No treatments stop or reverse its progression, though some may temporarily improve symptoms. Affected people increasingly rely on others for assistance, often placing a burden on the caregiver; the pressures can include social, psychological, physical, and economic elements. Exercise programmes may be beneficial with respect to activities of daily living and can potentially improve outcomes. Treatment of behavioural problems or psychosis due to dementia with antipsychotics is common, but not usually recommended, as there is little benefit with an increased risk of early death.
In 2015, there were approximately 29.8 million people worldwide with AD. It most often begins in people over 65 years of age, although 4% to 5% of cases are early-onset Alzheimer's which begin before this. It affects about 6% of people 65 years and older. In 2015, dementia resulted in about 1.9 million deaths. It was first described by, and later named after, German psychiatrist and pathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906. In developed countries, AD is one of the most financially costly diseases.
Alzheimer disease video
Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer's
Comparison of a normal aged brain (left) and the brain of a person with Alzheimer's (right). Characteristics that separate the two are pointed out.
Subtle problems with the executive functions of attentiveness, planning, flexibility, and abstract thinking, or impairments in semantic memory (memory of meanings, and concept relationships) can also be symptomatic of the early stages of AD.Apathy can be observed at this stage, and remains the most persistent neuropsychiatric symptom throughout the course of the disease. Depressive symptoms, irritability and reduced awareness of subtle memory difficulties are also common. The preclinical stage of the disease has also been termed mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This is often found to be a transitional stage between normal ageing and dementia. MCI can present with a variety of symptoms, and when memory loss is the predominant symptom, it is termed "amnestic MCI" and is frequently seen as a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease.
In people with AD, the increasing impairment of learning and memory eventually leads to a definitive diagnosis. In a small percentage, difficulties with language, executive functions, perception (agnosia), or execution of movements (apraxia) are more prominent than memory problems. AD does not affect all memory capacities equally. Older memories of the person's life (episodic memory), facts learned (semantic memory), and implicit memory (the memory of the body on how to do things, such as using a fork to eat or how to drink from a glass) are affected to a lesser degree than new facts or memories.
Language problems are mainly characterised by a shrinking vocabulary and decreased word fluency, leading to a general impoverishment of oral and written language. In this stage, the person with Alzheimer's is usually capable of communicating basic ideas adequately. While performing fine motor tasks such as writing, drawing or dressing, certain movement coordination and planning difficulties (apraxia) may be present, but they are commonly unnoticed. As the disease progresses, people with AD can often continue to perform many tasks independently, but may need assistance or supervision with the most cognitively demanding activities.
A photograph of a patient at West Riding Lunatic Asylum with dementia
Progressive deterioration eventually hinders independence, with subjects being unable to perform most common activities of daily living. Speech difficulties become evident due to an inability to recall vocabulary, which leads to frequent incorrect word substitutions (paraphasias). Reading and writing skills are also progressively lost. Complex motor sequences become less coordinated as time passes and AD progresses, so the risk of falling increases. During this phase, memory problems worsen, and the person may fail to recognise close relatives.Long-term memory, which was previously intact, becomes impaired.
During the final stages, the patient is completely dependent upon caregivers. Language is reduced to simple phrases or even single words, eventually leading to complete loss of speech. Despite the loss of verbal language abilities, people can often understand and return emotional signals. Although aggressiveness can still be present, extreme apathy and exhaustion are much more common symptoms. People with Alzheimer's disease will ultimately not be able to perform even the simplest tasks independently; muscle mass and mobility deteriorates to the point where they are bedridden and unable to feed themselves. The cause of death is usually an external factor, such as infection of pressure ulcers or pneumonia, not the disease itself.
The cause for most Alzheimer's cases is still mostly unknown except for 1% to 5% of cases where genetic differences have been identified. Several competing hypotheses exist trying to explain the cause of the disease.
The genetic heritability of Alzheimer's disease (and memory components thereof), based on reviews of twin and family studies, ranges from 49% to 79%. Around 0.1% of the cases are familial forms of autosomal (not sex-linked) dominant inheritance, which have an onset before age 65. This form of the disease is known as early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Most of autosomal dominant familial AD can be attributed to mutations in one of three genes: those encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins 1 and 2. Most mutations in the APP and presenilin genes increase the production of a small protein called Aβ42, which is the main component of senile plaques. Some of the mutations merely alter the ratio between Aβ42 and the other major forms—particularly Aβ40—without increasing Aβ42 levels.
