114th United States Congress

Last updated on 14 November 2017

The One Hundred Fourteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 2015, to January 3, 2017, during the final two full years of Barack Obama's presidency. The 2014 elections gave the Republicans control of the Senate (and control of both houses of Congress) for the first time since the 109th Congress. With 248 seats in the House of Representatives and 54 seats in the Senate, this Congress began with the largest Republican majority since the 71st Congress of 1929–1931.

114th United States Congress
113th ←
→ 115th
United States Capitol in Morning.JPG
U.S. Capitol (September 2015)
January 3, 2015 – January 3, 2017
Senate President Joe Biden (D)
Senate Pres. pro tem Orrin Hatch (R)
House Speaker John Boehner (R)
until October 29, 2015
Paul Ryan (R)
from October 29, 2015
Members 100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Republican
House Majority Republican
Sessions
1st: January 6, 2015[1] – December 18, 2015[2]
2nd: January 4, 2016[2] – January 3, 2017[3]

Major events

President Obama delivers the State of the Union address Jan. 20, 2015.jpg
President Barack Obama gave the State of the Union Address on January 20, 2015
Benjamin netanyahu congress speech 2015.jpg
Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu addressed Congress on March 3, 2015
John Kerry, Ernest Moniz and Jack Lew defending the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (19759429878).jpg
Secretary of State John Kerry, Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz, and Secretary of the Treasury Jack Lew defending the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action at a hearing of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on July 23, 2015
Pope Francis Visits the United States Capitol (22153720701).jpg
Pope Francis addresses Congress in 2015 as Head of State of Vatican City.

Major legislation

Enacted

Vetoed

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.

Senate

114th United States Senate.svg
Final composition of the U.S. Senate.
Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 53 2 45 100 0
Begin (January 3, 2015) 44 2 54 100 0
Final voting share 46.0% 54.0%  
Beginning of the next Congress 46 2 52 100 0

House of Representatives

United States House of Representatives 2015.svg
Composition of the U.S. House of Representatives on January 5, 2015
Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican
End of previous Congress 201 0 234 435 0
Begin (January 3, 2015) 188 0 247 435 0
January 5, 2015[note 1] 246 434 1
February 6, 2015[note 2] 245 433 2
March 31, 2015[note 3] 244 432 3
May 5, 2015[note 4] 245 433 2
June 2, 2015[note 5] 246 434 1
September 10, 2015[note 6] 247 435 0
October 31, 2015[note 7] 246 434 1
June 7, 2016[note 8] 247 435 0
June 23, 2016[note 9] 187 434 1
July 20, 2016[note 10] 186 433 2
September 6, 2016[note 11] 246 432 3
November 8, 2016 [note 12] 188 247 435 0
December 4, 2016 [note 13] 187 434 1
December 31, 2016 [note 14] 246 433 2
Final voting share 43.2% 0.0% 57.0%
Non-voting members 4 1 1 6 0
Beginning of the next Congress 194 0 241 435 0

Leadership

[ Section contents: Senate: Majority (R), Minority (D)House: Majority (R), Minority (D) ]

Senate

Joe Biden, official photo portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Senate President
Joe Biden (D)
Orrin Hatch 113th Congress.jpg
Senate President pro tempore
Orrin Hatch (R)

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

John Boehner 113th Congress 2013.jpg
John Boehner (R)
Until October 29, 2015
Paul Ryan 113th Congress.jpg
Paul Ryan (R)
From October 29, 2015

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

Members

Senate

Senators are listed by state and then by Senate classes, In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2016; Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2018; and Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020.

114th United States Congress Senators.svg
Party membership of the Senate, by state
  2 Democrats
  2 Republicans
  1 Democrat and 1 Republican
   1 Independent and 1 Democrat
   1 Independent and 1 Republican
Mitch McConnell 113th Congress 2013.jpg
Republican Leader
Mitch McConnell
John Cornyn 113th Congress.jpg
Republican Whip
John Cornyn
Harry Reid 113th Congress 2013.jpg
Democratic Leader
Harry Reid
Dick Durbin 113th Congress.jpg
Democratic Whip
Dick Durbin

House of Representatives

114th United States Congress.jpg
Members of the U.S. House of Representatives, July 22, 2015
US House 2014.svg
Composition of the House by district (2014 election results). Light red are pick-ups by Republicans, Light blue are pick-ups by Democrats.
114th US Congress House.png
Percentage of members from each party by state, ranging from dark blue (most Democratic) to dark red (most Republican).
Kevin McCarthy 113th Congress.jpg
Republican Leader
Kevin McCarthy
Steve Scalise 113th Congress.jpg
Republican Whip
Steve Scalise
Nancy Pelosi 113th Congress 2013.jpg
Democratic Leader
Nancy Pelosi
Steny Hoyer 113th Congress.jpg
Democratic Whip
Steny Hoyer

Changes in membership

Senate

There were no changes in Senate membership during this Congress.

