5%AF%BA %E3%81%8A%E5%AE%88%E3%82%8A 1034843.JPG
An omamori, a Japanese amulet

In China, Taoist experts called fulu developed a special style of calligraphy that they said would be able to protect against evil spirits. The equivalent type of amulet in Japan is called an ofuda.

Abrahamic religions

In antiquity and the Middle Ages, most Jews, Christians, and Muslims in the Orient believed in the protective and healing power of amulets or blessed objects. Talismans used by these peoples can be broken down into three main categories: talismans carried or worn on the body, talismans hung upon or above the bed of an infirm person, and medicinal talismans. This third category can be further divided into external and internal talismans. For example, an external amulet can be placed in a bath.

Jews, Christians, and Muslims have also at times used their holy books in a talisman-like manner in grave situations. For example, a bed-ridden and seriously ill person would have a holy book placed under part of the bed or cushion.[7]

Judaism

Ketef hinom scrolls.JPG
The Silver Scroll on display at the Israel Museum
Collection of khamsa.jpg
Examples of Hand of Miriam in contemporary Israel
Chai.jpg
Chai pendant (modern)

Amulets are plentiful in the Jewish tradition, with examples of Solomon-era amulets existing in many museums. Due to the proscription of idols and other graven images in Judaism, Jewish amulets emphasize text and names. The shape, material, and color of a Jewish amulet makes no difference. Examples of textual amulets include the Silver Scroll, circa 630 BCE, and the still contemporary mezuzah[8] and tefillin.[9] A counter-example, however, is the Hand of Miriam, an outline of a human hand. Another non-textual amulet is the Seal of Solomon, also known as the hexagram or Star of David. In one form. it consists of two intertwined equilateral triangles, and in this form it is commonly worn suspended around the neck to this day.

Another common amulet in contemporary use is the Chai (symbol)—(Hebrew: חַי‎ "living" ḥay), which is also worn around the neck. Other similar amulets still in use consist of one of the names of the god of Judaism, such as ה (He), יה (YaH), or שדי (Shaddai), inscribed on a piece of parchment or metal, usually silver.[10]

During the Middle Ages, Maimonides and Sherira Gaon (and his son Hai Gaon) opposed the use of amulets and derided the "folly of amulet writers."[11] Other rabbis, however, approved the use of amulets.[12]

Rabbi and famous kabbalist Naphtali ben Isaac Katz ("Ha-Kohen," 1645–1719) was said to be an expert in the magical use of amulets. He was accused of causing a fire that broke out in his house and then destroyed the whole Jewish quarter of Frankfurt, and of preventing the extinguishing of the fire by conventional means because he wanted to test the power of his amulets; he was imprisoned and forced to resign his post and leave the city.[13]

Christianity

Small crucifix.jpg
A crucifix, considered in Christian tradition as a defense against demons, as the holy sign of Christ's victory over every evil

The Roman Catholic Church maintains that the legitimate use of sacramentals in its proper disposition is encouraged only by a firm faith and devotion to the Trinity, and not by any magical or superstitious belief bestowed on the sacramental. In this regard, rosaries, scapulars, medals, and other devotional religious Catholic paraphernalia derive their power, not simply from the symbolism created by the object, but rather from the blessing of the Catholic Church which comes from the Trinity.

Lay Catholics are not permitted to perform solemn exorcisms, but they can use holy water, blessed salt, and other sacramentals, such as the Saint Benedict medal or the crucifix, for warding off evil.[14]

St benedict medal-2006 04 24.png
Back of the Catholic Saint Benedict medal with the Vade Retro Satana abbreviation

The crucifix, and the associated sign of the cross, is one of the key sacramentals used by Catholics to ward off evil since the time of the Early Church Fathers. The imperial cross of Conrad II (1024–1039) referred to the power of the cross against evil.[15]

A well-known amulet among Catholic Christians is the Saint Benedict medal which includes the Vade Retro Satana formula to ward off Satan. This medal has been in use at least since the 1700s, and in 1742 it received the approval of Pope Benedict XIV. It later became part of the Roman Catholic ritual.[16]

Some Catholic sacramentals are believed to defend against evil, by virtue of their association with a specific saint or archangel. The scapular of St. Michael the Archangel is a Roman Catholic devotional scapular associated with Archangel Michael, the chief enemy of Satan. Pope Pius IX gave this scapular his blessing, but it was first formally approved under Pope Leo XIII.

The form of this scapular is somewhat distinct, in that the two segments of cloth that constitute it have the form of a small shield; one is made of blue and the other of black cloth, and one of the bands likewise is blue and the other black. Both portions of the scapular bear the well-known representation of the Archangel St. Michael slaying the dragon and the inscription "Quis ut Deus?" meaning "Who is like God?".[17]

Catholic saints have written about the power of holy water as a force that repels evil. Saint Teresa of Avila, a Doctor of the Church who reported visions of Jesus and Mary, was a strong believer in the power of holy water and wrote that she used it with success to repel evil and temptations.[18]

Spanish soldiers, especially Carlist units, wore a patch with an image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the inscription detente bala ("stop, bullet").