Most cases of Alzheimer's disease do not exhibit autosomal-dominant inheritance and are termed sporadic AD, in which environmental and genetic differences may act as risk factors. The best known genetic risk factor is the inheritance of the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE). Between 40 and 80% of people with AD possess at least one APOEε4 allele. The APOEε4 allele increases the risk of the disease by three times in heterozygotes and by 15 times in homozygotes. Like many human diseases, environmental effects and genetic modifiers result in incomplete penetrance. For example, certain Nigerian populations do not show the relationship between dose of APOEε4 and incidence or age-of-onset for Alzheimer's disease seen in other human populations. Early attempts to screen up to 400 candidate genes for association with late-onset sporadic AD (LOAD) resulted in a low yield. More recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found 19 areas in genes that appear to affect the risk. These genes include: CASS4, CELF1, FERMT2, HLA-DRB5, INPP5D, MEF2C, NME8, PTK2B, SORL1, ZCWPW1, SlC24A4, CLU, PICALM, CR1, BIN1, MS4A, ABCA7, EPHA1, and CD2AP.
Mutations in the TREM2 gene have been associated with a 3 to 5 times higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. A suggested mechanism of action is that when TREM2 is mutated, white blood cells in the brain are no longer able to control the amount of beta amyloid present.
The oldest, on which most currently available drug therapies are based, is the cholinergic hypothesis, which proposes that AD is caused by reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitteracetylcholine. The cholinergic hypothesis has not maintained widespread support, largely because medications intended to treat acetylcholine deficiency have not been very effective. Other cholinergic effects have also been proposed, for example, initiation of large-scale aggregation of amyloid, leading to generalised neuroinflammation.
In 1991, the amyloid hypothesis postulated that extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits are the fundamental cause of the disease. Support for this postulate comes from the location of the gene for the amyloid precursor protein (APP) on chromosome 21, together with the fact that people with trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) who have an extra gene copy almost universally exhibit at least the earliest symptoms of AD by 40 years of age. Also, a specific isoform of apolipoprotein, APOE4, is a major genetic risk factor for AD. While apolipoproteins enhance the breakdown of beta amyloid, some isoforms are not very effective at this task (such as APOE4), leading to excess amyloid buildup in the brain. Further evidence comes from the finding that transgenic mice that express a mutant form of the human APP gene develop fibrillar amyloid plaques and Alzheimer's-like brain pathology with spatial learning deficits.
An experimental vaccine was found to clear the amyloid plaques in early human trials, but it did not have any significant effect on dementia. Researchers have been led to suspect non-plaque Aβoligomers (aggregates of many monomers) as the primary pathogenic form of Aβ. These toxic oligomers, also referred to as amyloid-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs), bind to a surface receptor on neurons and change the structure of the synapse, thereby disrupting neuronal communication. One receptor for Aβ oligomers may be the prion protein, the same protein that has been linked to mad cow disease and the related human condition, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, thus potentially linking the underlying mechanism of these neurodegenerative disorders with that of Alzheimer's disease.
In 2009, this theory was updated, suggesting that a close relative of the beta-amyloid protein, and not necessarily the beta-amyloid itself, may be a major culprit in the disease. The theory holds that an amyloid-related mechanism that prunes neuronal connections in the brain in the fast-growth phase of early life may be triggered by ageing-related processes in later life to cause the neuronal withering of Alzheimer's disease. N-APP, a fragment of APP from the peptide's N-terminus, is adjacent to beta-amyloid and is cleaved from APP by one of the same enzymes. N-APP triggers the self-destruct pathway by binding to a neuronal receptor called death receptor 6 (DR6, also known as TNFRSF21). DR6 is highly expressed in the human brain regions most affected by Alzheimer's, so it is possible that the N-APP/DR6 pathway might be hijacked in the ageing brain to cause damage. In this model, beta-amyloid plays a complementary role, by depressing synaptic function.
In early 2017, a trial of verubecestat, which inhibits the beta-secretase protein responsible for creating beta-amyloid protein was discontinued as an independent panel found "virtually no chance of finding a positive clinical effect".
In Alzheimer's disease, changes in tau protein lead to the disintegration of microtubules in brain cells.
The tau hypothesis proposes that tau protein abnormalities initiate the disease cascade. In this model, hyperphosphorylated tau begins to pair with other threads of tau. Eventually, they form neurofibrillary tangles inside nerve cell bodies. When this occurs, the microtubules disintegrate, destroying the structure of the cell's cytoskeleton which collapses the neuron's transport system. This may result first in malfunctions in biochemical communication between neurons and later in the death of the cells.
A neurovascular hypothesis has been proposed which states that poor functioning of the blood–brain barrier may be involved.
The cellular homeostasis of biometals such as ionic copper, iron, and zinc is disrupted in AD, though it remains unclear whether this is produced by or causes the changes in proteins. These ions affect and are affected by tau, APP, and APOE, and their dysregulation may cause oxidative stress that may contribute to the pathology. The quality of some of these studies has been criticised, and the link remains controversial. The majority of researchers do not support a causal connection with aluminium.