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
New York 11th Michael Grimm
(R)
Incumbent resigned January 5, 2015, following a guilty plea on one count of felony tax evasion.[23]
A special election was held May 5, 2015.[24]
Dan Donovan
(R)
May 12, 2015
Mississippi 1st Alan Nunnelee
(R)
Incumbent died February 6, 2015.[25]
A special election runoff was held June 2, 2015.[26][27]
Trent Kelly
(R)
June 9, 2015
Illinois 18th Aaron Schock
(R)
Incumbent resigned March 31, 2015, following a spending scandal.[28][29]
A special election was held September 10, 2015.
Darin LaHood
(R)
September 17, 2015
Ohio 8th John Boehner
(R)
Incumbent resigned October 31, 2015.[30]
A special election was held June 7, 2016.
Warren Davidson
(R)
June 9, 2016[31]
Pennsylvania 2nd Chaka Fattah
(D)
Incumbent resigned June 23, 2016, following a conviction of corruption charges.[32]
A special election was held November 8, 2016.[33]
Dwight Evans
(D)
November 14, 2016
Hawaii 1st Mark Takai
(D)
Incumbent died July 20, 2016.[34]
A special election was held November 8, 2016.[35]
Colleen Hanabusa
(D)
November 14, 2016
Kentucky 1st Ed Whitfield
(R)
Incumbent resigned September 6, 2016, following an ethics investigation.[36]
A special election was held November 8, 2016.[37]
James Comer
(R)
November 14, 2016
California 44th Janice Hahn
(D)
Incumbent resigned December 4, 2016, to become a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors.[38]
No special election was held and the seat remained vacant until the next Congress. Hahn did not run for re-election in 2016.
Vacant until the next Congress
Michigan's 10th Candice Miller
(R)
Incumbent resigned December 31, 2016, to become Macomb County Public Works Commissioner.[39]
No special election was held and the seat remained vacant until the next Congress. Miller did not run for re-election in 2016.

Committees

[Section contents: Senate, House, Joint ] Listed alphabetically by chamber, including Chairman and Ranking Member.

Senate

Committee Chairman Ranking Member
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Pat Roberts (R-KS) Debbie Stabenow (D-MI)
Appropriations Thad Cochran (R-MS) Barbara Mikulski (D-MD)
Armed Services John McCain (R-AZ) Jack Reed (D-RI)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Richard Shelby (R-AL) Sherrod Brown (D-OH)
Budget Mike Enzi (R-WY) Bernie Sanders (I-VT)
Commerce, Science and Transportation John Thune (R-SD) Bill Nelson (D-FL)
Energy and Natural Resources Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) Maria Cantwell (D-WA)
Environment and Public Works Jim Inhofe (R-OK) Barbara Boxer (D-CA)
Finance Orrin Hatch (R-UT) Ron Wyden (D-OR)
Foreign Relations Bob Corker (R-TN) Ben Cardin (D-MD)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Lamar Alexander (R-TN) Patty Murray (D-WA)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Ron Johnson (R-WI) Thomas Carper (D-DE)
Indian Affairs John Barrasso (R-WY) Jon Tester (D-MT)
Judiciary Chuck Grassley (R-IA) Patrick Leahy (D-VT)
Rules and Administration Roy Blunt (R-MO) Charles Schumer (D-NY)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship David Vitter (R-LA) Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)
Veterans' Affairs Johnny Isakson (R-GA) Richard Blumenthal (D-CT)

