1823 (MDCCCXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1823rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 823rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 23rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1823, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 23 – In Paviland Cave on the Gower Peninsula of Wales, William Buckland inspects the "Red Lady of Paviland", the first identification of a prehistoric human burial.
- February 3
- February 10 – The first worldwide carnival parade takes place in Cologne, Prussia.
- February 11 – Carnival tragedy of 1823: About 110 boys are killed during a stampede at the Convent of the Minori Osservanti in Valletta, Malta.
- February 15 (approx.) – The first officially recognised gold is found in Australia, by surveyor James McBrien at Fish River, near Bathurst, New South Wales, predating the Australian gold rushes.
- February 20 – Explorer James Weddell's expedition to Antarctica reaches latitude 74°15' S and longitude 34°16'45" W: the southernmost position any ship had reached before, a record that will hold for more than 80 years.
- March 19 – Emperor Agustín de Iturbide of Mexico abdicates, thus ending the short-lived First Mexican Empire.
- July 1 – The Congress of Central America declares absolute independence from Spain, Mexico, and any other foreign nation, including North America, and a republican system of government is established.
- July – Robert Peel ensures the passage of five Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, effectively abolishing the death penalty for over one hundred offences; in particular, the Judgement of Death Act allows judges to commute sentences for capital offences (other than murder or treason) to imprisonment or transportation.
- July 10 – The Gaols Act is passed by Parliament of the United Kingdom, based on the prison reform campaign of Elizabeth Fry.
- July 15 – The Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, in Rome, is almost completely destroyed by fire.
- August 1 – William Pitt Amherst arrives in Calcutta with Lady Amherst, to become the new Governor-General of India. 
- August 4 – Felipe Enrique Neri, Baron de Bastrop, the Mexican government administrator in charge of Anglo-American immigration into Mexico's state of Coahuila y Tejas, allows Stephen F. Austin to put together an 11-man police force, that will later be expanded to become the Texas Ranger Division. 
- August 5 – The Royal Hibernian Academy is founded in Dublin. 
- August 16 – Tsar Alexander I of Russia draws up a secret "manifesto", designating his second younger brother Nikolai to succeed him, and bypassing Nikolai's older brother, Grand Duke Konstantin. The existence of the manifesto is revealed on Alexander's death in 1825. 
- August 18 – Demerara rebellion of 1823: In British Guiana (South America), an insurrection of 10,000 black slaves begins; it is suppressed after three days, but hundreds of suspects are executed in the reprisals that follow. 
- August 20 – Pope Pius VII dies after a reign of more than 23 years, that began on March 14, 1800; he is remembered for crowning Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor of France. 
- August 25 – Hugh Glass gets mauled by a sow grizzly, while on a fur trapping expedition in Montana (Movie: The Revenant *2015*).
- September 10 – Simón Bolívar is named President of Peru.
- September 22 – Joseph Smith wrote that in 1838 that on this day he had first come to the place where the golden plates were stored, having been directed there by God through an angel.
- September 23 – First Anglo-Burmese War: Burmese forces attack the British on Shapura, an island close to Chittagong.
- September 28 – Roman Catholic Cardinal Annibale della Genga is elected Pope Leo XII.
- January 1 – Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian poet, revolutionary (d. 1849)
- January 3 – Robert Whitehead, English engineer, inventor (d. 1905)
- January 8 – Alfred Russel Wallace, British naturalist, biologist (d. 1913)
- January 27 – Édouard Lalo, French composer (d. 1892)
- February 15 – Li Hongzhang, Chinese politician, general, and diplomat (d. 1901)
- February 23 – John Braxton Hicks, English obstetrician (d. 1897)
- February 28
- March 8 – Gyula Andrássy, 4th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1890)
- March 14 – Théodore de Banville, French writer (d. 1891)
- March 20 – Ned Buntline, American publisher, writer, and publicist (d. 1886)
- March 23 – Schuyler Colfax, 17th Vice President of the United States from 1869 to 1873 (d. 1885)
- April 1 – Simon Bolivar Buckner, American soldier, politician and Confederate soldier (d. 1914)
- April 3 – William M. Tweed, American political boss (d. 1878)
- April 4 – Carl Wilhelm Siemens, German engineer (d. 1883)
- April 24 – Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, 27th President of Mexico (d. 1889)
- April 25 – Abdülmecid I, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1861)
- May 2 – Emma Hardinge Britten (b. Emma Floyd), English-born spiritualist (d. 1899)
