The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.
In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. In religious history, the Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century.
Constantinople, in what is today Turkey, then the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire, falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages. The event forced Western Europeans to find a new trade route, adding further momentum to what was the beginning of the Age of Discovery, which would lead to the global mapping of the world. Explorations by the Portuguese and Spanish led to European sightings of the Americas (the New World) and the sea passage along Cape of Good Hope to India, in the last decade of the century. These expeditions ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires.
The fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the Printing Press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance.
The Spanish Reconquista leads to the final fall of the Emirate of Granada by the end of the century, ending over seven centuries of Muslim rule and returning Spain back to Christian rulers.
The Hundred Years' War end with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.
In Asia, under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle. Tamerlane established a major empire in the Middle East and Central Asia, in order to revive the Mongol Empire.
In Africa, the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire.
In the Americas, both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence.
- 1440: Eton College founded by Henry VI.
- 1440s: The Golden Horde breaks up into the Siberia Khanate, the Khanate of Kazan, the Astrakhan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, and the Great Horde.
- 1440–1469: Under Moctezuma I, the Aztecs become the dominant power in Mesoamerica.
- 1440: Oba Ewuare comes to power in the West African city of Benin, and turns it into an empire.
- 1441: Jan van Eyck, Flemish painter, dies.
- 1441: Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish the European slave trade with a shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa to Portugal.
- 1441: A civil war between The Tutul Xiues and Cocom breaks out in The League of Mayapan. As a consequence the league begins to disintegrate.
- 1443: Abdur Razzaq visits India.
- 1443: King Sejong the Great publishes the hangul, the native phonetic alphabet system for the Korean language.
- 1444: The Albanian league is established in Lezha, Skanderbeg is elected leader. A war begins against Ottoman empire. An Albanian state is set up and lasts until 1479.
- 1444: Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad II defeats the Polish and Hungarian armies under Władysław III of Poland and János Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna.
- 1445: The Kazan Khanate defeats the Grand Duchy of Moscow at the Battle of Suzdal.
- 1446: Mallikarjuna Raya succeeds his father Deva Raya II as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire.
- 1447: Wijaya Parakrama Wardhana, succeeds Suhita as ruler of Majapahit.
- 1449: Saint Srimanta Sankardeva was born.
- 1449: Esen Tayisi leads an Oirat Mongol invasion of China which culminate in the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor at Battle of Tumu Fortress.
- 1456: The Siege of Belgrade halts the Ottomans' advance into Europe.
- 1456: Girishawardhana, styled Brawijaya III, becomes ruler of Majapahit.
- Abu Sa'id al-Afif, a Samaritan physician.
- Pachacuti (1438-1471/72) was the ninth Sapa Inca, likely builder of Machu Picchu and founder of the Inca Empire.
- Afonso de Albuquerque (1453–1515) was a Portuguese nobleman, naval general officer whose military and administrative activities conquered and established the Portuguese colonial empire in the Indian Ocean. Generally considered as a world conquest military genius by means of his successful strategy.
- Ah Xiu Xupan last ruler Uxmal
- Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, Renaissance ruler (1443–1490).
- George Kastrioti, Skenderbeg – Albanian Prince who resisted the Ottomans for almost 30 years (1443–1468).
- Ferdinand II of Aragon, co-ruler of Spain with Isabella I of Castile and responsible with her for the unification of Spain (1452–1516).
- Johannes Gutenberg, European inventor of printing with movable type (c. 1398 – 1468)
- Constantine XI, the last Byzantine Emperor and Roman Emperor. He lived from 1404–1453.
- Henry the Navigator Infante Henrique, Duke of Viseu (1394–1460); infante (prince) of the Portuguese House of Aviz and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations.
- Henry V of England, the English King who won the famous Battle of Agincourt in 1415 (1387–1422).
- Henry VI of England, English King (1421-1471)
- Henry VII of England, English King and founder the Tudor dynasty (1457–1509).
- The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (1470–1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (1473–1483?), two sons of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville.
- John Hunyadi, Regent of Kingdom of Hungary, won the Siege of Belgrade in 1456 (1387–1456)
- Jan Hus, Bohemian religious thinker and reformer (c. 1369–1415).
- Isabella I of Castile, co-ruler of Spain with Ferdinand II of Aragon and responsible for the unification of Spain and the discovery of the New World (1451–1504).
- Ivan III of Russia, Grand Duke of Moscow who ended the dominance of the Golden Horde over the Rus (1440-1505)
- Joan of Arc, military commander and national heroine of France (1412–1431).
- Kazimierz IV Jagiellon King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1427–1492).
- Louis XI, King of France (1423–1483).
- Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Conqueror of Constantinople (1432–1481).
- Babur, the founder of the Mughal empire (1483 - 1530).
- Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Vaishnav saint and important social reformer (1486 - 1534).
- Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikh Religion (1469).
- Srimanta Sankardeva, founder of Ekasarana Religion preacher of Vaishnavism, creator of Sattriya Dance, Ankiya Nat, Satras etc.
- Sejong the Great of Joseon, a Korean monarch who developed hangul, the native Korean alphabet (1397–1450).
- Stephen III of Moldavia, also known as Stephen the Great, ruler of Moldavia, national hero of Romanians for long resistance to the Ottomans (1437–1504)
- Richard III of England, last English King of the House of York, last of the House of Plantagenet (1452–1485).
- Mir Chakar Khan Rind (1468–1565), a Baloch king.
- Vlad III Dracula, Prince of Wallachia who led the defense of his territory against the expanding Ottoman Empire (1431–1476).
- Oba Ewuare, transformed the city state of Benin into the Benin Empire.
Visual artists, architects, sculptors, printmakers, illustrators
- Bartolomé Bermejo (c. 1440 – 1498), Spanish painter who adopted Dutch painting techniques and conventions.
- Pedro Berruguete (c. 1450 - 1504), Spanish painter.
- Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450 – 1516), Early Netherlandish painter. Many of his works depict sin and human moral failings.
- Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445 – 1510), Italian painter.
- Dirk Bouts (c. 1410/1420 – 1475), Early Netherlandish painter.
- Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446), invents one-point perspective, leads innovation in Italian architecture.
- Robert Campin (c. 1375 – 1444), the Master of Flémalle, first great master of Early Netherlandish painting.
- Petrus Christus (c. 1410/1420 – 1475/1476), Early Netherlandish painter.
- Gerard David (c. 1460 – 1523), Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator known for his brilliant use of color.
- Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany.
- Barthélemy d'Eyck; (c. 1420 – after 1470) was an Early Netherlandish artist who worked in France and probably in Burgundy Early Netherlandish painter and manuscript illuminator. He was active between about 1440 to about 1469.
- Dionisius (c. 1440 – 1502), Russian painter
- Hubert van Eyck (c. 1366 – 1426), Flemish painter and older brother of Jan van Eyck.
- Jan van Eyck (before c. 1395 – before 1441), Early Netherlandish painter, considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century.
- Juan de Flandes (1460–1519), Early Netherlandish painter who was active in Spain from 1496 to 1519 at the court of Isabella I of Castile.
- Jean Fouquet (1420–1481) French painter of both panel painting and manuscript illumination, inventor of the portrait miniature.
- Piero della Francesca (c. 1415–1492) Italian painter
- Nicolas Froment (c. 1435 – c. 1486), French painter.
- Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378–1455) was an Italian artist of the early Renaissance best known for works in sculpture and metalworking.
- Hugo van der Goes (c. 1440 – 1482 or 1483), Early Netherlandish painter.
- Jean Hey (c. 1475 – c. 1505), now generally identified with the artist formerly known as the Master of Moulins, Early Netherlandish painter.
- Hans Holbein the Elder (c. 1460 – 1524), German painter, woodcut artist, illustrator of books and church window designer. He and his brother Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic style.
- Limbourg brothers, (Herman, Paul, and Johan; 1385–1416), Dutch Renaissance miniature painters from the city of Nijmegen.
- Simon Marmion (c. 1425 – 1489) French, or Burgundian, painter of panels and illuminated manuscripts.
- Masaccio, (c. 1401 – 1428), Italian painter.
- Hans Memling (c. 1430 – 1494), Early Netherlandish painter, born in Germany.
- Michelozzo (1396–1472), Italian architect and sculptor.
- Andrei Rublev (c. 1360 – c. 1430), Russian painter.
- Enguerrand Quarton (c. 1410 – c. 1466) was a French painter and manuscript illuminator.
- Leonardo da Vinci, (1452–1519), Italian polymath, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician and writer.
- Rogier van der Weyden (1399/1400 – 1464), considered one of the greatest exponents of Early Netherlandish painting.
See links above for Italian Renaissance painting and Renaissance sculpture.
- Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) was an Italian author, artist, architect, poet, linguist, philosopher, and cryptographer, and general Renaissance humanist polymath.
- Joseph Albo (c. 1380 – 1444) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived in Spain.
- John Argyropoulos (1415 – 1487), Greek lecturer, philosopher and humanist.
- Antonio Beccadelli (1394–1471), Italian poet, canon lawyer, scholar, diplomat, and chronicler.
- Vespasiano da Bisticci (1421–1498), Italian humanist and librarian.
- Matteo Maria Boiardo (1440/1 – 1494), Italian poet.
- Poggio Bracciolini (1380 – 1459), Italian writer and humanist.
- Leonardo Bruni (c. 1370 – 1444), Italian humanist, historian and statesman.