House of Representatives

Committee Chairman Ranking Member
Agriculture Michael Conaway (R-TX) Collin Peterson (D-MN)
Appropriations Harold Rogers (R-KY) Nita Lowey (D-NY)
Armed Services Mac Thornberry (R-TX) Adam Smith (D-WA)
Budget Tom Price (R-GA) Chris Van Hollen (D-MD)
Education and the Workforce John Kline (R-MN) Bobby Scott (D-VA)
Energy and Commerce Fred Upton (R-MI) Frank Pallone (D-NJ)
Ethics Charles Dent (R-PA) Linda Sánchez (D-CA)
Financial Services Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) Maxine Waters (D-CA)
Foreign Affairs Edward Royce (R-CA) Eliot Engel (D-NY)
Homeland Security Michael McCaul (R-TX) Bennie Thompson (D-MS)
House Administration Candice Miller (R-MI) Robert Brady (D-PA)
Judiciary Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) John Conyers (D-MI)
Natural Resources Rob Bishop (R-UT) Raul Grijalva (D-AZ)
Oversight and Government Reform Jason Chaffetz (R-UT) Elijah Cummings (D-MD)
Rules Pete Sessions (R-TX) Louise Slaughter (D-NY)
Science, Space & Technology Lamar Smith (R-TX) Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX)
Small Business Steve Chabot (R-OH) Nydia Velázquez (D-NY)
Transportation and Infrastructure Bill Shuster (R-PA) Peter DeFazio (D-OR)
Veterans' Affairs Jeff Miller (R-FL) Corrine Brown (D-FL)
Ways and Means Kevin Brady (R-TX) Sander Levin (D-MI)
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Devin Nunes (R-CA) Adam Schiff (D-CA)

Joint committees

Committee Chairman Vice Chairman
Joint Economic Committee Sen. Dan Coats (R-IN) Rep. Pat Tiberi (R-OH)
Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (Special) Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI)
Joint Committee on the Library Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Rep. Gregg Harper (R-MS)
Joint Committee on Printing Rep. Gregg Harper (R-MS) Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO)
Joint Committee on Taxation Rep. Kevin Brady (R-TX) Sen. Orrin Hatch (R-UT)