Islam

Amulet Kilim Motif.jpg
Amulet Kilim motif (3 examples)
Morocco Hand of Fatima silver.jpg
Berber hamsa or "Hand of Fatima" amulet in silver, Morocco, early 20th century

Amulets, often in the form of triangular packages containing a sacred verse, were traditionally attached to the clothing of babies and young children in Central and West Asia to give them protection from forces such as the evil eye.[19][20] Triangular amulet motifs were often also woven into oriental carpets such as kilims. The carpet expert Jon Thompson explains that such an amulet woven into a rug is not a theme: it actually is an amulet, conferring protection by its presence. In his words, "the device in the rug has a materiality, it generates a field of force able to interact with other unseen forces and is not merely an intellectual abstraction."[21]

Another popular amulet used in Islamic folk culture to avert the evil gaze is the hamsa (meaning five) or "Hand of Fatima". The symbol is pre-Islamic, known from Punic times.[22]

Buddhism

Tibet

The Tibetan Buddhists have many kinds of talismanic and shamanistic amulets and ritual tools, including the dorje, the bell, and many kinds of portable amulets. The Tibetan Buddhists enclose prayers on a parchment scroll within a prayer wheel, which is then spun around, each rotation being one recitation of all of the stanzas within the prayer wheel.

Thailand

The people of Thailand, with Buddhist and animist beliefs, also have a vast pantheon of amulets, which are still popular and in common use by most people even in the present day. The belief in magic is impregnated into Thai culture and religious beliefs and folk superstitions, and this is reflected in the fact that we can still see commonplace use of amulets and magical rituals in everyday life. Some of the more commonly known amulets are of course the Buddhist votive tablets, such as the Pra Somdej Buddha image, and guru monk coins. But Thailand has an immensely large number of magical traditions, and thousands of different types of amulet and occult charm can be found in use, ranging from the takrut scroll spell, to the necromantic Ban Neng Chin Aathan, which uses the bones or flesh of the corpse of a 'hoeng prai' ghost (a person who died unnaturally, screaming, or in other strange premature circumstances), to reanimate the spirit of the dead, to dwell within the bone as a spirit, and assist the owner to achieve their goals. The list of Thai Buddhist amulets in existence is a lifetime study in its own right, and indeed, many people devote their lives to the study of them, and collection. Thai amulets are still immensely popular both with Thai folk as well as with foreigners, and in recent years, a massive increase in foreign interest has caused the subject of Thai Buddhist amulets to become a commonly known topic around the world. Amulets can fecth prices ranging from a few dollars right up to millions of dollars for a single amulet. Due to the money that can be made with sorcery services, and with rare collector amulets of the master class, there is also a forgery market in existence, which ensures that the experts of the scene maintain a monopoly on the market. With so many fakes, experts are needed for collectors to trust for obtaining authentic amulets, and not selling them fakes.[23]

Other cultures

Amulets vary considerably according to their time and place of origin. In many societies, religious objects serve as amulets, e.g. deriving from the ancient Celts, the clover, if it has four leaves, symbolizes good luck (not the Irish shamrock, which symbolizes the Christian Trinity).[24]

In Bolivia, the god Ekeko furnishes a standard amulet, to whom one should offer at least one banknote or a cigarette to obtain fortune and welfare.[25]

In certain areas of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, it is traditionally believed that the jackal's horn can grant wishes and reappear to its owner at its own accord when lost. Some Sinhalese believe that the horn can grant the holder invulnerability in any lawsuit.[26]

The Native American movement of the Ghost Dance wore ghost shirts to protect them from bullets.

In the Philippines, amulets are called agimat or anting-anting. According to folklore, the most powerful anting-anting is the hiyas ng saging (directly translated as pearl or gem of the banana). The hiyas must come from a mature banana and only comes out during midnight. Before the person can fully possess this agimat, he must fight a supernatural creature called kapre. Only then will he be its true owner. During Holy Week, devotees travel to Mount Banahaw to recharge their amulets.[27]

Gallery

Escapulariocafe.JPG

Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel or "Brown Scapular"

MagicAmuletSquare.svg

Sator Square, an ancient Roman amulet in the form of a palindromic word square

Amulette Rajasthan 6.jpg

Amulet from Rajasthan

Tintinnabulum Pompeii MAN Napoli Inv27839.jpg

Ancient Roman amulet from Pompeii with a phallus

Cheshm-Nazar.JPG

Turkish nazar-talisman to ward off the Evil eye

Talis02.png

An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire

Magical mirror Louvre AA10.jpg

Magical mirror with Zodiac signs

NEPE Talisman.jpg

A talisman, American Indian medicine made by wolf skin, wool, mirrors, feathers, buttons and brass bell

Tropenmuseum Royal Tropical Institute Objectnumber H-2977 Amulet van acht hangers gesneden uit aw.jpg