Retrogenesis is a medical hypothesis about the development and progress of Alzheimer's disease proposed by Barry Reisberg in the 1980s. The hypothesis is that just as the fetus goes through a process of neurodevelopment beginning with neurulation and ending with myelination, the brains of people with AD go through a reverse neurodegeneration process starting with demyelination and death of axons (white matter) and ending with the death of grey matter. Likewise the hypothesis is, that as infants go through states of cognitive development, people with AD go through the reverse process of progressive cognitive impairment. Reisberg developed the caregiving assessment tool known as "FAST" (Functional Assessment Staging Tool) which he says allows those caring for AD patients to identify the stages of disease progression and that provides advice about the kind of care needed at each stage.
Histopathologic image of senile plaques seen in the cerebral cortex of a person with Alzheimer's disease of presenile onset. Silver impregnation.
There is cortical atrophy in Alzheimer's disease, associated with loss of gyri and sulci in the temporal lobe and parietal lobe, and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.
Both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are clearly visible by microscopy in brains of those afflicted by AD. Plaques are dense, mostly insoluble deposits of beta-amyloidpeptide and cellular material outside and around neurons. Tangles (neurofibrillary tangles) are aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau which has become hyperphosphorylated and accumulate inside the cells themselves. Although many older individuals develop some plaques and tangles as a consequence of ageing, the brains of people with AD have a greater number of them in specific brain regions such as the temporal lobe.Lewy bodies are not rare in the brains of people with AD.
Exactly how disturbances of production and aggregation of the beta-amyloid peptide give rise to the pathology of AD is not known. The amyloid hypothesis traditionally points to the accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides as the central event triggering neuron degeneration. Accumulation of aggregated amyloid fibrils, which are believed to be the toxic form of the protein responsible for disrupting the cell's calciumionhomeostasis, induces programmed cell death (apoptosis). It is also known that Aβ selectively builds up in the mitochondria in the cells of Alzheimer's-affected brains, and it also inhibits certain enzyme functions and the utilisation of glucose by neurons.
Various inflammatory processes and cytokines may also have a role in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Inflammation is a general marker of tissue damage in any disease, and may be either secondary to tissue damage in AD or a marker of an immunological response. There is increasing evidence of a strong interaction between the neurons and the immunological mechanisms in the brain. Obesity and systemic inflammation may interfere with immunological processes which promote disease progression.
Assessment of intellectual functioning including memory testing can further characterise the state of the disease. Medical organisations have created diagnostic criteria to ease and standardise the diagnostic process for practising physicians. The diagnosis can be confirmed with very high accuracy post-mortem when brain material is available and can be examined histologically.
Neuropsychological screening tests can help in the diagnosis of AD. In the tests, people are instructed to copy drawings similar to the one shown in the picture, remember words, read, and subtract serial numbers.
Neuropsychological tests such as the mini–mental state examination (MMSE) are widely used to evaluate the cognitive impairments needed for diagnosis. More comprehensive test arrays are necessary for high reliability of results, particularly in the earliest stages of the disease.Neurological examination in early AD will usually provide normal results, except for obvious cognitive impairment, which may not differ from that resulting from other diseases processes, including other causes of dementia.
Further neurological examinations are crucial in the differential diagnosis of AD and other diseases. Interviews with family members are also utilised in the assessment of the disease. Caregivers can supply important information on the daily living abilities, as well as on the decrease, over time, of the person's mental function. A caregiver's viewpoint is particularly important, since a person with AD is commonly unaware of his own deficits. Many times, families also have difficulties in the detection of initial dementia symptoms and may not communicate accurate information to a physician.
Supplemental testing provides extra information on some features of the disease or is used to rule out other diagnoses. Blood tests can identify other causes for dementia than AD—causes which may, in rare cases, be reversible. It is common to perform thyroid function tests, assess B12, rule out syphilis, rule out metabolic problems (including tests for kidney function, electrolyte levels and for diabetes), assess levels of heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury) and anaemia. (It is also necessary to rule out delirium).
Due to low accuracy, the C-PIB-PET scan is not recommended to be used as an early diagnostic tool or for predicting the development of Alzheimer's disease when people show signs of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The use of ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans, as a single test, to identify people who may develop Alzheimer's disease is also not supported by evidence.
Intellectual activities such as playing chess or regular social interaction have been linked to a reduced risk of AD in epidemiological studies, although no causal relationship has been found.
At present, there is no definitive evidence to support that any particular measure is effective in preventing AD. Global studies of measures to prevent or delay the onset of AD have often produced inconsistent results. Epidemiological studies have proposed relationships between certain modifiable factors, such as diet, cardiovascular risk, pharmaceutical products, or intellectual activities among others, and a population's likelihood of developing AD. Only further research, including clinical trials, will reveal whether these factors can help to prevent AD.