Caucuses

  • 4-H
  • Academic Medicine
  • Addiction, Treatment and Recovery
  • Adult Literacy
  • Affordable Medicines
  • Afghan
  • Afterschool
  • Ahmadiyya
  • Air Force
  • Algae
  • Americans Aboard
  • Anti-Terrorism
  • Anti-Value Added Tax
  • Appalachian
  • Arctic Working Group
  • Armenian Issues
  • Armenian
  • Army Corps of Engineers Reform
  • Army Corps Reform
  • Arts
  • Asian Pacific American
  • Assisting Caregivers Today
  • Assyrian
  • Autism Research and Education
  • Automotive
  • Azerbaijan
  • Baltic (House)
  • Baseball
  • Battlefield
  • Bi-Partisan Privacy
  • Bicameral Arthritis
  • Bicameral High-Speed & Intercity Passenger Rail
  • Bike
  • Biomass
  • Biomedical Research
  • Biotechnology
  • Bipartisan Cerebral Palsy
  • Bipartisan Disabilities
  • Black
  • Boating
  • Border
  • Bourbon
  • Brazil
  • Building a Better America
  • California Public Higher Education
  • Cancer Prevention
  • Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery
  • Carbonated and Non-alcoholic
  • Cargo Airship
  • Caucus on Korea
  • Central America
  • Chesapeake Bay Watershed
  • Chicken
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Children's
  • China
  • Clean Water
  • Climate
  • Coal
  • Coastal Communities
  • Coastal
  • College Football
  • Collegiate Student-Athlete Protection
  • Competitiveness in Entertainment Technology
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Congenital Heart
  • Congressional Sovereignty (House)
  • Constitution
  • Consumer Justice
  • Correctional Officers
  • CPAs and Accountants
  • Cranberry
  • Crime Prevention and Youth Development
  • Criminal Justice and Public Safety
  • Croatian
  • Crohn’s & Colitis
  • Cut Flower
  • Cybersecurity
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Czech
  • Dairy Farmer
  • Deadliest Cancers
  • Defense Communities
  • Democratic (House)
  • Diabetes
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Direct Selling
  • Directed Energy
  • Disaster Relief
  • Diversifying Tech
  • Diversity and Innovation
  • E-911
  • Economic Competitiveness (House/Senate)
  • Effective Foreign Assistance
  • Electromagnetic Pulse
  • Emergency Medical Services
  • Entertainment Industries
  • Ethiopian-American
  • Explosive Ordnance Disposal
  • Farmer Cooperative
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
  • Fight and Control Methamphetamine
  • Financial and Economic Literacy
  • Financial and Economic Literacy
  • Fire Services
  • Fitness
  • Food Safety
  • Former Mayors
  • Foster Youth
  • Fragile X
  • French
  • Friends of Ireland
  • Friends of Jesuit Colleges and Universities
  • Friends of Job Corps
  • Friends of Jordan
  • Friends of Norway
  • Friends of Scotland (House/Senate)
  • Friends of Switzerland
  • Full Employment
  • Future of American Media
  • German-American
  • Global Health
  • Global Investment in America
  • GOP Doctors
  • Green Schools
  • Gulf of Mexico
  • Hearing Health
  • Hellenic Israel Alliance
  • Hellenic Issues
  • High Tech
  • Hispanic
  • Historic Preservation
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Home Health
  • Homelessness
  • Hong Kong
  • Horse
  • Hospitality
  • HUBZone
  • Hudson River
  • Human Rights
  • Humane Bond
  • Humanities
  • Hungarian American
  • Hunger (House)
  • Hydrogen and Fuel Cell
  • Immigration Reform
  • India and Indian Americans
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Innovation and Entrepreneurship
  • Insurance
  • Intellectual Property Promotion and Piracy Prevention
  • Intelligent Transportation Systems
  • Intelligent Transportation
  • International Anti-Piracy
  • International Basic Education
  • International Conservation
  • International Conservation
  • International Exchange and Study
  • International Religious Freedom
  • International Workers Rights
  • Internet of Things
  • Internet
  • Interstate 69
  • Invasive Species
  • Inventions
  • Investment in America's Skilled Workforce
  • Invisible Wounds
  • Iraqi Women's
  • Israel Allies
  • Joint Strike Fighter
  • Judicial Branch
  • Kenya
  • Kidney
  • Labor and Working Families
  • Land Conservation
  • Latino-Jewish
  • Life Science
  • Lung Cancer
  • Lupus
  • Macedonia and Macedonian-Americans
  • Maker
  • Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases
  • Management
  • Manufacturing
  • Media Fairness
  • Medical Professionals
  • Men's Health
  • Mental Health
  • Mentoring
  • Middle Market Growth
  • Military Family
  • Mine Warfare
  • Mining
  • Missing and Exploited Children's
  • Mississippi River
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Moldova
  • Motorcycle
  • Motorsports
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • National Guard and Reserve Components
  • National Landscape Conservation System
  • National Marine Sanctuary
  • National Service
  • Native American
  • Navy-Marine Corps
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Neuroscience
  • New Democrat
  • Nigerian
  • North America's Supercorridor
  • Northeast-Midwest
  • Northern Border
  • Nuclear Cleanup
  • Nuclear Issues
  • Nursing
  • Oceans (House)
  • Olympic and Paralympic
  • Open Source Technology
  • Organic
  • Organic (House)
  • Out of Iraq
  • Out of Poverty
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Pakistan
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Passenger Rail
  • Patriot Act Reform
  • Payer State
  • Payments Technology
  • Pell Grant
  • Physics
  • Poland
  • Pollinator Protection
  • Populist
  • Port Security
  • Ports-to-Plains
  • Ports
  • Portuguese-American
  • Post-9/11 Veterans
  • Prayer
  • Pre-K
  • Prescription Drug Abuse
  • Primary Care
  • Progressive
  • Propane
  • Public Broadcasting
  • Public Education
  • Public Service
  • Qatari-American Economic Strategic Defense, Cultural and Educational Partnership
  • Quiet Skies (House)
  • Range & Testing Center
  • Rare Disease
  • Real Estate
  • Recording Arts and Sciences
  • Recreational Vehicle
  • Recycling (House)
  • Refinery
  • Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency
  • Research and Development
  • River of Trade Corridor
  • Rock and Roll
  • Rodeo
  • Rural Education (House)
  • Rural Housing
  • Rural
  • Savings and Ownership
  • Science and National Labs (House)
  • Scouting
  • Second Amendment
  • Serbian
  • Sex and Violence in the Media
  • Shellfish
  • Shipbuilding
  • Silk Road
  • Singapore
  • Ski and Snowboard
  • Skin Cancer
  • Slovak
  • Small Brewers (House)
  • Small Business
  • Smart Contracting
  • Soccer
  • Social Work
  • Somalia
  • Songwriters’
  • Special Operations Forces
  • Specturm
  • Spina Bifida
  • Sportsmen's
  • Sri Lanka and Sri Lankan Americans
  • STARBASE
  • State Maritime Academy
  • STEAM
  • Steel
  • Stop DUI
  • Structured Settlements
  • Submarine
  • Sudan
  • Sugar (House)
  • Sustainable Energy and Environment
  • Taiwan
  • Tea Party
  • Technology Transfer
  • Term Limits
  • TEX-21
  • Tibet
  • Toy
  • Trademark
  • Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
  • Travel & Tourism
  • TRIO
  • U.S.-Afghan
  • U.S.-Lebanon Relations
  • U.S.-Mongolia Friendship
  • U.S.-New Zealand
  • Uganda
  • Ukrainian
  • Unexploded Ordnance
  • United Kingdom
  • United Solutions
  • Unmanned Systems
  • Urban
  • Veterans' Jobs
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • Victim's Rights
  • Victory in Iraq
  • Waterways
  • Western Sahara
  • Western
  • Wildlife Refuge
  • Wine
  • Women in the Military
  • Women's Issues
  • Work for Warriors
  • Wounded to Work
  • Writers
  • Youth Sports
  • Zero Capital Gains Tax
  • Zoo and Aquarium

