Ablation

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Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes. Examples of ablative materials are described below, and include spacecraft material for ascent and atmospheric reentry, ice and snow in glaciology, biological tissues in medicine and passive fire protection materials.

Ablation of quartz glass in a flashtube.jpg
Ablation near the electrode in a flashtube. The high-energy electrical arc slowly erodes the glass, leaving a frosted appearance.

Biology

Biological ablation is the removal of a biological structure or functionality.

Genetic ablation is another term for gene silencing, in which gene expression is abolished through the alteration or deletion of genetic sequence information. In cell ablation, individual cells in a population or culture are destroyed or removed. Both can be used as experimental tools, as in loss-of-function experiments.[1]

Glaciology

In glaciology and meteorology, ablation—the opposite of accumulation—refers to all processes that remove snow, ice, or water from a glacier or snowfield.[2] Ablation refers to the melting of snow or ice that runs off the glacier, evaporation, sublimation, calving, or erosive removal of snow by wind. Air temperature is typically the dominant control of ablation, with precipitation exercising secondary control. In a temperate climate during ablation season, ablation rates typically average around 2 mm/h.[3] Where solar radiation is the dominant cause of snow ablation (e.g., if air temperatures are low under clear skies), characteristic ablation textures such as suncups and penitentes may develop on the snow surface.[4]

Ablation can refer either to the processes removing ice and snow or to the quantity of ice and snow removed.

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Debris-covered glaciers have also been shown to greatly impact the ablation process. There is a thin debris layer that can be located on the top of glaciers that intensifies the ablation process below the ice. The debris-covered parts of a glacier that is experiencing ablation are sectioned into three categories which include ice cliffs, ponds, and debris. These three sections allow scientists to measure the heat digested by the debris-covered area and is calculated. The calculations are dependent on the area and net absorbed heat amounts in regards to the entire debris-covered zones. These types of calculations are done to various glaciers to understand and analyze future patterns of melting.[5]

Moraine (glacial debris) is moved by natural processes that allow for down-slope movement of materials on the glacier body. It is noted that if the slope of a glacier is too high then the debris will continue to move along the glacier to a further location. The sizes and locations of glaciers vary around the world, so depending on the climate and physical geography the varieties of debris can differ. The size and magnitude of the debris is dependent on the area of glacier and can vary from dust-size fragments to substantial sizes that are bigger than the average household.[6]

There has been many experiments done to demonstrate the effect of debris on the surface of glaciers. Yoshiyuki Fujii, a professor at the National Institute of Polar Research designed an experiment that showed ablation rate was accelerated under a thin debris layer and was retarded under a thick one as compared with that of a natural snow surface.[7] This science is significant due to the importance of long-term availability of water resources and assess glacier response to climate change.[8] Natural resource availability is a major drive behind research conducted in regards to the ablation process and overall study of glaciers.

Laser ablation

SSY1 Military Surplus Nd-YAG Laser Firing.JPG
An Nd:YAG laser drills a hole through a block of nitrile. The intense burst of infrared radiation ablates the highly absorbing rubber, releasing an eruption of plasma.

Laser ablation is greatly affected by the nature of the material and its ability to absorb energy, therefore the wavelength of the ablation laser should have a minimum absorption depth. While these lasers can average a low power, they can offer peak intensity and fluence given by:

while the peak power is

Surface ablation of the cornea for several types of eye refractive surgery is now common, using an excimer laser system (LASIK and LASEK). Since the cornea does not grow back, laser is used to remodel the cornea refractive properties to correct refraction errors, such as astigmatism, myopia, and hyperopia. Laser ablation is also used to remove part of the uterine wall in women with menstruation and adenomyosis problems in a process called endometrial ablation.

Recently, researchers have demonstrated a successful technique for ablating subsurface tumors with minimal thermal damage to surrounding healthy tissue, by using a focused laser beam from an ultra-short pulse diode laser source.[9]

Marine surface coatings

Antifouling paints and other related coatings are routinely used to prevent the buildup of microorganisms and other animals, such as barnacles for the bottom hull surfaces of recreational, commercial and military sea vessels. Ablative paints are often utilized for this purpose to prevent the dilution or deactivation of the antifouling agent. Over time, the paint will slowly decompose in the water, exposing fresh antifouling compounds on the surface. Engineering the antifouling agents and the ablation rate can produce long-lived protection from the deleterious effects of biofouling.

Medicine

In medicine, ablation is the same as removal of a part of biological tissue, usually by surgery. Surface ablation of the skin (dermabrasion, also called resurfacing because it induces regeneration) can be carried out by chemicals (chemoablation), by lasers (laser ablation), by freezing (cryoablation), or by electricity (fulguration). Its purpose is to remove skin spots, aged skin, wrinkles, thus rejuvenating it. Surface ablation is also employed in otolaryngology for several kinds of surgery, such as for snoring. Ablation therapy using radio frequency waves on the heart is used to cure a variety of cardiac arrhythmiae such as supraventricular tachycardia, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome (WPW), ventricular tachycardia, and more recently as management of atrial fibrillation. The term is often used in the context of laser ablation, a process in which a laser dissolves a material's molecular bonds. For a laser to ablate tissues, the power density or fluence must be high, otherwise thermocoagulation occurs, which is simply thermal vaporization of the tissues.