People who engage in intellectual activities such as reading, playing board games, completing crossword puzzles, playing musical instruments, or regular social interaction show a reduced risk for Alzheimer's disease. This is compatible with the cognitive reserve theory, which states that some life experiences result in more efficient neural functioning providing the individual a cognitive reserve that delays the onset of dementia manifestations.Education delays the onset of AD syndrome without changing the duration of the disease. Learning a second language even later in life seems to delay getting Alzheimer disease.Physical activity is also associated with a reduced risk of AD. Physical exercise is associated with decreased rate of dementia. Physical exercise is also effective in reducing symptom severity in those with Alzheimers.
People who eat a healthy, Japanese, or Mediterranean diet have a lower risk of AD. A Mediterranean diet may improve outcomes in those with the disease. Those who eat a diet high in saturated fats and simple carbohydrates (mono- and disaccharide) have a higher risk. The Mediterranean diet's beneficial cardiovascular effect has been proposed as the mechanism of action.
Conclusions on dietary components have at times been difficult to ascertain as results have differed between population-based studies and randomised controlled trials. There is limited evidence that light to moderate use of alcohol, particularly red wine, is associated with lower risk of AD. There is tentative evidence that caffeine may be protective. A number of foods high in flavonoids such as cocoa, red wine, and tea may decrease the risk of AD.
Reviews on the use of vitamins and minerals have not found enough consistent evidence to recommend them. This includes vitamin A, C, the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E,selenium,zinc, and folic acid with or without vitamin B12. Evidence from a single study indicates that the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E may slow cognitive decline. Trials examining folic acid (B9) and other B vitamins failed to show any significant association with cognitive decline. Omega-3 fatty acid supplements from plants and fish, and dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), do not appear to benefit people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.
Curcumin as of 2010 has not shown benefit in people even though there is tentative evidence in animals. There is inconsistent and unconvincing evidence that ginkgo has any positive effect on cognitive impairment and dementia. As of 2008 there is no concrete evidence that cannabinoids are effective in improving the symptoms of AD or dementia; however, some research looks promising.
There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease; available treatments offer relatively small symptomatic benefit but remain palliative in nature. Current treatments can be divided into pharmaceutical, psychosocial and caregiving.
Reduction in the activity of the cholinergic neurons is a well-known feature of Alzheimer's disease. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are employed to reduce the rate at which acetylcholine (ACh) is broken down, thereby increasing the concentration of ACh in the brain and combating the loss of ACh caused by the death of cholinergic neurons. There is evidence for the efficacy of these medications in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, and some evidence for their use in the advanced stage. Only donepezil is approved for treatment of advanced AD dementia. The use of these drugs in mild cognitive impairment has not shown any effect in a delay of the onset of AD. The most common side effects are nausea and vomiting, both of which are linked to cholinergic excess. These side effects arise in approximately 10–20% of users, are mild to moderate in severity, and can be managed by slowly adjusting medication doses. Less common secondary effects include muscle cramps, decreased heart rate (bradycardia), decreased appetite and weight, and increased gastric acid production.
Huperzine A while promising, requires further evidence before its use can be recommended.
Psychosocial interventions are used as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment and can be classified within behaviour-, emotion-, cognition- or stimulation-oriented approaches. Research on efficacy is unavailable and rarely specific to AD, focusing instead on dementia in general.
Behavioural interventions attempt to identify and reduce the antecedents and consequences of problem behaviours. This approach has not shown success in improving overall functioning, but can help to reduce some specific problem behaviours, such as incontinence. There is a lack of high quality data on the effectiveness of these techniques in other behaviour problems such as wandering.
Emotion-oriented interventions include reminiscence therapy, validation therapy, supportive psychotherapy, sensory integration, also called snoezelen, and simulated presence therapy. A Cochrane review has found no evidence that this is effective. Supportive psychotherapy has received little or no formal scientific study, but some clinicians find it useful in helping mildly impaired people adjust to their illness. Reminiscence therapy (RT) involves the discussion of past experiences individually or in group, many times with the aid of photographs, household items, music and sound recordings, or other familiar items from the past. Although there are few quality studies on the effectiveness of RT, it may be beneficial for cognition and mood. Simulated presence therapy (SPT) is based on attachment theories and involves playing a recording with voices of the closest relatives of the person with Alzheimer's disease. There is partial evidence indicating that SPT may reduce challenging behaviours. Finally, validation therapy is based on acceptance of the reality and personal truth of another's experience, while sensory integration is based on exercises aimed to stimulate senses. There is no evidence to support the usefulness of these therapies.
The aim of cognition-oriented treatments, which include reality orientation and cognitive retraining, is the reduction of cognitive deficits. Reality orientation consists in the presentation of information about time, place or person to ease the understanding of the person about its surroundings and his or her place in them. On the other hand, cognitive retraining tries to improve impaired capacities by exercitation of mental abilities. Both have shown some efficacy improving cognitive capacities, although in some studies these effects were transient and negative effects, such as frustration, have also been reported.
Stimulation-oriented treatments include art, music and pet therapies, exercise, and any other kind of recreational activities. Stimulation has modest support for improving behaviour, mood, and, to a lesser extent, function. Nevertheless, as important as these effects are, the main support for the use of stimulation therapies is the change in the person's routine.