Employees and legislative agency directors

Senate

Source: "Senate Organization Chart for the 114th Congress". Senate.gov. US Senate. Archived from the original on March 28, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.

House of Representatives

Source: "Officers and Organizations of the House". House.gov. US House. Retrieved January 26, 2015.

Legislative branch agency directors

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Rep. Michael Grimm (R-New York's 11th district) resigned January 5, 2015.
  2. ^ Rep. Alan Nunnelee (R-Mississippi's 1st district) died February 6, 2015.
  3. ^ Rep. Aaron Schock (R-Illinois's 18th district) resigned March 31, 2015.
  4. ^ Rep. Dan Donovan (R-New York's 11th district) was elected May 5, 2015.
  5. ^ Rep. Trent Kelly (R-Mississippi's 1st district) was elected June 2, 2015.
  6. ^ Rep. Darin Lahood (R-Illinois's 18th district) was elected September 10, 2015.
  7. ^ Rep. John Boehner (R-Ohio's 8th district) resigned October 31, 2015.
  8. ^ Rep. Warren Davidson (R-Ohio's 8th district) was elected June 7, 2016.
  9. ^ Rep. Chaka Fattah (D-Pennsylvania's 2nd district) resigned June 23, 2016.
  10. ^ Rep. Mark Takai (D-Hawaii's 1st district) died July 20, 2016.
  11. ^ Rep. Ed Whitfield (R-Kentucky's 1st district) resigned September 6, 2016.
  12. ^ Reps. Dwight Evans (D-Pennsylvania's 2nd district), Colleen Hanabusa (D-Hawaii's 1st district), and James Comer (R-Kentucky's 1st district) were elected November 8, 2016.
  13. ^ Rep. Janice Hahn (D-California's 44th district) resigned December 4, 2016.
  14. ^ Rep. Candice Miller (R-Michigan's 10th district) resigned December 31, 2016.
  15. ^ a b Senators King (ME) and Sanders (VT) have no political affiliation but caucus with the Democratic Party.
  16. ^ Sablan caucuses with the Democratic Party.
  17. ^ Like many members of the PNP, Pedro Pierluisi affiliates with both the PNP and the Democratic Party.

