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1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1899th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 899th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1899, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 22 – The leaders of six Australian colonies meet in Melbourne to discuss the confederation of Australia as a whole.
- January 23
- February 2 – The participants in the Australian Premiers' Conference held in Melbourne agree that Australia's capital (Canberra) should be located between Sydney and Melbourne.
- February 4 – The Philippine–American War begins as hostilities break out in Manila.
- February 6 – Spanish–American War: A peace treaty between the United States and Spain is ratified by the United States Senate.
- February 12–February 14 – Great Blizzard of 1899: Freezing temperatures and snow extend well south into North America, including southern Florida. It is the latest in a series of disasters to Florida's citrus industry.
- February 14 – Voting machines are approved by the U.S. Congress for use in federal elections.
- February 15 – The February Manifesto is issued by the Emperor of Russia decreeing that a veto by the Diet of Finland may be overruled in legislative matters concerning the interest of all Russia, including autonomous Finland. The manifesto is viewed as unconstitutional and a coup d'état by many Finns who have come to consider their country a separate constitutional state in its own right in union with the Russian Empire. Furthermore, the manifesto also fails to elaborate the criteria that a law has to meet in order to be considered to concern Russian imperial interests and not an internal affair of Finland – affairs over which the Diet's authority is supposed have remained unaltered – leaving it to be decided by the autocratic Emperor. This results in Finnish fears that the Diet of Finland may be overruled arbitrarily.
- February 16 – Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur, the first Association football club in Iceland, is established in the island's capital, Reykjavík.
- February 25 – In an accident at Grove Hill, Harrow, London, England, Edwin Sewell becomes the world's first driver of a petrol-driven vehicle to be killed; his passenger, Maj. James Richer, dies of injuries three days later.
- March 1 – In Afghanistan, Capt. George Roos-Keppel makes a sudden attack on a predatory band of Chamkannis that have been raiding in the Kurram Valley, and captures 100 prisoners with 3,000 head of cattle.
- March 2 – Mount Rainier National Park is established in the U.S. state of Washington,
- March 4 – Cyclone Mahina strikes Bathurst Bay, Queensland. A 12 meter high wave reaches up to 5 km inland, leaving over 400 dead, the deadliest natural disaster in Australia's history.
- April 15 – Students at the University of California, Berkeley steal the Stanford Axe from Stanford University yelling at leaders following a baseball game, thus establishing the Axe as a symbol of the rivalry between the schools.
- April 26 – Jean Sibelius's First Symphony premiers in Helsinki.
- May 3 – The Ferencvárosi TC Association football club is founded in Budapest.
- May 13 – The Esporte Clube Vitória Association football club is founded in Salvador, Brazil.
- May 14 – The three time world champion Club Nacional de Football is founded in Montevideo, Uruguay.
- May 18 – The First Hague Peace Conference is opened in The Hague by Willem de Beaufort, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.
- May 30 – Female outlaw Pearl Hart robs a stage coach 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Globe, Arizona.
- May 31 – The Harriman Alaska Expedition is launched.
- June 12 – The New Richmond tornado completely destroys the town of New Richmond, Wisconsin, killing 117 and injuring more than 200.
- June 17 – David Hilbert creates the modern concept of geometry with the publication of his book Grundlagen der Geometrie, released on this date at Göttingen.
- June 19 – Edward Elgar's Enigma Variations premiered in London.
- June 22–27 – The highest ever recorded individual cricket score, 628 not out, is made by A. E. J. Collins.
- June 25 – Three Denver newspapers publish a story (later proved to be a fabrication) that the Chinese government under the Guangxu Emperor is going to demolish the Great Wall of China.
- June 27 – The paperclip is patented by Johan Vaaler, a Norwegian inventor.
- June 30 – Mile-a-Minute Murphy earns his nickname after he becomes the first man to ride a bicycle for one mile (1.6 km) in under a minute on Long Island.
- July 1 – The International Council of Nurses is founded in London at a meeting of the Matron's Council of Great Britain and Ireland.
- July 14 – The first Republic of Acre declared in South America.
- July 17
- July 19 – The Newsboys' strike takes place when the Newsies of New York go on strike (until August 2).
- July 27 – Gold is discovered in Nome, Alaska, leading to the Nome Gold Rush.
- July 29 – The first international Peace Conference ends with the signing of the First Hague Convention.