- Laonikos Chalkokondyles (1423 – 1490), Greek scholar.
- Pal Engjëlli (1416-1470) was an Albanian Catholic clergyman, Archbishop of Durrës and Cardinal of Albania.
- Marsilio Ficino (1433 – 1499), Italian humanist and writer.
- Constantine Lascaris (1434 – 1501), Greek scholar and grammarian.
- Antonio de Lebrija (1441 — 1522), Spanish scholar, historian, teacher, astronomer and poet.
- John Lydgate (c.1370 – c.1451), English monk and poet.
- Sir Thomas Malory (1405 – 1471), English writer.
- Jorge Manrique (c.1440 – 1479), Spanish poet.
- Count Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463–1494), Italian Renaissance philosopher.
- Iñigo López de Mendoza (1398 - 1458) Castilian (Spanish) politician and poet.
- Afanasy Nikitin (? - 1472), Russian merchant, traveler and writer.
- Thomas Occleve (c. 1368 – 1426), English poet.
- Reginald Pecock (c. 1395 – 1460), was an English prelate and writer.
- Christine de Pizan, French writer (1364–1430).
- Poliziano (1454 – 1494), Italian classical scholar and poet.
- Giovanni Pontano (1426 – 1503), Italian humanist and poet.
- Luigi Pulci (1432 – 1484), Italian poet.
- Bartolomeo Sacchi (1421 – 1481), Italian humanist writer and gastronomist.
- Lorenzo Valla (c.1407 – 1457), Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator.
- Gil Vicente (c. 1465 – c. 1536), Portuguese poet.
- François Villon (c.1431 – 1474), French poet .
Musicians and Composers
- Juan de Anchieta (1462 - 1523, Spanish composer of the Renaissance.
- Adrien Basin (c. 1457 – 1476; died after 1498), Franco-Flemish composer, singer, and diplomat of the Burgundian school of the early Renaissance.
- Gilles Binchois, (c. 1400 – 1460), Franco-Flemish composer, one of the earliest members of the Burgundian School.
- Antoine Busnois (c. 1430 – 1492), French composer and poet of the early Renaissance Burgundian School.
- Guillaume Dufay, (c. 1397 – 1474), Franco-Flemish composer and music theorist.
- John Dunstaple (c. 1390 – 1453), English composer of polyphonic music.
- Juan del Encina (1468 - 1530), Spanish composer, poet and playwright.
- Hayne van Ghizeghem (c. 1445 – 1472 or possibly later; New Grove says he died between 1472 and 1497), Flemish composer of the early Renaissance Burgundian School.
- Nicolas Grenon (c. 1375 – 1456), French composer of the early Renaissance.
- Robert Morton (c. 1430 – 1479), English composer of the early Renaissance.
- Johannes Ockeghem, (c. 1410 – 1497), Flemish composer.
- Francisco de Peñalosa (c. 1470 – 1528), Spanish composer of the middle Renaissance..
- Leonel Power (c. 1370 to 1385 – 1445), English composer of the late Medieval and early Renaissance eras.
- Johannes Tapissier (c. 1370 – 1408 to 1410), French composer and teacher of the late Middle Ages.
- Jacobus Vide (c. 1405 – 1433), Franco-Flemish composer of the transitional period between the medieval period and early Renaissance.
- Josquin des Prez (c. 1450 – 1521), Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance.
Science, invention and philosophy
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
List of 15th century inventions
- ^ Crowley, Roger (2006). Constantinople: The Last Great Siege, 1453. Faber. ISBN 0-571-22185-8. (reviewed by Foster, Charles (22 September 2006). "The Conquestof Constantinople and the end of empire". Contemporary Review. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009.
It is the end of the Middle Ages
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Renaissance, 2008, O.Ed.
- ^ McLuhan 1962; Eisenstein 1980; Febvre & Martin 1997; Man 2002
- ^ Modern interpretation of the place names recorded by Chinese chronicles can be found e.g. in Some Southeast Asian Polities Mentioned in the MSL by Geoffrey Wade
- ^ a b c d e f g Ricklefs (1991), page 18.
- ^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. p. 437.
- ^ Mueller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Durers, Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012815-2.
- ^ Also sometimes in contemporary documents Barthélemy de Cler, der Clers, Deick d'Ecle, d'Eilz – Harthan, John, The Book of Hours, p. 93, 1977, Thomas Y Crowell Company, New York, ISBN 0-690-01654-9
- ^ Unterkircher, Franz (1980). King René's Book of Love (Le Cueur d'Amours Espris). New York: G. Braziller. ISBN 0-8076-0989-7.
- ^ Tolley
- ^ Brigstocke, 2001, p. 338
- ^ "Hans Holbein". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
- Tolley, Thomas (2001). "Eyck, Barthélemy d'". In Hugh Brigstocke. The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866203-3.
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