Since Alzheimer's has no cure and it gradually renders people incapable of tending for their own needs, caregiving is essentially the treatment and must be carefully managed over the course of the disease.
During the early and moderate stages, modifications to the living environment and lifestyle can increase patient safety and reduce caretaker burden. Examples of such modifications are the adherence to simplified routines, the placing of safety locks, the labelling of household items to cue the person with the disease or the use of modified daily life objects. If eating becomes problematic, food will need to be prepared in smaller pieces or even pureed. When swallowing difficulties arise, the use of feeding tubes may be required. In such cases, the medical efficacy and ethics of continuing feeding is an important consideration of the caregivers and family members. The use of physical restraints is rarely indicated in any stage of the disease, although there are situations when they are necessary to prevent harm to the person with AD or their caregivers.
The early stages of Alzheimer's disease are difficult to diagnose. A definitive diagnosis is usually made once cognitive impairment compromises daily living activities, although the person may still be living independently. The symptoms will progress from mild cognitive problems, such as memory loss through increasing stages of cognitive and non-cognitive disturbances, eliminating any possibility of independent living, especially in the late stages of the disease.
Fewer than 3% of people live more than fourteen years. Disease features significantly associated with reduced survival are an increased severity of cognitive impairment, decreased functional level, history of falls, and disturbances in the neurological examination. Other coincident diseases such as heart problems, diabetes or history of alcohol abuse are also related with shortened survival. While the earlier the age at onset the higher the total survival years, life expectancy is particularly reduced when compared to the healthy population among those who are younger. Men have a less favourable survival prognosis than women.
Pneumonia and dehydration are the most frequent immediate causes of death brought by AD, while cancer is a less frequent cause of death than in the general population.
Two main measures are used in epidemiological studies: incidence and prevalence. Incidence is the number of new cases per unit of person–time at risk (usually number of new cases per thousand person–years); while prevalence is the total number of cases of the disease in the population at any given time.
Regarding incidence, cohortlongitudinal studies (studies where a disease-free population is followed over the years) provide rates between 10 and 15 per thousand person–years for all dementias and 5–8 for AD, which means that half of new dementia cases each year are AD. Advancing age is a primary risk factor for the disease and incidence rates are not equal for all ages: every five years after the age of 65, the risk of acquiring the disease approximately doubles, increasing from 3 to as much as 69 per thousand person years. There are also sex differences in the incidence rates, women having a higher risk of developing AD particularly in the population older than 85. The risk of dying from Alzheimer's disease is 26% higher among the non-Hispanic white population than among the non-Hispanic black population, whereas the Hispanic population has a 30% lower risk than the non-Hispanic white population.
Deaths per million persons in 2012 due to dementias including Alzheimer's disease
Prevalence of AD in populations is dependent upon different factors including incidence and survival. Since the incidence of AD increases with age, it is particularly important to include the mean age of the population of interest. In the United States, Alzheimer prevalence was estimated to be 1.6% in 2000 both overall and in the 65–74 age group, with the rate increasing to 19% in the 75–84 group and to 42% in the greater than 84 group. Prevalence rates in less developed regions are lower. The World Health Organization estimated that in 2005, 0.379% of people worldwide had dementia, and that the prevalence would increase to 0.441% in 2015 and to 0.556% in 2030. Other studies have reached similar conclusions. Another study estimated that in 2006, 0.40% of the world population (range 0.17–0.89%; absolute number 26.6 million, range 11.4–59.4 million) were afflicted by AD, and that the prevalence rate would triple and the absolute number would quadruple by 2050.
Alois Alzheimer's patient Auguste Deter in 1902. Hers was the first described case of what became known as Alzheimer's disease.
The ancient Greek and Romanphilosophers and physicians associated old age with increasing dementia. It was not until 1901 that German psychiatristAlois Alzheimer identified the first case of what became known as Alzheimer's disease, named after him, in a fifty-year-old woman he called Auguste D. He followed her case until she died in 1906, when he first reported publicly on it. During the next five years, eleven similar cases were reported in the medical literature, some of them already using the term Alzheimer's disease. The disease was first described as a distinctive disease by Emil Kraepelin after suppressing some of the clinical (delusions and hallucinations) and pathological features (arteriosclerotic changes) contained in the original report of Auguste D. He included Alzheimer's disease, also named preseniledementia by Kraepelin, as a subtype of senile dementia in the eighth edition of his Textbook of Psychiatry, published on 15 July, 1910.
For most of the 20th century, the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was reserved for individuals between the ages of 45 and 65 who developed symptoms of dementia. The terminology changed after 1977 when a conference on AD concluded that the clinical and pathological manifestations of presenile and senile dementia were almost identical, although the authors also added that this did not rule out the possibility that they had different causes. This eventually led to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease independent of age. The term senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) was used for a time to describe the condition in those over 65, with classical Alzheimer's disease being used to describe those who were younger. Eventually, the term Alzheimer's disease was formally adopted in medical nomenclature to describe individuals of all ages with a characteristic common symptom pattern, disease course, and neuropathology.