- July 30 – The Harriman Alaska Expedition ends successfully.
- July 31 - Duke of York Island outside Antarctica is discovered by explorer Carsten Borchgrevink and the British Southern Cross Expedition. 
- August 3 – The John Marshall Law School is founded in Chicago
- August 10 – Marshall "Major" Taylor wins the world 1-mile (1.6 km) professional cycling championship in Montreal, securing his place as the first African American world champion in any sport.
- August 17 – The San Ciriaco hurricane makes landfall in North Carolina's Outer Banks, completely destroying the town of Diamond City.
- August 28 – At least 512 are killed when a debris hill from the Sumitomo Besshi copper mine at Niihama, Shikoku, Japan, collapses after heavy rain; 122 houses, a smelting factory, hospital and many other facilities are destroyed.
- August 31 – The Olympique de Marseille association football club is founded in France, founded.
- September 6 – The White Star Line's transatlantic ocean liner RMS Oceanic sails on her maiden voyage. At 17,272 gross tons and 704 ft (215 m), she is the largest ship afloat, following scrapping of the SS Great Eastern a decade earlier.
- September 13 – Mackinder, Ollier and Brocherel make the first ascent of Batian (5,199 m – 17,058 ft), the highest peak of Mount Kenya.
- September 13 - Henry Bliss is the first person in the United States to be killed in an automobile accident.
- September 18 – Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag is registered for copyright as ragtime music enjoys mainstream popularity in the United States.
- September 19 – Alfred Dreyfus is pardoned in France.
- October 11 – The Second Boer War: In South Africa, a war between the United Kingdom and the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State erupts.
- October 13 – Second Boer War: The siege of Mafeking begins.
- October 14 – Second Boer War: Kimberley comes under siege by the Boers.
- October 20 – Second Boer War: Battle of Talana Hill: In the first major clash of the conflict, near Dundee, Natal, the British Army drives the Boers from a hilltop position, but with heavy casualties, including their commanding general Sir Penn Symons.
- October 30 – Second Boer War: The Siege of Ladysmith begins.
- October 30 – The Augusta High School Building is completed in Augusta, Kentucky; Augusta Methodist College shuts down.
- November 4 – The Alpha Sigma Tau Sorority is founded in Ypsilanti, Michigan.
- November 8 – The New York Zoological Society opens the Bronx Zoological Park to the public in New York City.
- November 15 – The American Line's SS St. Paul becomes the first ocean liner to report her imminent arrival by wireless telegraphy when Marconi's station at The Needles contacts her 66 nautical miles (122 km) off the coast of England.
- November 24 – Mahdist War: A decisive British and Egyptian victory at the Battle of Umm Diwaykarat ends the war in the Sudan.
- November 29 – The FC Barcelona Association football club is founded.
- December 2
- December 10
- December 11 – Second Boer War: In the Battle of Magersfontein, Boers defeat the forces of the British Empire trying to relieve the Siege of Kimberley.
- December 15 – Glasgow School of Art opens its new building, the most notable work of Scottish architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh.
- December 16
- December 26 - Pinnacle Rock, a Balancing rock in Cumberland Gap, falls down.
