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1751 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1751st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 751st year of the 2nd millennium, the 51st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1751, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In Britain and its colonies, 1751 only had 282 days due to the Calendar Act of 1750.
- March 16 – James Madison, 4th President of the United States (d. 1836)
- April 5 – Marie-Aimée Lullin, Swiss entomologist (d. 1822)
- May 24 – Charles Emmanuel IV of Savoy, King of Sardinia (d. 1819)
- June 4 – John Scott, 1st Earl of Eldon, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (d. 1838)
- June 17 – Joshua Humphreys, American naval architect (d. 1838)
- July 11 – Caroline Matilda, British princess, queen consort of Denmark (d. 1775)
- July 29 – Elisabetta Caminèr Turra, Venetian writer (d. 1796)
- July 30 (midnight) – Maria Anna Mozart ("Nannerl"), Austrian pianist, singer, composer and violinist, sister of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (d. 1829)
- September 1 – Emanuel Schikaneder, German dramatist, actor and singer (d. 1812)
- September 5 – François Joseph Westermann, French Revolutionary leader, general (d. 1794)
- October 5 – James Iredell, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1799)
- October 30 – Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish dramatist, politician (d. 1816)
- date unknown
- January 17 – Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer (b. 1671)
- January 20 – John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, English politician (b. 1665)
- January 25 – Paul Dudley, Massachusetts Attorney-General (b. 1675)
- February 5 – Henri François d'Aguesseau, Chancellor of France (b. 1668)
- February 7 – Albert Borgard, Danish artillery and engineer officer (b. 1659)
- March 24 – János Pálffy, Hungarian field marshal, Palatine (b. 1664)
- March 25 – King Frederick I of Sweden (b. 1676)
- March 29 – Thomas Coram, English sea captain, philanthropist (b. c. 1668)
- March 31 – Frederick, Prince of Wales, Hanoverian-born heir to the British throne (b. 1707)
- April 19 – Peter Lacy, Irish-born Russian Field marshal (b. 1678)
- June 9 – John Machin, English mathematician (b. c.1686)
- June 20 – Adriaan Valckenier, Dutch Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (1737-1741) (b. 1695)
- August 18 – Samuel von Schmettau, Prussian field marshal (b. 1684)
- August 30 – Christopher Polhem, Swedish scientist (b. 1661)
- October 22 – William IV, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic (b. 1711)
- October 26 – Philip Doddridge, English nonconformist religious leader (b. 1702)
- November 18 – Abraham Vater, German antomist (b. 1684)
- ^ a b Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 314–315. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- ^ Dagnall, H. (1991). Give us back our eleven days. Edgware: author. p. 19. ISBN 0-9515497-2-3.
- ^ Semple, Clare (2006). A Silver Legend: the story of the Maria Theresa Thaler. Manchester: Barzan Publishing. ISBN 0-9549701-0-1.
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