1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1765th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 765th year of the 2nd millennium, the 65th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1765, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 23 – Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor marries Princess Maria Josepha of Bavaria in Vienna.
- March 9 – After a public campaign by the writer Voltaire, judges in Paris posthumously exonerate Jean Calas of murdering his son. Calas had been tortured and executed in 1762 on the charge, though his son may have committed suicide.
- March 22 – The Parliament of Great Britain passes the Stamp Act, imposing the first direct tax levied from Great Britain on the thirteen American colonies. This is to help pay for British military operations in North America.
- March 24 – Great Britain passes the Quartering Act, requiring the thirteen American colonies to house British troops.
- May – James Watt makes a breakthrough in the development of the steam engine, by constructing a model with a separate condenser.
- May 18 – Fire gave one quarter of the town of Montreal, Quebec.
- June 21 – The Isle of Man is brought under British control, the Isle of Man Purchase Act (coming into force 10 May) confirming HM Treasury's purchase of the feudal rights of the Dukes of Atholl, as Lord of Mann over the island, and revesting them into the British Crown.
- March 7 – Nicéphore Niépce, French inventor (d. 1833)
- March 27 – Franz Xaver von Baader, German philosopher, theologian (d. 1841)
- April 1 – Luigi Schiavonetti, Italian engraver (d. 1810)
- April 6 – Duke Charles Felix of Savoy (d. 1831)
- April 11 – Gertrudis Bocanegra, Mexican national heroine (d. 1817)
- April 26 – Emma, Lady Hamilton, English mistress of Horatio Nelson (d. 1815)
- June 15 – Henry Thomas Colebrooke, English orientalist (d. 1831)
- July 14 – Abigail Adams Smith, firstborn daughter of Abigail Adams and John Adams (d. 1813)
- July 26 – Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte d'Erlon, French marshal (d. 1844)
- August 4 – Claire Lacombe, French actress, political activist
- August 6 – Petrobey Mavromichalis, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1848)
- April 15 – Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian author and scientist (b. 1711)
- April 20 – Abigail Williams, American accuser in the Salem witch trials (b. 1681)
- May 17 – Alexis Clairaut, French mathematician (b. 1713)
- July 15 – Charles-André van Loo, French painter (b. 1705)
- August 17 – Timothy Cutler, rector of Yale College (b. 1684)
- August 18 – Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1708)
- September 2 – Henry Bouquet, Swiss-born British army officer (b. 1719)
- October 10 – Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (b. 1688)
- October 21 – Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian painter and architect (b. 1691)
- October 31 – Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, English military leader (b. 1721)
- November 30 – George Glas, Scottish merchant and adventurer (b. 1725)
- December 3 – Lord John Sackville, English cricketer (b. 1713)
- December 16 – Peter Frederick Haldimand, Swiss-born military officer and surveyor
- December 25 – Prokop Diviš, Czech scientist (b. 1698)
- ^ Hartley Booth, V. E.; Sells, Peter (1980). British extradition law and procedure: including extradition between the United Kingdom and foreign states, the Commonwealth and dependent countries and the Republic of China. Alphen aan den Rijn: Sijthoff & Noordhoff. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-286-0079-9. OCLC 6890466.
- ^ Bhattacherje, S. B. (May 1, 2009). Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. A–96. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
- ^ Bisha, Robin (2002). Russian Women, 1698-1917 Experience and Expression: An Anthology of Sources. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 162–163.
- ^ "Smithsonian History, James Smithson". Smithsonian Institution Archives Website. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
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