- May 9 – Frederick Weld, 6th Prime Minister of New Zealand (d. 1891)
- May 15
- May 17 – Henry Eckford, British horticulturist (d. 1905)
- May 22 – Solomon Bundy, American politician (d. 1889)
- May 26 – William Pryor Letchworth, American businessman, philanthropist, founder of Letchworth State Park, New York
- July 6 – Sophie Adlersparre, Swedish feminist (d. 1895)
- June 13 – David Breakenridge Read, Canadian lawyer, Mayor of Toronto (d. 1904)
- June 21 – Jean Chacornac, French astronomer (d. 1873)
- July 9 (date uncertain) – Phineas Gage, improbable American head injury survivor (d. 1860)
- July 18
- July 23 – Coventry Patmore, English poet (d. 1896)
- August 3 – Thomas Francis Meagher, American Civil War general (d. 1867)
- August 4 – Oliver P. Morton, American politician (d. 1877)
- August 5 – Eliza Tibbets, mother of the California orange industry (d. 1898)
- August 10
- August 11 – Charlotte Mary Yonge, English author (d. 1901)
- August 13 – Goldwin Smith, English historian (d. 1910)
- August 14 – Karel Miry, Belgian composer (d. 1889)
- August 15 – Orris S. Ferry, American Civil War general, politician (d. 1875)
- August 26 – Wilhelm Troszel, Polish composer (d. 1887)
- September 15 – Hugh Buchanan, American politician (d. 1890)
- September 23 – James Black, American temperance movement leader (d. 1893)
- November 1 – Lascăr Catargiu, 4-time Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1899)
- November 8 – Joseph Monier, French inventor (d. 1906)
- November 16 – Henry G. Davis, American politician (d. 1916)
- November 18 – Charles H. Bell American politician (d. 1893)
- November 25 – Henry Wirz, Confederate military officer, prisoner-of-war camp commander (d. 1865)
- December 6 – Friedrich Max Müller, German Orientalist (d. 1900)
- December 9 – Rosalie Olivecrona, Swedish women's rights activist (d. 1898)
- December 13 – Ferdinand Büchner, German composer (d. 1906)
- December 22 – Thomas Wentworth Higginson, American Unitarian minister, abolitionist (d. 1911)
- December 27 – Mackenzie Bowell, 5th Prime Minister of Canada (d. 1917)
- January 21 – Gideon Olin, American politician (b. 1743)
- January 26 – Edward Jenner, English physician, medical researcher (b. 1749)
- February 7 – Ann Radcliffe, English writer (b. 1764)
- February 21 – Charles Wolfe, Irish poet (b. 1791)
- March 1 – Pierre-Jean Garat, French Basque opera singer (b. 1764)
- March 5 – Magdalena Rudenschöld, Swedish conspirator (b. 1766)
- March 14
- March 18 – Jean-Baptiste Bréval, French cellist (b. 1753)
- March 19 – Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski, Polish aristocrat and patron of the arts (b. 1734)
- June 1 – Louis-Nicolas Davout, French marshal (b. 1770)
- June 19 – William Combe, English writer, poet and adventurer (b. 1742)
- August 7 – Mátyás Laáb, Croatian writer, translator (b. 1746)
- August 20 – Pope Pius VII, Italian Benedictine (b. 1742)
- August 22 – Lazare Carnot, French general, politician and mathematician (b. 1753)
- August 30 – Pierre Prévost, French panorama painter (b. 1764)
- September 11 – David Ricardo, English economist (b. 1772)
- September 23 – Matthew Baillie, Scottish physician, pathologist (b. 1761)
- September 28 – Charlotte Melmoth, English-born American actress (b. 1749)
- November 9 – Vasily Kapnist, Ukrainian-Russian poet, dramatist (b. 1758)
- December 3 – Giovanni Battista Belzoni, Italian explorer, pioneer archaeologist of Egypt (b. 1778)
- date unknown - Agnes Ibbetson, English plant physiologist (b. 1757)
- ^ Aldhouse-Green, Stephen (October 2001). "Great Sites: Paviland Cave". British Archaeology (61). Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ Leslie Bethell, Brazil: Empire and Republic, 1822-1930 (Cambridge University Press, 1985) p49
- ^ "Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov", in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 28, p213 (19110
- ^ Olga Peters Hasty, Pushkin's Tatiana ((University of Wisconsin Press, 1999) p14
- ^ Robert Huish, The Memoirs Private and Political of Daniel O'Connell, Esq., M.P., His Times and Contemporaries (W. Johnston, 1836) p129
- ^ a b c Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 252–253. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- ^ "Timeline of capital punishment in Britain". Retrieved 2012-03-03.
- ^ The Cambridge Modern History, Volume 11 (Macmillan, 1909) p727
- ^ Robert M. Utley, Lone Star Justice: The First Century of the Texas Rangers (Oxford University Press, 2002)
- ^ W. E. Vaughn, ed. , A New History of Ireland: Ireland Under the Union, 1870-1921 (Clarendon Press, 1976) p423
- ^ Donald J. Raleigh and A.A. Iskenderov, The Emperors and Empresses of Russia: Reconsidering the Romanovs (Routledge, 2015)
- ^ Gelien Matthews, Caribbean Slave Revolts and the British Abolitionist Movement (LSU Press, 2006) p21
- ^ a b Charles A. Coulombe, Vicars of Christ: A History of the Popes (Citadel Press, 2003) pp393-397
- ^ Maureen Anderson, Durham Mining Disasters: c1700-1950s (Wharncliffe, 2008)
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