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Year 1582 (MDLXXXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar. 1582 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1582nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 582nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1582, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which had previously been the universally accepted calendar in Christian nations. However, this year saw the beginning of the Gregorian Calendar switch, when the Papal bull known as Inter gravissimas introduced the Gregorian calendar, adopted by Spain, Portugal, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and most of present-day Italy from the start. In these countries, the year continued as normal until Thursday, October 4. However, the next day became Friday, October 15 (like a common year starting on Friday), in those countries (France followed two months later, letting Sunday, December 9 be followed by Monday, December 20). Other countries continued using the Julian calendar for decades or, in some cases, centuries. The complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was not entirely done until 1923.
- July 2 – Battle of Yamazaki: Counterattacking forces led by Hashiba Hideyoshi decisively defeat Akechi Mitsuhide's smaller army; Akechi is killed while retreating to his domain.
- July 26 – Battle of Ponta Delgada (War of the Portuguese Succession): Spanish admiral Santa Cruz decisively defeats a larger mercenary fleet from France, England, supporters of the Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato, and the Dutch Republic, under Filippo di Piero Strozzi (who is killed) off the Azores, the first engagement between large fleets of galleons, operating at any great distance from the mainland.
- August 22 – Raid of Ruthven in Scotland: A political conspiracy of Presbyterian nobles abduct King James VI.
- October 4 of Julian calendar (Thursday) – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.
- October 4 – Saint Teresa of Ávila dies. She is buried the next day, October 15.
- November 29 – Future English playwright William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway.
- December 9 of Julian calendar (Sunday) – France makes the next day Monday, December 20 of the Gregorian Calendar.
- January 6
- January 7 – Magdalene of Brandenburg, Landgravine consort of Hesse-Darmstadt (1598–1616) (d. 1616)
- January 26 – Giovanni Lanfranco, Italian painter (d. 1647)
- January 28 – John Barclay, Scottish satirist and Latin poet (d. 1621)
- January 30 – George II, Duke of Pomerania (d. 1617)
- February 8 – Matthias Bernegger, German philologist (d. 1640)
- February 17 – George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (d. 1670)
- February 22 – John Ratcliffe, English politician and soldier (d. 1627)
- March 15
- March 22 – John Williams, Welsh clergyman and political advisor to King James I (d. 1650)
- March 31 – Duchess Sophie of Prussia, Duchess consort of Courland (1609–1610) (d. 1610)
- April 8 – (bapt.) Phineas Fletcher, English poet (d. 1650)
- April 11 – Justus de Harduwijn, Dutch Catholic priest and poet (d. 1636)
- May 1 – Marco da Gagliano, Italian composer of the early Baroque era (d. 1643)
- May 5 – John Frederick, Duke of Württemberg (1608–1628) (d. 1628)
- June 26 – Johannes Schultz, German composer (d. 1653)
- June 28 – William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele, English nobleman and politician (d. 1662)
- July 27 – Sir John Isham, 1st Baronet, English Member of Parliament (d. 1651)
- August 11 – Sabina Catharina of East Frisia, Countess of Rietberg (1586–1618) (d. 1618)
- August 17 – John Matthew Rispoli, major Maltese philosopher of great erudition (d. 1639)
- August 26 – Humilis of Bisignano, Italian Franciscan friar and saint (d. 1637)
- August 27 – Maria Amalia of Nassau-Dillenburg, German noble (d. 1635)
- August 28
- September 25 – Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (d. 1620)
- September 26 – Eitel Frederick von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, German Catholic cardinal (d. 1625)
- October 2 – Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach, Count Palatine of Neuburg (1614–1632) (d. 1632)
- October 17 – Johann Gerhard, Lutheran church leader (d. 1637)
- October 19 – Dmitri Ivanovich, Russian Tsarevich (d. 1591)
- October 21 – Johan Ernst van Nassau-Siegen, Dutch general (d. 1617)
- October 22 – Francesco Piccolomini, Italian Jesuit (d. 1651)
- November 2 – Elizabeth Jane Weston, English Czech poet (d. 1612)
- November 21 – François Maynard, French poet (d. 1646)
- November 27 – Pierre Dupuy, French historian (d. 1651)
- November 30 – Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt, Archbishop of Mainz (d. 1647)
- December 10 – William Chappell, Irish bishop (d. 1649)
- December 16 – Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey, English adventurer and soldier (d. 1642)
- December 23 – Severo Bonini, Italian composer (d. 1663)
- date unknown
- Giovanni Francesco Abela, Maltese writer (d. 1655)
- Giulio Alenio, Italian Jesuit missionary (d. 1649)
- Gregorio Allegri, Italian composer (d. 1652)
- John Bainbridge, English astronomer (d. 1648)
- Richard Corbet, English poet and bishop (d. 1635)
- William Feilding, 1st Earl of Denbigh (d. 1643)
- Kobayakawa Hideaki, Japanese samurai and warlord (d. 1602)
- William Juxon, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1663)
- William Lithgow, Scottish traveller (d. 1645)
- Thomas Moulson, Lord Mayor of London (d. 1638)
- David Teniers the Elder, Flemish painter (d. 1649)
- Francis Windebank, English politician (d. 1646)
- Jacomina de Witte, politically influential Dutch woman (d. 1661)
- Jakub Zadzik, Polish nobleman and diplomat (d. 1642)
- probable – Sigismondo d'India, Italian composer (d. 1629)
- January 23 – Jean Bauhin, French physician (b. 1511)
- January 26 – Thomas Platter, Swiss humanist scholar (b. 1499)
- February 18 – Sakuma Nobumori, Japanese retainer and samurai (b. 1527)
- March 14 – Elisabeth of Hesse, Electress Palatine by marriage (1576-1582) (b. 1539)
- March 18 – Juan Jauregui, attempted assassin of William I of Orange (b. 1562)
- March 22 – Daniel Brendel von Homburg, Roman Catholic archbishop (b. 1522)
- March 29 – Philip de' Medici, Italian noble (b. 1577)
- April 3 – Takeda Katsuyori, Japanese daimyo of Takeda Clan (b. 1546)
- April 16 – Oyamada Nobushige, Japanese samurai (b. 1545)
- April 21 – Francisco de Toledo, Spanish Viceroy of Peru (b. 1515)
- May 3 or May 4 – Giorgio Mainerio, Italian composer (b. 1530)
- May 5 – Charlotte of Bourbon, Princess consort of Orange, married to William I of Orange (b. 1547)
- June 13 – Matteo Tafuri, Italian alchemist (b. 1492)
- June 21
- June 23 – Shimizu Muneharu, Japanese military commander (b. 1537)
- July 2 – Akechi Mitsuhide, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1528)
- July 3 – James Crichton, Scottish scholar (b. 1560)
- July 7 – Kawajiri Hidetaka, Japanese samurai (b. 1527)
- July/August – Jacques Peletier du Mans, French mathematician (b. 1517)
- September 23 – Louis, Duke of Montpensier (1561–1582) (b. 1513)
- September 28 – George Buchanan, Scottish humanist scholar (b. 1506)
- October 4 – Teresa of Ávila, Spanish Carmelite nun, poet and saint (b. 1515)
- October 21 – Laurent Joubert, French physician (b. 1529)
- November 21 – Diego, Prince of Asturias, Portuguese prince (b. 1575)
- December 11 – Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, Spanish general (b. 1507)
- date unknown
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