References

  1. ^ H.J.Res. 129: "Appointing the day for the convening of the first session of the One Hundred Fourteenth Congress."
  2. ^ a b H.Con.Res. 104: "Providing for the sine die adjournment of the first session of the One Hundred Fourteenth Congress."
  3. ^ House Calendar on January 3, 2017
  4. ^ Walsh, Deirdre (January 6, 2015). "Boehner Overcomes Big Opposition to Remain Speaker". CNN. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  5. ^ Bradner, Eric (January 25, 2015). "Criticism over Netanyahu visit intensifies". CNN. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  6. ^ Lee, Carol; Solomon, Jay (March 3, 2015). "Israel's Netanyahu Urges Congress to Block 'Bad Deal' With Iran". The Wall Street Journal. New York. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
  7. ^ Baker, Peter (March 9, 2015). "Angry White House and G.O.P. Senators Clash Over Letter to Iran". The New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
  8. ^ Riechmann, Deb (March 26, 2015) - "In U.S., Ghani Vows Afghan Self-Reliance". Northwest Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Retrieved March 27, 2015. Archived March 30, 2015.
  9. ^ a b Zengerle, Patricia (March 26, 2015). "Japan PM Abe to Address Joint Session of Congress". Reuters. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
  10. ^ Mauldin, William (April 29, 2015). "Japan Prime Minister Shinzo Abe Argues for Trade Deal in Speech to Congress". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
  11. ^ Sherman, Jake (February 5, 2015). "Pope will address Congress in September". Retrieved April 29, 2015.
  12. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (September 25, 2015). "John Boehner Will Resign From Congress". The New York Times.
  13. ^ DeBonis, Mike; Kane, Paul (September 25, 2015). "House Speaker John Boehner to Resign at End of October". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
  14. ^ "Shock! McCarthy drops Speaker bid". The Hill. October 8, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  15. ^ Clerk of the US House of Representatives (October 29, 2015). "FINAL VOTE RESULTS FOR ROLL CALL 581". Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  16. ^ Richard Escobedo (November 1, 2015). "Who was the last House speaker younger than Paul Ryan?". CBS News.
  17. ^ Siegel, Ben (June 23, 2016). "Congress adjourns fight for gun control to July 5th". Yahoo. Politics. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
  18. ^ S.Res. 3
  19. ^ S.Res. 6
  20. ^ a b c d e Lesniewski, Niels; Dennis, Steven (November 13, 2014). "Mitch McConnell Unanimously Elected Majority Leader by GOP". Roll Call. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Sanchez, Humberto; Lesniewski, Niels (November 13, 2014). "Harry Reid Unveils New Leadership Team, Strategy". Roll Call. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  22. ^ "Caucus Memberships of Gregorio Sablan". House.gov. US House of Representatives. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
  23. ^ "Boehner Commends Grimm for Announcing Resignation" Roll Call, December 30, 2014.
  24. ^ "Welcome to New York's Sixth Special Election in Six Years" Roll Call, January 2, 2015.
  25. ^ "GOP Rep. Nunnelee of Miss. Dies After Brain Cancer, Stroke" ABC News, February 6, 2015.
  26. ^ Pender, Geoff (February 6, 2015). "Governor will set election after Nunnelee's death". The Clarion-Ledger. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  27. ^ Cahn, Emily (May 12, 2015). "Mississippi Special Election Heads to Runoff". Roll Call.
  28. ^ Bash, Dana; Zeleny, Jeff; Jaffe, Alexandra (March 17, 2015). "Aaron Schock resigns amid scandal". CNN. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
  29. ^ DeBonis, Mike; Costa, Robert; Kane, Paul (March 17, 2015). "Rep. Aaron Schock announces resignation in wake of spending probe". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
  30. ^ "Amid revolt, Boehner steps aside to avoid 'irreparable harm' to Congress". Usatoday.com. September 26, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  31. ^ "Davidson will be sworn in today". Journal-News. June 9, 2016.
  32. ^ "Rep. Chaka Fattah resigns after conviction, effective immediately" (Press release). CBS. June 23, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
  33. ^ Brennan, Chris (July 1, 2016). "Special election for Fattah's former U.S. House seat will be Nov. 8". Philadelphia Media Network. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  34. ^ http://www.civilbeat.org/2016/07/us-rep-mark-takai-of-hawaii-dies/
  35. ^ Dayton, Kevin (August 3, 2016). "Special-election winner will finish Takai's term". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Retrieved August 5, 2016.
  36. ^ "Rep. Whitfield to retire amid ethics probe". TheHill.
  37. ^ Callais, Krystle (September 6, 2016). "U.S. Congressman Ed Whitfield stepping down". WPSD-TV. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  38. ^ http://www.latimes.com/politics/essential/la-pol-ca-essential-politics-updates-rep-hahn-to-resign-seat-early-to-be-1480446095-htmlstory.html
  39. ^ 2016 Congressional Record, Vol. 162, Page H7147
  40. ^ Shabad, Rebecca (January 5, 2015). "Budget scorekeeper awaits GOP decision". The Hill. Archived from the original on March 28, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.

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