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1705 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1705th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 705th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1705, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Sunday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.
- Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England; it is completed in 1724.
- Taichung City, Taiwan is founded as the village of Dadun.
- With the interest paid from daimyō loans, the Konoike buy a tract of ponds and swampland, turn the land into rice paddies, and settle 480 households numbering perhaps 2,880 peasants on the land.
- The Shogunate confiscates the property of a merchant in Osaka "for conduct unbecoming a member of the commercial class". The government seizes 50 pairs of gold screens, 360 carpets, several mansions, 48 granaries and warehouses scattered around the country, and hundreds of thousands of gold pieces.
- January 24 – Farinelli, Italian castrato (d. 1782)
- February 15 – Charles-André van Loo, French painter (d. 1765)
- February 21 – Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, British naval officer (d. 1781)
- February 22 – Peter Artedi, Swedish naturalist (d. 1735)
- March 2 – William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, Scottish judge and politician (d. 1793)
- April 11 – William Cookworthy, English chemist (d. 1780)
- June 9 – Francis Blackburne, English Anglican churchman and activist (d. 1787)
- July 23 – Francis Blomefield, English topographer (d. 1752)
- August 8 – Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff, Dutch Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (d. 1750)
- August 30 – David Hartley, English philosopher (d. 1757)
- September 24 – Leopold Josef Graf Daun, Austrian field marshal (d. 1766)
- September 28 – Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, English statesman (d. 1774)
- October 23 – Maximilian Ulysses Count Browne, Austrian field marshal (d. 1757)
- October 31 – Pope Clement XIV (d. 1774)
- November 23 – Thomas Birch, British historian (d. 1766)
- date unknown – Dick Turpin, English highwayman (d. 1739)
- date unknown – Faustina Pignatelli, Italian mathematician (b. 1785)
- January 12 – Luca Giordano, Italian artist (b. 1634)
- January 17 – John Ray, English naturalist (b. 1627)
- January 21 – Claude-François Ménestrier, French heraldist, Jesuit, courtier (b. 1631)
- February 5 – Philipp Spener, German Christian theologian known as the Father of Pietism (b. 1635)
- February 1 – Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, sister of King George I of Great Britain (b. 1668)
- February 18 – William "Tangier" Smith, Moroccan mayor (b. 1655)
- March 10 – John Temple, Irish politician (b. 1632)
- March 22 – Christian Heinrich Postel, German jurist (b. 1658)
- April 2 – John Howe, English Puritan theologian (b. 1630)
- April 5 – Itō Jinsai, Japanese philosopher (b. 1627)
- May 5
- July 12 (or 13) – Titus Oates, English conspirator (b. 1648)
- August 13 – Françoise-Marguerite de Sévigné, French countess (b. 1646)
- August 16 – Jacob Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1654)
- August 28 – George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (b. 1624)
- September 12 – Sir John Hoskyns, 2nd Baronet, English politician (b. 1634)
- September 13 – Albert Angell, Norwegian civil servant (b. 1660)
- October 9 – Johann Christoph Wagenseil, German Christian Hebraist (b. 1633)
- October 11 – Guillaume Amontons, French physicist and instrument maker (b. 1663)
- October 17 – Ninon de l'Enclos, French author (b. 1620)
- October 27 – Thyrsus González de Santalla, Spanish theologian, 13th Superior General of the Society of Jesus (b. 1624)
- November 6 – John Platt, American settler (b. 1632)
- November 10 – Justine Siegemund, German midwife (born 1636)
- November 15 – Margravine Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach, German noblewomen (b. 1661)
- December 7 – William Lowther, English landowner and politician (b. 1639)
- December 22 – Bhai Bachittar Singh, Indian Sikh martyr (b. 1664)
- December 31 – Catherine of Braganza, queen of Charles II of England (b. 1638)
- date unknown – Meg Shelton, alleged witch from Lancashire
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