- January 1 – Jack Beresford, British Olympic rower (d. 1977)
- January 6
- January 7 – Francis Poulenc, French composer (d. 1963)
- January 8 – S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, 4th Prime Minister of Sri Lanka (d. 1959)
- January 11 – Eva Le Gallienne, English actress (d. 1991)
- January 12 – Paul Hermann Müller, Swiss chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1965)
- January 14
- January 15 – Goodman Ace, American actor, comedian, and writer (d. 1982)
- January 17
- January 20 – Kenjiro Takayanagi, Japanese television development pioneer (d. 1990)
- January 21 – Dr John Bodkin Adams, suspected British serial killer (d. 1983)
- January 23 – Alfred Denning, Baron Denning, English lawyer, judge and Master of the Rolls (d. 1999)
- January 25 – Paul-Henri Spaak, 31st Prime Minister of Belgium (d. 1972)
- January 30 – Max Theiler, South African virologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1972)
- March 4 – Harry R. Wellman, University of California president (d. 1997)
- March 8
- March 11 – King Frederick IX of Denmark (d. 1972)
- March 13 – John Hasbrouck Van Vleck, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1980)
- March 18 – Jean Goldkette, French-born musician (d. 1962)
- March 21 – Panagiotis Pipinelis, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1970)
- March 24 – Dorothy C. Stratton, American director of the SPARS during World War II (d. 2006)
- March 27 – Gloria Swanson, American actress (d. 1983)
- March 28 – August Anheuser Busch, Jr., Founder of Anheuser-Busch brewery company (d. 1989)
- March 28 – Harold B. Lee, eleventh president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1973)
- March 29 – Lavrentiy Beria, Soviet official (d. 1953)
- April 1 – Gustavs Celmiņš, Latvian fascist leader (d. 1968)
- April 3 – Maria Redaelli-Granoli, Italian supercentenarian, oldest person in Europe (d. 2013)
- April 4 – Hillel Oppenheimer, German-born Israeli botanist (d. 1971)
- April 5 – Elsie Thompson, American supercentenarian (d. 2013)
- April 7 – Robert Casadesus, French pianist (d. 1972)
- April 9 – Hans Jeschonnek, German general (d. 1943)
- April 16 – Osman Achmatowicz, Polish chemist (d. 1988)
- April 19 – George O'Brien, American actor (d. 1985)
- April 20 – Alan Arnett McLeod, Canadian soldier (d. 1918)
- April 21 – Percy Lavon Julian, American scientist (d. 1975)
- April 22 – Vladimir Nabokov, Russian-born writer (d. 1977)
- April 23 – Bertil Ohlin, Swedish economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1979)
- April 24 – Oscar Zariski, Russian mathematician (d. 1986)
- April 27 – Walter Lantz, American animator and creator of Woody Woodpecker (d. 1994)
- April 29
- May 3 – Aline MacMahon, American actress (d. 1991)
- May 6 – Billy Cotton, British entertainer and bandleader (d. 1969)
- May 8 – Friedrich Hayek, Austrian economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1992)
- May 10
- May 12 – Indra Devi, Baltic-born yogi and actress (d. 2002)
- May 15 – Jean-Étienne Valluy, French general (d. 1970)
- May 17 – Carmen de Icaza, Spanish writer (d. 1979)
- May 20 – John Marshall Harlan II, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1971)
- May 23 – Jeralean Talley, American supercentenarian (d. 2015)
- May 24
- May 30 – Irving Thalberg, American film producer (d. 1936)
- June 1 – Edward Charles Titchmarsh, British mathematician (d. 1963)
- June 2 – Lotte Reiniger, German-born silhouette animator (d. 1981)
- June 3 – Georg von Békésy, Hungarian biophysicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1972)
- June 4 – Arthur Barker, American criminal, son of Ma Barker (d. 1939)
- June 11 – Yasunari Kawabata, Japanese writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1972)
- June 12 – Fritz Albert Lipmann, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1986)
- June 13 – Carlos Chávez, Mexican composer (d. 1978)
- June 16 – Helen Traubel, American soprano (d. 1972)
- June 18 – John Warburton, British actor (d. 1981)
- June 25 – Arthur Tracy, American singer (d. 1997)
- June 26 – Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (d. 1918)
- June 27 – Juan Trippe, American airline entrepreneur and pioneer (d. 1981)
- June 29 – Edward Twining, British diplomat, formerly Governor of North Borneo and Governor of Tanganyika (d. 1967)
- June 30 – Harry Shields, American jazz clarinettist (d. 1971)
- July 1
- July 5 – Marcel Achard, French play and scriptwriter (d. 1974)
- July 6 – Susannah Mushatt Jones, American supercentenarian (d. 2016)
- July 7
- July 10 – John Gilbert, American actor (d. 1936)
- July 11