Society and culture
Dementia, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, may be among the most costly diseases for society in Europe and the United States, while their costs in other countries such as Argentina, and South Korea, are also high and rising. These costs will probably increase with the ageing of society, becoming an important social problem. AD-associated costs include direct medical costs such as nursing home care, direct nonmedical costs such as in-home day care, and indirect costs such as lost productivity of both patient and caregiver. Numbers vary between studies but dementia costs worldwide have been calculated around $160 billion, while costs of Alzheimer's disease in the United States may be $100 billion each year.
Costs increase with dementia severity and the presence of behavioural disturbances, and are related to the increased caregiving time required for the provision of physical care. Therefore, any treatment that slows cognitive decline, delays institutionalisation or reduces caregivers' hours will have economic benefits. Economic evaluations of current treatments have shown positive results.
The role of the main caregiver is often taken by the spouse or a close relative. Alzheimer's disease is known for placing a great burden on caregivers which includes social, psychological, physical or economic aspects. Home care is usually preferred by people with AD and their families. This option also delays or eliminates the need for more professional and costly levels of care. Nevertheless, two-thirds of nursing home residents have dementias.
Dementia caregivers are subject to high rates of physical and mental disorders. Factors associated with greater psychosocial problems of the primary caregivers include having an affected person at home, the carer being a spouse, demanding behaviours of the cared person such as depression, behavioural disturbances, hallucinations, sleep problems or walking disruptions and social isolation. Regarding economic problems, family caregivers often give up time from work to spend 47 hours per week on average with the person with AD, while the costs of caring for them are high. Direct and indirect costs of caring for an Alzheimer's patient average between $18,000 and $77,500 per year in the United States, depending on the study.
As of 2014, the safety and efficacy of more than 400 pharmaceutical treatments had been or were being investigated in over 1,500 clinical trials worldwide, and approximately a quarter of these compounds are in Phase III trials, the last step prior to review by regulatory agencies. On the other hand, in the decade 2002–2012, 244 compounds were assessed in Phase I, Phase II, or Phase III trials, and only one of these (memantine) received FDA approval (though others were still in the pipeline).
In 2008, two separate clinical trials showed positive results in modifying the course of disease in mild to moderate AD with methylthioninium chloride, a drug that inhibits tau aggregation, and dimebon, an antihistamine. The consecutive phase-III trial of dimebon failed to show positive effects in the primary and secondary endpoints. Work with methylthioninium chloride showed that bioavailability of methylthioninium from the gut was affected by feeding and by stomach acidity, leading to unexpectedly variable dosing. A new stabilised formulation, as the prodrugLMTX, is in phase-III trials (in 2014).
Fungal infection of AD brain has also been described. This hypothesis was proposed by the microbiologist L. Carrasco when his group found statistical correlation between disseminated mycoses and AD. Further work revealed that fungal infection is present in different brain regions of AD patients, but not in the control individuals. A fungal infection explains the symptoms observed in AD patients. The slow progression of AD fits with the chronic nature of some systemic fungal infections, which can be asymptomatic and thus, unnoticed and untreated. The fungal hypotheses is also compatible with some other established AD hypotheses, like the amyloid hypothesis, that can be explained as an immune system response to an infection in the CNS, as found by R. Moir and R. Tanzi in mouse and worm models of AD.
Amyloid imaging is likely to be used in conjunction with other markers rather than as an alternative. Volumetric MRI can detect changes in the size of brain regions. Measuring those regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease is showing promise as a diagnostic indicator. It may prove less expensive than other imaging methods currently under study.
In 2011 An FDA panel voted unanimously to recommend approval of florbetapir, which is currently used in an investigational study. The imaging agent can help to detect Alzheimer's brain plaques, but will require additional clinical research before it can be made available commercially.
Emphasis in Alzheimer's research has been placed on diagnosing the condition before symptoms begin. A number of biochemical tests have been developed to attempt earlier detection. One such test involves the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for beta-amyloid or tau proteins, both total tau protein and phosphorylated tau181P protein concentrations.
^ abCommission de la transparence. Médicaments de la maladie d'Alzheimer [Drugs for Alzheimer's disease: best avoided. No therapeutic advantage]. Prescrire International. June 2012;21(128):150. PMID22822592.
^ abGBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMID27733281.
^Todd S, Barr S, Roberts M, Passmore AP (November 2013). "Survival in dementia and predictors of mortality: a review". International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 28 (11): 1109–24. doi:10.1002/gps.3946. PMID23526458.
^Nygård L. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: A Stepping-stone Towards Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment?. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 2003;Suppl(179):42–46. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0404.107.s179.8.x. PMID12603250.