Rotoablation is a type of arterial cleansing that consists of inserting a tiny, diamond-tipped, drill-like device into the affected artery to remove fatty deposits or plaque. The procedure is used in the treatment of coronary heart disease to restore blood flow.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a method of removing aberrant tissue from within the body via minimally invasive procedures.

Microwave ablation (MWA) is similar to RFA but at higher frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

Bone marrow ablation is a process whereby the human bone marrow cells are eliminated in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. This is performed using high-intensity chemotherapy and total body irradiation. As such, it has nothing to do with the vaporization techniques described in the rest of this article.

Ablation of brain tissue is used for treating certain neurological disorders, particularly Parkinson's disease, and sometimes for psychiatric disorders as well.

Recently, some researchers reported successful results with genetic ablation. In particular, genetic ablation is potentially a much more efficient method of removing unwanted cells, such as tumor cells, because large numbers of animals lacking specific cells could be generated. Genetically ablated lines can be maintained for a prolonged period of time and shared within the research community. Researchers at Columbia University report of reconstituted caspases combined from C. elegans and humans, which maintain a high degree of target specificity. The genetic ablation techniques described could prove useful in battling cancer.[10]

Passive fire protection

Firestopping and fireproofing products can be ablative in nature. This can mean endothermic materials, or merely materials that are sacrificial and become "spent" over time while exposed to fire, such as silicone firestop products. Given sufficient time under fire or heat conditions, these products char away, crumble, and disappear. The idea is to put enough of this material in the way of the fire that a level of fire-resistance rating can be maintained, as demonstrated in a fire test. Ablative materials usually have a large concentration of organic matter that is reduced by fire to ashes. In the case of silicone, organic rubber surrounds very finely divided silica dust (up to 380 m² of combined surface area of all the dust particles per gram of this dust). When the organic rubber is exposed to fire, it burns to ash and leaves behind the silica dust with which the product started.

Spaceflight

In spacecraft design, ablation is used to both cool and protect mechanical parts and/or payloads that would otherwise be damaged by extremely high temperatures. Two principal applications are heat shields for spacecraft entering a planetary atmosphere from space and cooling of rocket engine nozzles. Examples include the Apollo Command Module that protected astronauts from the heat of atmospheric reentry and the Kestrel second stage rocket engine designed for exclusive use in an environment of space vacuum since no heat convection is possible.

In a basic sense, ablative material is designed to slowly burn away in a controlled manner, so that heat can be carried away from the spacecraft by the gases generated by the ablative process while the remaining solid material insulates the craft from superheated gases. There is an entire branch of spaceflight research involving the search for new fireproofing materials to achieve the best ablative performance; this function is critical to protect the spacecraft occupants and payload from otherwise excessive heat loading.[11] The same technology is used in some passive fire protection applications, in some cases by the same vendors, who offer different versions of these fireproofing products, some for aerospace and some for structural fire protection.

See also

References

  1. ^ Cell Ablation definition, Change Bioscience.
  2. ^ Paterson, W. S. B. 1999. The Physics of Glaciers. Tarrytown, N.Y., Pergamon.
  3. ^ Glossary of Meteorology
  4. ^ Betterton, M. D. "Theory of structure formation in snowfields motivated by penitentes, suncups, and dirt cones". Physical Review E 63.5 (2001): 056129.
  5. ^ Sakai, Akiko, et al. "Role of supraglacial ponds in the ablation process of a debris-covered glacier in the Nepal Himalayas." IAHS PUBLICATION (2000): 119-132.
  6. ^ Paul, Frank, Christian Huggel, and Andreas Kääb. "Combining satellite multispectral image data and a digital elevation model for mapping debris-covered glaciers." Remote sensing of Environment 89.4 (2004): 510-518.
  7. ^ Fujii, Yoshiyuki. "Field experiment on glacier ablation under a layer of debris cover." Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice 39.Special (1977): 20-21.
  8. ^ Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta, et al. "Practical prediction of ice melting beneath various thickness of debris cover on Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, using a positive degree-day factor." IAHS PUBLICATION 7182 (2000).
  9. ^ Amir Yousef Sajjadi, Kunal Mitra, Michael Grace, "Ablation of subsurface tumors using an ultra-short pulse laser", Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Volume 49, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 451–456, ISSN 0143-8166
  10. ^ Chelur, Dattananda S.; Chalfie, Martin (February 2007). "Targeted cell killing by reconstituted caspases". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (7): 2283–8. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.2283C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610877104. PMC 1892955Freely accessible. PMID 17283333. Retrieved 2007-03-08.
  11. ^ Parker, John and C. Michael Hogan, "Techniques for Wind Tunnel assessment of Ablative Materials", NASA Ames Research Center, Technical Publication, August 1965.

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