- July 15 – Seán Lemass, Taoiseach of Ireland (d. 1971)
- July 16 – Božidar Jakac, Slovene Expressionist, Realist and Symbolist painter, printmaker, art teacher, photographer and filmmaker (d. 1989)
- July 17 – James Cagney, American actor (d. 1986)
- July 18 – Floyd Stahl, American collegiate athletic coach (d. 1996)
- July 21
- July 22 – King Sobhuza II of Swaziland (d. 1982)
- July 23 – Gustav Heinemann, former German president (d. 1976)
- July 24 – Chief Dan George, Canadian actor and writer, tribal chief of the Tsleil-Waututh First Nation (d. 1981)
- July 29
- September 1
- September 3 – Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australian biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1985)
- September 9
- September 13 – Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, Romanian fascist politician, leader of the Iron Guard (d. 1938)
- September 17 – Harold Bennett, British actor (d. 1981)
- September 18 – Ida Kamińska, Polish-Jewish actress, playwright, and translator (d. 1980)
- September 21 – Frederick Coutts, 8th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1986)
- September 23 – Tom C. Clark, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1977)
- September 28 – Boris Yefimov, Russian political cartoonist (d. 2008)
- October 1 – Ernest Haycox, American writer (d. 1950)
- October 3 – Gertrude Berg, American actress (d. 1966)
- October 4 – Franz Jonas, former President of Austria (d. 1974)
- October 5 – George, Duke of Mecklenburg, head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1963)
- October 9 – Bruce Catton, American Civil War historian, Pulitzer Prize winner (1954) (d. 1978)
- October 19 – Miguel Ángel Asturias, Guatemalan writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
- October 20 – Evelyn Brent, American actress (d. 1975)
- October 24 – Burr Shafer, American cartoonist (d. 1965)
- October 29 – Akim Tamiroff, Armenian actor (d. 1972)
- October 30 – Katarina Marinič, Slovenia's oldest person. (d. 2010)
- November 5 – Forrest Lewis, American actor (d. 1977)
- November 6 – Feng Zhanhai, Chinese military leader and government official (d. 1963)
- November 7 – Yitzhak Lamdan, Russian-born Israeli poet and columnist (d. 1954)
- November 11 – Pat O'Brien, American actor (d. 1983)
- November 13
- November 15 – Avdy Andresson, Estonian Minister of War in Exile (d. 1990)
- November 17 – Douglas Shearer, American film sound engineer (d. 1971)
- November 18 – Eugene Ormandy, Hungarian conductor (d. 1985)
- November 19 – Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, Shia Ayatollah (d. 1992)
- November 21 – Jobyna Ralston, American actress (d. 1967)
- November 22 – Hoagy Carmichael, American composer, pianist, singer, actor, and bandleader (d. 1981)
- November 23 – Manuel dos Reis Machado, Brazilian martial arts Master (d. 1974)
- November 24 – Soraya Tarzi, Afghan feminist and queen (d. 1968)
- November 26
- November 29 – Emma Morano, Italian supercentenarian, last known living person born in the 1800s (d. 2017)
- December 1 – Gaetano Lucchese, American gangster and future boss of the Lucchese crime family (d. 1967)
- December 2
- December 3 – Hayato Ikeda, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1965)
- December 8 – John Qualen, Canadian-American actor (d. 1987)
- December 9 – Jean de Brunhoff, French writer (d. 1937)
- December 15 – Harold Abrahams, British athlete (d. 1978)
- December 14 – DeFord Bailey, American country musician (d. 1982)
- December 16
- December 18 – Peter Wessel Zapffe, Norwegian author and philosopher (d. 1990)
- December 19 – Martin Luther King Sr., American Baptist pastor, missionary, and an early figure in the Civil Rights Movement, father of Martin Luther King Jr. (d. 1984)
- December 20
- December 25
- December 28 – Eugeniusz Bodo, Polish actor (d. 1943)
- December 29 – Nie Rongzhen, Chinese Communist military leader (d. 1992)
- December 31 – Friedrich Panse, German psychiatrist (d. 1973)
- January 23 – Romualdo Pacheco, Governor of California (b. 1831)
- January 29 – Alfred Sisley, French Impressionist landscape painter (b. 1839)
- January 31 – Princess Marie Louise of Bourbon-Parma, Princess-consort of Bulgaria (b. 1870)
- February 6
- February 16 – Félix Faure, President of France (b. 1841)
- February 23 – Gaëtan de Rochebouët, Prime Minister of France (b. 1813)
- February 25 – Paul Reuter, German-born news agency founder (b. 1816)
- March 3 – William P. Sprague, American politician from Ohio (b. 1827)
- March 6 – Princess Kaʻiulani, last monarch of Hawaii (b. 1875)
- March 20 – Martha Place, American murderer, first woman executed in the electric chair (b. 1849)