^Murray ED, Buttner N, Price BH (2012). "Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice". In Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J. Bradley's neurology in clinical practice (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4377-0434-4.
^Grundman M, Petersen RC, Ferris SH, et al. (2004). "Mild cognitive impairment can be distinguished from Alzheimer disease and normal aging for clinical trials". Arch. Neurol. 61 (1): 59–66. doi:10.1001/archneur.61.1.59. PMID14732621.
^ abLanguage Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: a comparative review. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. July 2008;30(5):501–56. doi:10.1080/13803390701550128. PMID18569251.
^ abcFrank EM. Effect of Alzheimer's Disease on Communication Function. Journal of the South Carolina Medical Association. 1994;90(9):417–23. PMID7967534.
Comparison of Neurodegenerative Pathology in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing V717F Beta-amyloid Precursor Protein and Alzheimer's Disease. The Journal of Neuroscience. 1996;16(18):5795–811. PMID8795633.
^Aß Oligomer-Induced Aberrations in Synapse Composition, Shape, and Density Provide a Molecular Basis for Loss of Connectivity in Alzheimer's Disease. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2007;27(4):796–807. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3501-06.2007. PMID17251419.
^Feuerstein, Adam (14 February 2017). ""Merck Alzheimer's Drug Study Halted Early for Futility"". New York City, NY, USA: TheStreet, Inc. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017.Merck Alzheimer's Drug Study Halted Early for Futility Independent study monitors concluded that there was "virtually no chance of finding a positive clinical effect."
^Bondy, SC (January 2016). "Low levels of aluminum can lead to behavioral and morphological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease and age-related neurodegeneration". Neurotoxicology. 52: 222–29. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2015.12.002. PMID26687397.
^Regional Distribution of Neurofibrillary Tangles and Senile Plaques in the Cerebral Cortex of Elderly Patients: A Quantitative Evaluation of a One-year Autopsy Population from a Geriatric Hospital. Cerebral Cortex. 1994;4(2):138–50. doi:10.1093/cercor/4.2.138. PMID8038565.
^Role of Protein Aggregation in Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases. Neuromolecular Medicine. 2003;4(1–2):21–36. doi:10.1385/NMM:4:1-2:21. PMID14528050.
^Hooper NM. Roles of Proteolysis and Lipid Rafts in the Processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein and Prion Protein. Biochemical Society Transactions. 2005;33(Pt 2):335–38. doi:10.1042/BST0330335. PMID15787600.
^New Therapeutic Strategies and Drug Candidates for Neurodegenerative Diseases: p53 and TNF-alpha Inhibitors, and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2004;1035:290–315. doi:10.1196/annals.1332.018. PMID15681814.
^ abClinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the Auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology. 1984;34(7):939–44. doi:10.1212/wnl.34.7.939. PMID6610841.
^American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR (4th Edition Text Revision ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. ISBN 0-89042-025-4.
^Ito N. [Clinical aspects of dementia]. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi. 1996;71(3):315–20. Japanese. PMID8752526.
^Zhang, S; Smailagic, N; Hyde, C; Noel-Storr, AH; Takwoingi, Y; McShane, R; Feng, J (23 July 2014). "(11)C-PIB-PET for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease dementia and other dementias in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD010386. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010386.pub2. PMID25052054.
^The possible role of antioxidant vitamin C in Alzheimer's disease treatment and prevention. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias. March 2013;28(2):120–25. doi:10.1177/1533317512473193. PMID23307795.
^ abFarina, N; Llewellyn, D; Isaac, MG; Tabet, N (27 January 2017). "Vitamin E for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 1: CD002854. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002854.pub4. PMID28128435.
^Effect of Folic Acid, with or without other B vitamins, on Cognitive Decline: Meta-analysis of Randomized trials. The American Journal of Medicine. June 2010;123(6):522–27.e2. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.01.017. PMID20569758.
^Docosahexaenoic acid homeostasis, brain aging and Alzheimer's disease: Can we reconcile the evidence?. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids. January 2013;88(1):61–70. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2012.04.006. PMID22575581.
^Stahl SM. The new cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease, part 2: illustrating their mechanisms of action. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2000;61(11):813–14. doi:10.4088/JCP.v61n1101. PMID11105732.
^al.], edited by Brian K. Alldredge ... [et (2013). Applied therapeutics : the clinical use of drugs (10th ed.). Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 2385. ISBN 978-1609137137.
^ abLipton SA. Paradigm shift in neuroprotection by NMDA receptor blockade: memantine and beyond. Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 2006;5(2):160–70. doi:10.1038/nrd1958. PMID16424917.
