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1829 (MDCCCXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1829th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 829th year of the 2nd millennium, the 29th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1829, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- July 2 – Russo-Turkish War (1828–29): Russian Field-Marshal Hans Karl von Diebitsch launches the Trans-Balkan Offensive, which brings the Russian army within 68 km of Istanbul.
- July 4 – George Shillibeer begins operating the first bus service in London.
- July 23 – In the United States, William Burt obtains the first patent for a form of typewriter, the typographer.
- August 8 – France: The Prince de Polignac succeeds the Vicomte de Martignac, as Prime Minister of France.
- August 10 – Finsteraarhorn, the highest summit of the Bernese Alps, is first ascended.
- August 12 – Mrs. Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the ship Sulphur, cuts down a tree to mark the founding day of the town of Perth, Western Australia.
- August 14 – King's College London is founded by Royal Charter, under the patronage of King George IV and the Prime Minister, The Duke of Wellington.
- September 14 – The Ottoman Empire signs the Treaty of Adrianople with Russia, thus ending the Russo-Turkish War.
- September 16 – Russo-Turkish War (1828–29): The Treaty of Adrianople gains for Russia some territory at the mouth of the Danube, and along the eastern coast of the Black Sea.
- September 28 – African-American abolitionist David Walker publishes his Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, in Boston, Massachusetts.
- January 1 – Tommaso Salvini, Italian actor (d. 1915)
- January 3 – Konrad Duden, German philologist (d. 1911)
- January 10 – Epameinondas Deligeorgis, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1879)
- January 17 – Catherine Booth, English Mother of The Salvation Army (d. 1890)
- January 21 – King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway (d. 1907)
- January 27 – Isaac Roberts, Welsh astronomer (d. 1904)
- February 2
- February 26 – Levi Strauss, American clothing designer (d. 1902)
- March 2 – Carl Schurz, German revolutionary, American statesman (d. 1906)
- March 19 – Carl Frederik Tietgen, Danish financier, industrialist (d. 1901)
- April 10 – William Booth, British founder of The Salvation Army (d. 1912)
- May 5 – Shusaku Honinbo, Japanese Go player (d. 1862)
- May 8 – Louis Moreau Gottschalk, American composer, pianist (d. 1869)
- June 5 – George Stephen, 1st Baron Mount Stephen, Scottish-Canadian businessman, philanthropist (d. 1921)
- June 6 – Allan Octavian Hume, British civil servant (d. 1912)
- June 8 – John Everett Millais, British Pre-Raphaelite painter (d. 1896)
- June 14 – Bernard Petitjean, French Catholic missionary to Japan (d. 1884)
- June 16 – Geronimo, indigenous American (Apache) leader (d. 1909)
- July 9 – Robert Franklin Armfield U.S. Representative from North Carolina (d. 1898)
- July 14 – Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1896)
- July 26 – Auguste Beernaert, Belgian statesman, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1912)
- August 24 – Emanuella Carlbeck, Swedish social reformer (d. 1901)
- September 3 – Adolf Eugen Fick, German-born physician, physiologist (d. 1901)
- September 7 – August Kekulé, German chemist (d. 1896)
- September 12 – Anselm Feuerbach, German painter (d. 1880)
- October 3 – Sigismund von Schlichting, Prussian general (d. 1909)
- October 5 – Chester A. Arthur, 21st President of the United States (d. 1886)
- November 9 – Peter Lumsden, British general in the Indian army (d. 1918)
- November 28 – Anton Rubinstein, Russian pianist, composer (d. 1894)
- unknown date – Anna Haslam, Irish women's rights activist, suffragist (d. 1922)
- January 12 – Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, German poet, philosopher and philologist (b. 1772)
- January 29
- February 10 – Pope Leo XII (b. 1760)
- February 11 – Alexander Griboyedov, Russian playwright, diplomat (b. 1795)
- February 21 – Kittur Chennamma, Indian queen regnant (b. 1778)
- April 6 – Niels Henrik Abel, Norwegian mathematician (b. 1802)
- April 18 – Veronika Gut, Swiss rebel heroine (b. 1757)
- May 10 – Thomas Young, English physician, linguist (b. 1773)
- May 17 – John Jay, first Chief Justice of the United States (b. 1745)
- May 21 – Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg (b. 1755)
- July 23 – Wojciech Bogusławski, actor and director, Father of Polish Theatre (b. 1757)
- October 10 – Maria Elizabetha Jacson, British botanist (b. 1755)
- November 14 – Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, French chemist, discoverer of beryllium and chromium (b. 1763)
- November 26 – Bushrod Washington, American Supreme Court justice (b. 1762)
- December 12 – John Lansing, Jr., American statesman (disappeared) (b. 1754)
- December 28 – Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, French scientist (b. 1744)
- December 29 – Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg (b. 1797) (scarlet fever)
- undated - Huang Lü, Chinese scientist
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