- March 24 – Marie Goegg-Pouchoulin, Swiss national and international women's rights activist and pacifist (b. 1826)
- April 1 – Charles C. Carpenter, American admiral (b. 1834)
- April 5 – T. E. Ellis, Welsh politician (b. 1859)
- April 7 – Pieter Rijke, Dutch physicist (b. 1812)
- April 11 – Lascăr Catargiu, 4-Time Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1823)
- April 16 – Emilio Jacinto, Filipino poet and revolutionary (b. 1875)
- April 22 – Johann Köler, Estonian painter (b. 1826)
- May 24 – William Brett, 1st Viscount Esher, British law lord (b. 1817)
- May 25 – Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, President of the First Spanish Republic (b. 1832)
- June 3 – Johann Strauss, Jr., Austrian composer (b. 1825)
- June 4 – Eugenio Beltrami, Italian mathematician (b. 1835)
- June 5 – Antonio Luna, Filipino general (killed in action) (b. 1866)
- June 7 – Augustin Daly, American theatrical impresario and playwright (b. 1838)
- June 10 – Ernest Chausson, French composer (b. 1855)
- July 16 – Margaretta Riley, British botanic (b. 1804)
- July 18 – Horatio Alger, Jr., American writer (b. 1832)
- July 21 – Robert G. Ingersoll, American politician (b. 1833)
- July 27 – Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa, German chess-master (b. 1818)
- August 4 – Karl, Freiherr von Prel, German philosopher (b. 1839)
- August 9 – Grand Duke George Alexandrovich of Russia, Russian Grand Duke, younger brother of Nicholas II of Russia (b. 1871)
- August 16 – Robert Bunsen, German chemist (b. 1811)
- September 2 – Ernest Renshaw, British tennis player (b. 1861)
- September 12 – Cornelius Vanderbilt II, American railway magnate (b. 1843)
- September 17 – Charles Alfred Pillsbury, American industrialist (b. 1842)
- September 28 – Giovanni Segantini, Italian painter (b. 1858)
- October 2
- October 23 – Penn Symons, British general (died of wounds) (b. 1843)
- October 30 – William Henry Webb, American industrialist and philanthropist (b. 1816)
- November 16
- November 21 – Garret Hobart, 24th Vice President of the United States (b. 1844)
- November 23 – Thomas Henry Ismay, British owner of the White Star Line (b. 1837)
- November 24 – Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, Sudanese political and religious leader (killed in battle) (b. 1846)
- November 28 – Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione (b. 1837)
- December 2 – Gregorio del Pilar, Filipino general (killed in battle) (b. 1875)
- December 10 – King Ngwane V of Swaziland (b. 1876)
- December 19 – Henry Ware Lawton, American general (b. 1843)
- December 22 – Dwight L. Moody, American evangelist (b. 1837)
- December 27 – Erebus Black, English occultist (b. 1851)
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- ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- ^ Klaus Volkert, ed., David Hilbert: Grundlagen der Geometrie (Springer, 2015) p. ix; Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 1640-1940 (Elsevier, 2005), p713
- ^ Inventors: Paperclip.
- ^ Lewenson, Sandra B. (2013). Taking Charge: Nursing, Suffrage, and Feminism in America, 1873-1920. Routledge. p. 95.
- ^ Henning, Joseph M. (2000). Outposts of Civilization: Race, Religion, and the Formative Years of American-Japanese Relations. New York University Press. p. 134.
- ^ Berton, Pierre (1972). Klondike: The Last Great Gold Rush, 1896-1899. Anchor Canada.
- ^ C. E. Borchgrevink, First on the Antarctic Continent: Being an Account of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1898-1900 (London: George Newnes, Ltd., 1901)
- ^ "Professional Information". The Major Taylor Society. Retrieved 2012-01-23.
- ^ Auclair, Philippe (2015-01-06). "Only in Marseille: where ultras rule and temptation is never far away | Philippe Auclair". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-11-06.
- ^ "R.M.S. Oceanic (II)". Jeff Newman. Archived from the original on September 19, 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-18.
- ^ "Congratulations to the Glasgow School of Art as they celebrate 100th anniversary of the Mackintosh Building". Museums Galleries Scotland. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
- ^ "Big Rock Fell". Green Bay, Wisconsin: Green Bay Semi-Weekly Gazette. 27 December 1899. p. 1. Retrieved 15 July 2017 – via newspapers.com.
- ^ Fischer, Steven R., Island at the End of the World, p. 153
- ^ "Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa". World Digital Library. 1908. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
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