^"Memantine". US National Library of Medicine (Medline). 4 January 2004. Archived from the original on 22 February 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
^Declercq, T; Petrovic, M; Azermai, M; Vander Stichele, R; De Sutter, AI; van Driel, ML; Christiaens, T (28 March 2013). "Withdrawal versus continuation of chronic antipsychotic drugs for behavioural and psychological symptoms in older people with dementia". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 3: CD007726. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007726.pub2. PMID23543555.
^ abcdefgAmerican Psychiatric Association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. The American Journal of Psychiatry. December 2007;164(12 Suppl):5–56. PMID18340692.
^Practice parameter: management of dementia (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2001;56(9):1154–66. doi:10.1212/WNL.56.9.1154. PMID11342679.
^Effectiveness and acceptability of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce wandering in dementia: a systematic review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2007;22(1):9–22. doi:10.1002/gps.1643. PMID17096455.
^Zetteler J. Effectiveness of simulated presence therapy for individuals with dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aging & Mental Health. November 2008;12(6):779–85. doi:10.1080/13607860802380631. PMID19023729.
^Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia: randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2003;183(3):248–54. doi:10.1192/bjp.183.3.248. PMID12948999.
^Maintenance of Effects of the Home Environmental Skill-building Program for Family Caregivers and Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2005;60(3):368–74. doi:10.1093/gerona/60.3.368. PMID15860476.
Alzheimer's Disease: Psychopathology, Medical Management and Dental Implications. Journal of the American Dental Association. 2006;137(9):1240–51. PMID16946428.
Belmin J. Practical Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Weight Loss in Alzheimer's Disease: A Consensus from Appropriateness Ratings of a Large Expert Panel. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. 2007;11(1):33–37. PMID17315078.
Alzheimer Alois. Über eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde [About a peculiar disease of the cerebral cortex]. Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie und Psychisch-Gerichtlich Medizin. 1907;64(1–2):146–48. (in German).
Alzheimer Alois. About a Peculiar Disease of the Cerebral Cortex. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. 1987;1(1):3–8. PMID3331112.
Maurer Ulrike; Maurer Konrad (2003). Alzheimer: The Life of a Physician and the Career of a Disease. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 270. ISBN 0-231-11896-1.
^Berrios G E. Alzheimer's Disease: A Conceptual History. Int. J. Ger. Psychiatry. 1990;5(6):355–65. doi:10.1002/gps.930050603.
^Kraepelin Emil (17 January 2007). Clinical Psychiatry: A Textbook For Students And Physicians (Reprint). Translated by Diefendorf A. Ross. Kessinger Publishing. p. 568. ISBN 1-4325-0833-4.
^Katzman Robert; Terry Robert D; Bick Katherine L, eds. (1978). Alzheimer's Disease: Senile Dementia and Related Disorders. New York: Raven Press. p. 595. ISBN 0-89004-225-X.
^Economic Impact of Dementia in Developing Countries: An Evaluation of Costs of Alzheimer-type Dementia in Argentina. International Psychogeriatrics. 2007;19(4):705–18. doi:10.1017/S1041610206003784. PMID16870037.
^An Estimate of the Worldwide Prevalence and Direct Costs of Dementia in 2003. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2006;21(3):175–81. doi:10.1159/000090733. PMID16401889.
^ abcInformal Costs of Dementia Care: Estimates from the National Longitudinal Caregiver Study. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2001;56(4):S219–28. doi:10.1093/geronb/56.4.S219. PMID11445614.
^Determinants of Costs of Care for Patients with Alzheimer's Disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2006;21(5):449–59. doi:10.1002/gps.1489. PMID16676288.
^Methylthioninium chloride (MTC) acts as a tau aggregation inhibitor (TAI) in a cellular model and reverses tau pathology in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia. 2008;4(4):T120–T121. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2008.05.259.
^Effect of dimebon on cognition, activities of daily living, behaviour, and global function in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Lancet. 2008;372(9634):207–15. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61074-0. PMID18640457.
^ abMartin C, Solís L, Concha MI, Otth C. Herpes simplex virus tipo 1 como factor de riesgo asociado con la enfermedad de Alzheimer [Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 as Risk Factor Associated to Alzheimer Disease]. Revista Médica De Chile. June 2011;139(6):779–86. Spanish. doi:10.4067/S0034-98872011000600013. PMID22051760.
^Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 DNA Is Located within Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid Plaques. The Journal of Pathology. 2008;217(1):131–38. doi:10.1002/path.2449. PMID18973185.
^Larouche E, Hudon C, Goulet S (January 2015). "Potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: An interdisciplinary perspective". Behav Brain Res. 1 (276): 199–212. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.05.058.
^The Use of the Exploratory IND in the Evaluation and Development of18F-PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Amyloid Imaging in the Brain: A Review of One Company's Experience. The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. August 2009;53(4):387–93. PMID19834448.
Irvine K. Greater cognitive deterioration in women than men with Alzheimer's disease: a meta analysis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2012;34(9):989–98. doi:10.1080/13803395.2012.712676. PMID22913619.
This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.