Winti- amulet, an Afro-Surinamese traditional religion's amulet

Taweret amulet.jpg

Ancient Egyptian Taweret amulet, New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, c. 1539–1292 BC

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Gonzalez-Wippler 1991, p. 1.
  2. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo, ed. (2009). "amulets and talismans". Encyclopedia of Islam. Encyclopedia of World Religions: Facts on File Library of Religion and Mythology. Infobase Publishing. pp. 40–1. ISBN 978-1-4381-2696-8.
  3. ^ Guelden, Marlane (2007). Thailand: Spirits Among Us. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-981-261-075-1.
  4. ^ Henig, Martin (1984). Religion in Roman Britain. London: B.T. Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-1220-8.
  5. ^ Collingwood, Robin G.; Wright, Richard P. (1991). Roman Inscriptions of Britain (RIB). Volume II, Fascicule 3. Stround: Alan Sutton. RIB 2421.56–8.
  6. ^ Henig 1984, p. 187.
  7. ^ Canaan, Tewfik (2004). "The Decipherment of Arabic Talismans". In Savage-Smith, Emilie. Magic and Divination in Early Islam. The Formation of the Classical Islamic World. 42. Ashgate. pp. 125–49. ISBN 978-0-86078-715-0.
  8. ^ Kosior, Wojciech. ""It Will Not Let the Destroying [One] Enter". The Mezuzah as an Apotropaic Device according to Biblical and Rabbinic Sources, "The Polish Journal of the Arts and Culture" 9 (1/2014), pp. 127-144". Retrieved 2016-07-30.
  9. ^ Kosior, Wojciech. ""The Name of Yahveh is Called Upon You". Deuteronomy 28:10 and the Apotropaic Qualities of Tefillin in the Early Rabbinic Literature, "Studia Religiologica" 2 48/2015, pp. 143-154". Retrieved 2016-07-30.
  10. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica: Amulet.
  11. ^ Guide to the Perplexed, 1:61; Yad, Tefillin 5:4.
  12. ^ For example, Solomon ben Abraham Adret ("Rashba," 1235–1310, Spain) and Naḥmanides ("Ramban," 1194-1270, Spain). Ency. Jud., op. cit.
  13. ^ Ency. Jud.: Katz, Naphtali ben Isaac. See also Naphtali Cohen#Biography.
  14. ^ Scott, Rosemarie (2006). "Meditation 26: The Weapons of Our Warfare". Clean of Heart. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-9772234-5-9.
  15. ^ Fahlbusch, Erwin; Lochman, Jan Milič; Mbiti, John; Pelikan, Jaroslav; Vischer, Lukas, eds. (1999). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Translator and English language editor: Bromiley, Geoffrey W. Boston: Eerdmans. p. 737. ISBN 978-0-8028-2413-4.
  16. ^ Lea, Henry Charles (1896). "Chapter 12: Indulged Objects". A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church. Volume 3: Indulgences. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers & Co. p. 520. OCLC 162534206.
  17. ^ Ball, Ann (2003). Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices. Our Sunday Visitor. p. 520. ISBN 978-0-87973-910-2.
  18. ^ Teresa of Ávila (2007). "Chapter 21: Holy Water". The Book of My Life. Translated by Starr, Mirabai. Boston: Shambhala Publications. pp. 238–41. ISBN 978-0-8348-2303-7.
  19. ^ Erbek, Güran (1998). Kilim Catalogue No. 1. May Selçuk A. S. Edition=1st. pp. 4–30.
  20. ^ "Kilim Motifs". Kilim.com. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  21. ^ Thompson, Jon (1988). Carpets from the Tents, Cottages and Workshops of Asia. Barrie & Jenkins. p. 156. ISBN 0-7126-2501-1.
  22. ^ Achrati, Ahmed (2003). "Hand and Foot Symbolism: From Rock Art to the Qur'an" (PDF). Arabica. 50 (4): 463–500 (see p. 477).
  23. ^ Littlewood, Ajarn Spencer (2016). The Book of Thai Lanna Sorcery. Thailand: Buddha Magic Multimedia & Publications. pp. 1–2 (PDF).
  24. ^ Cleene, Marcel; Lejeune, Marie Claire (2003). Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. p. 178. ISBN 978-90-77135-04-4.
  25. ^ Fanthorpe, R. Lionel; Fanthorpe, Patricia (2008). Mysteries and Secrets of Voodoo, Santeria, and Obeah. Mysteries and Secrets Series. 12. Dundurn Group. p. 183–4. ISBN 978-1-55002-784-6.
  26. ^ Tennent, Sir, James Emerson (1999) [1861]. Sketches of the Natural History of Ceylon with Narratives and Anecdotes Illustrative of the Habits and Instincts of the Mammalia, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Including a Monograph of the Elephant and a Description of the Modes of Capturing and Training it with Engravings from Original Drawings (reprint ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 37. ISBN 978-81-206-1246-4.
  27. ^ "The Agimat and Anting-Anting: Amulet and Talisman of the Philippines". amuletandtalisman.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 2016-09-24.

References

External links

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.