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1700 was an exceptional common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1700th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 700th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1700, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1 (O.S. February 19), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 11 days until 1799.
In Sweden, the year started in the Julian calendar and remained so until February 28. Then, by skipping the leap day, the Swedish calendar was introduced, letting February 28 be followed by March 1, giving the entire year the same pattern as a common year starting on Monday. This calendar, being 10 days behind the Gregorian and 1 day ahead of the Julian, lasts until 1712.
- January 1 – Protestant Western Europe, except England, starts using the Gregorian calendar.
- January 1 (Julian) – The Tsardom of Russia begins numbering its calendar from the birth of Christ (Anno Domini), instead of since the Creation (Anno Mundi).
- January 26 – At approximately 9 p.m., the Cascadia earthquake occurs, with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.7–9.2. This megathrust earthquake ruptures about 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and causes a tsunami, that strikes the coast of Japan approximately 10 hours later.
- February 3 – The 'Lesser Great Fire' destroys a substantial part of central Edinburgh, Scotland.
- February 12 – The Great Northern War begins with a joint invasion of Swedish territory in Germany and Latvia, by Denmark and Poland/Saxony. Sweden has control of the Baltic Sea and holds territory that includes Finland, Estonia, Latvia and parts of northern Germany. To challenge its power, an alliance is formed between Tsar Peter I of Russia, King Frederick IV of Denmark and Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. Sweden's ruler is the militaristic Charles XII, known as the "Swedish Meteor".
- February 27 – The island of New Britain is discovered by William Dampier, in the western Pacific.
- March 1 (Gregorian) – Protestant Germany and Denmark–Norway adopt the Gregorian calendar.
- March 1 (Swedish), March 11 (Gregorian), February 29 (Julian) – The Swedish calendar is adopted.
- March – William Congreve's comedy The Way of the World is first performed in London.
- March 25 – The Treaty of London is signed between France, England and Holland.
- April – Fire destroys many buildings in Gondar, the capital of Ethiopia, including two in the palace complex.
- May – In Rhode Island (American colony), Walter Clarke, three term former Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is elected deputy governor for the second time, serving under his brother-in-law Samuel Cranston.
- May 5
- June – Massachusetts, then New York, passes similar laws that order all Roman Catholic priests to leave their colony; otherwise, after three months, their penalty will be life imprisonment or execution.
- July 11 – The Prussian Academy of Sciences is founded, with Gottfried Leibniz as president.
- Summer – Charles XII of Sweden counter-attacks his enemies by invading Zealand (Denmark), assisted by an Anglo-Dutch naval squadron under Sir George Rooke, rapidly compelling the Danes to submit to peace.
- August 18 (August 7 O.S.) – The Peace of Travendal is concluded between the Swedish Empire, Denmark–Norway and Holstein-Gottorp in Traventhal. On the same day, Augustus II, King of Poland, and Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, enter the war against Sweden.
- Late summer – A Russian army invades Swedish Estonia, and besieges the town of Narva.
- November 1 – Charles II, the last Spanish king of the House of Habsburg, dies insane at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid (aged 38), leaving no children.
- November 15 – Louis XIV accepts the Spanish crown on behalf of his grandson Philip of Anjou, who becomes Philip V of Spain (to 1746), thus triggering the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1741).
- November 18 – Lithuanian Civil War – Battle of Olkieniki: The anti-Sapieha coalition is victorious.
- November 23 – Pope Clement XI succeeds Pope Innocent XII, as the 243rd pope.
- November 30 (November 19 O.S.; November 20 Swedish calendar) – Battle of Narva, Estonia: Having led his army of 8,000 on a forced march from Denmark to Estonia, Charles XII of Sweden routs the huge Russian army.
- December 28 – Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
- February 8 – Daniel Bernoulli, Dutch-born Swiss mathematician (d. 1782)
- March 13 – Michel Blavet, French flutist (d. 1768)
- April 30 – Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish nobleman (d. 1739)
- May 7 – Gerard van Swieten, Dutch-born physician (d. 1772)
- May 12 – Luigi Vanvitelli, Italian architect (d. 1773)
- May 19 – José de Escandón, Spanish colonial governor (d. 1770)
- May 26 – Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, German religious and social reformer (d. 1760)
- August 13 – Heinrich, count von Brühl, German statesman (d. 1763)
- August 17 – Clemens August of Bavaria, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne (d. 1761)
- September 11 – James Thomson, Scottish poet (d. 1748)
- September 30 – Stanisław Konarski, Polish writer (d. 1773)
- October 10 – Lambert-Sigisbert Adam, French sculptor (d. 1759)
- November 19 – Jean-Antoine Nollet, French abbot and physicist (d. 1770)
- November 21 – Charlotta Elisabeth van der Lith, politically active Governor's wife in Surinam (d. 1753)
- November 28 – Nathaniel Bliss, English astronomer (d. 1764)
- December 25 – Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, Prussian general (d. 1751)
- date unknown
- January 7 – Raffaello Fabretti, Italian antiquary (b. 1618)
- January 12 – Marguerite Bourgeoys, French founder of the Congregation of Notre Dame of Montreal, in the colony of New France (b. 1620)
- January 21 – Henry Somerset, 1st Duke of Beaufort, English politician (b. 1629)
- February 5 – Louis Maracci, Italian priest (b. 1612)
- February 12 – Aleksei Shein, Russian commander and statesman (b. 1662)
- March 3
- March 4 – Lorenzo Pasinelli, Italian painter (b. 1629)
- March 14 – Henry Killigrew, English dramatist (b. 1613)
- May 1 – Francis Winnington, Solicitor-General for England and Wales (b. 1634)
- May 5 – Angelo Italia, Sicilian architect (b. 1628)
- May 12 – John Dryden, English poet and dramatist (b. 1631)
- May 15 – John Hale, American witch hunter (b. 1636)
- May 18 – Teofil Rutka, Polish philosopher (b. 1622)
- May 23 – Jens Juel, Danish diplomat (b. 1631)
- May 28 – Jan Six, important cultural figure in the Dutch Golden Age (b. 1618)
- May 31 – Agostino Scilla, Italian painter and scientist (b. 1629)
- July 2
- July 7 – Silvestro Valiero, Doge of Venice (b. 1630)
- July 22 – Alderano Cybo, Catholic cardinal (b. 1613)
- July 30 – Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, member of the English royal family (b. 1689)
- August 22 – Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora, Mexican academic (b. 1645)
- August 30 – Sir Richard Cust, 1st Baronet, English politician (b. 1622)
- September 15 – André Le Nôtre, French landscape gardener (b. 1613)
- September 23 – Nicolaus Adam Strungk, German composer and violinist (b. 1640)
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